Gene Expression Analysis Of Prostate Cancer Biology Essay

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The research conducted by LaTulippe et.al (2002) is ''Comprehensive Gene Expression Analysis of Prostate Cancer Reveals Distinct Transcriptional Programs Associated with Metastatic Disease" which was achieved by performing an analysis and identification of the different gene expression in primary and metastatic prostate cancers. It is important to have more understanding about the prostate metastasis stage which has a clinical manifestation to spread commonly to the bones (Schmitz, 2009).

This research aimed to identify the genes, gene expression profile, and biological pathways that can lead to metastasis which will be of important value in improving tumor classification and treatment.

The study reveals that the gene expression in prostate cancer metastasis stage is expressed by many genes involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication and repair, or mitosis including many genes, such as RFC5, TOP2A, RFC4 and MAD2L1. Also, genes involved in signaling and signal transduction, cell adhesion and migration or extracellular matrix including HMMR. In addition it has been found that metastasis involved genes that playing a role in transcriptional regulation, signaling, signal transduction, cell structure, RNA splicing and motility. This finding is of great help as it indicates that many of these gens expressed are important for the cell activity, proliferation, microenvironment interaction, synthesis, function of gene product. Theses cell activities can be aimed for the suitable diagnosis and proper treatment of prostate tumour (LaTulippe et.al. 2002).

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One of the important finding in this research is the overexpressions of genes that are playing a role in cell functional pathways. The MYBL2 activates CDC2 gene expression in proliferating fibroblasts and CDC that induce cell entry into mitosis. The identification of these genes will eventually help in diagnosis and treatment. This has contributed to some extant to the new research finding (ScienceDaily, 2008) in the treatment by chemopreventative and chemotherapeutic which involve NFκB that control DNA transcription (Brasier, 2006).

In addition, the well differentiated and recognized expressed genes in the prostate cancer has a great contribution to the gene therapy trials. By using a viral delivery vector (adenovirus), the gene product will act on immune system stimulation and destroying the tumor cells. This approach requires time to be achieved with the most effective and safest treatment for the prostate cancer (Freytag et al., 2007).

The research article make to some extant more perceptive on the different genes involved in the progression of prostate cancer and association with researches done in the DNA methylation and silences of gene (Yegnasubramanian et al., 2004; Xiang et al., 2008). By understanding these approaches of gene expression and silencing in prostate metastasis, treatments can be obtained to activate them and will be helpful in preventing the development and progression of the prostate cancer. For instance, DNA methylation plays a role during development by regulating gene expression during the prostate cancer and DNA is released from the cancer cell which can be investigated for the presence of methylated genes. This can be used for the diagnosis and screening of prostate cancer (Das et al., 2006).

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The positive aspect in the research is the results of gene expression obtained from oligonucleotide array has been validated by selecting some differentially expressed genes for the determination with quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR technique and results were found to be the nearly the same. To a great extent, this validation confirms gene expression profiles in metastatic stage of prostate cancer. In the other hand, though, there weren't many similar studies earlier using oligonucleotide array during the metastasis stage due to the low number of well preserved samples and suitable for the analysis. However, in this research, the use of nonneoplastic samples as controls of non expression is good and useful.

A positive aspect of the research article is the use of microarray technology which help to great extend, the fast and more reliable analysis of thousands of genes expression, and more tissue samples (Foley et al. 2004).

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Three review articles in the issue explore various aspects of this evolving field and advances that will make it possible to translate new gene therapy techniques from research to testing in human patients.

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In addition to the limited number of genes discussed here, our analysis identified hundreds of poorly characterized EST clusters that likely represent novel genes of unknown function that were highly differentially expressed between primary and metastatic prostate cancers.

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"For the first time we are looking at the subpopulation of cancer cells which actually initiate new tumors" explains Anne Collins, who coordinated the study. "The genetic profiling we have carried out should stimulate new lines of research directed towards stem cell treatments for cancer"

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-07/mali-iac071310.php

Using comprehensive

gene expression analysis of tumor samples representing the nonmetastatic

and metastatic phenotypes, we identified genes that were consistently

and strongly differentially expressed and represent common

and valid biological differences underlying clinical heterogeneity