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Generation of ATMP in Cell Metabolism

Info: 2334 words (9 pages) Essay
Published: 23rd Sep 2019 in Biology

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Cell Metabolism

This essay will examine cell metabolism and in connection to this will be looking to the generation of ATP in metabolism, metabolic pathways and how they are regulated as well as how tricarboxylic acid cycle in generating ATP. To assist with the explanation of diagrams will be throughout.

The term adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is used for the processes which energy transferring within cells, this includes the nerve impulses, metabolism functions and preforming muscles contractions. ATP is within the cytoplasm within cells and this is the best location for ATP as it needs to be near all parts of the cell to ensure the energy is beneficial for all chemical and mechanical reactions and it can be generated when it is required. The intermediary molecules build energy of exergonic and endergonic processes which lead to chemical reactions, some of these include fermentation, cellular division, photosynthesis and aerobic respiration. ATP is fulfilled with pentose sugar which is known as ribose along with its base adenine, they make nucleoside adenosine which have three phosphate groups.

Adenine

Phosphate groups

These cannot be broken

 

 

 

Ribose

Although ATP is very important for cells, they only contain a small amount at each time, this is because the cells must recycle it due to cells not importing it. ATP can be produced by several cellular processes which have three pathways in eukaryotes which are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation and beta-oxidation. The ATP produced by redox reactions also which is by using carbohydrates or fat as a source of energy, fuels like glycogen and starch then need to be broken to smaller molecules as they can be used to synthesise ATP. The oxidation process of glucose which is needed is called cellular respiration which can create 30ATP from one molecule of glucose.

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This leads on to metabolic pathway, they help the body’s metabolism function smoothly as different factors can change the body’s metabolism rate for example genes and diseases and life style. The metabolic pathway is connected to cells within the body and the chemical reactions that occurs as it is the reaction chains from where the chemical products become the substrate to the next step. Substrate are transformed chemically through the reactions that belong to one of the two pathways which are the anabolic pathway and the catabolic pathway.  Due to complex chemicals that living organisms require the metabolism process is put into different stages so that one reaction can follow another, specific enzymes control each of the reactions and how fast these happen as well as when they happen.

Anabolic pathways need energy which means they change molecules into more complex molecules. An example of this is that amino acids can be used to build carbon dioxide and proteins which can be used to make sugar and nucleic acid, these can then be used to make new DNA strands (These are found in most cells)

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Catabolic pathways are used to release the energy while it breaks down molecules into smaller/simpler molecules. An example of this is cellular respiration, sugar is taken in by the cell and then released into energy.

Many metabolic pathways are self-regulated, this means that if a substance is needed then one of the two pathways are activated so that the substance is produced. The pathway becomes deactivated once the substance has been produced this is due to the enzymes within the metabolic pathway become inhibited by the end which leads to the being lifted or removed however the enzymes could be switched on again for the pathway to begin again. This process is known as negative feedback which is a mechanism used to ensure that homeostasis is maintained within the body. The information found from the end of the pathway is then sent back to the start which leads to a negative effect because it leads to a reduced production rate.

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The end product blocks all five genes transcription. This means no enzymes are produced.

The end product feeds back which inhibited any activity from enzyme 1 which blocks the pathway.

As you can see enzymes play a big part in the bodies metabolism, it is important they are normal and healthy to act in the most beneficial way to the task they need to undertake, there a different conditions however that can influence them and the way the work for example the temperature of the enzymes need  to be correct at 35-40 degrees, they also need to be within the correct pH level range as they are healthy if they are not this will lead to the metabolised being halted. Enough energy is needed within them to process with the pathway as if they have no energy the pathway be not be able to happen.

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The tricarboxylic acid cycle (The kerbs cycle) is a closed pathway which is enzyme-controlled, its energy is important as it yields the adenosine triphosphate. The cycle has different steps and there is always a supply of electrons being provided to the electron transport chain which then leads to the oxidative phosphorylation process. The cycle happens within the mitochondrion and then follows the processes of link reaction and glycolysis which is from the process of respiration.

There is 1 molecule of oxaloacetate which is important to keep the cycle flowing.

                                                                          (eng.libretexts.org)

There are 3 molecules of reduced NAD within the cycle.

(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
 

There are 2 molecules of carbon dioxide within the cycle. (co2)

 

 

Oxygen is only required for the final stage of respiration which is oxidative phosphorylation.

There is 1 molecule of reduced FAD within the cycle

(flavine adenine dinucleotide)

There is 1 molecule of ATP
(Substrate level phosphorylation)

The cycle must happen twice so that there are 2 molecules of ATP

The cycle is important for removing carbon dioxide so that it does not affect the pH levels which are important for the enzymes and their performance within the body. As well as this the cycle assist with reducing the power so the electron transport chain which produces hydrogen atoms as well as providing different substance such as fatty acids and amino acids. Within the cycle proteins and organic molecules are within the inner membrane or the mitochondria and as electrons pass from one another it causes to a series of redox reactions. The energy releases within the reaction and captures as a proton gradient. This then makes use of the ATP and this together is chemiosmosis. Together the electron cycle and the chemiosmosis make up oxidative phosphorylation. This important to deliver electrons by NADH and FADH, the respiration transfer ensures cellular respiration.
 

Throughout this essay cell metabolism has been examined especially in connection with ATP and how the metabolic pathways and the tricarboxylic acid cycle work with it. It is important to take this information and look at how individuals’ lifestyles assist with the process of the body’s metabolism as well as how different diseased can prevent it from working to the best ability. The use of diagrams within this essay ensure that that information can be easily understood.

 

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