Fuzzy Logic And Knowledge Based Systems Biology Essay

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We are build a diabetes detection system to indicate if someone has symptoms of diabetes. Gaining information from the patients of standard symptoms of diabetes. Another system that helps Diabetics and non-Diabetics keep records and test their sugar levels. Through finding if the sugar levels are high, low, or average. With this information we can insure that a patent is diabetic or not.


Diabetes overview: This is a disease whereby the body does not regulate the amount of sugar(glucose) in one body. (emedicinehealth.com).

Glucose in the blood gives us the energy-the kind we need when we walk briskly, run for a bus, ride a bike, take an aerobics class and for our day-to-day chores. Glucose is produced by the liver from the foods we eat. A healthy person, has several hormones, one of which is insulin. Insulin regulates glucose level in one blood. Insulin is produced by the pancreas, a small organ near the stomach that also secretes important enzymes that help in the digestion of food. Insulin allows glucose to move from the blood into liver, muscle and fat cells, where it is used for fuel. People with diabetes either don't produce enough insulin (type 1 diabetes) or cannot use insulin properly (type 2 diabetes), or both. In diabetes, glucose in the blood cannot move into cells and stays in the blood. This not only harms the cells that need the glucose for fuel, but also harms certain organs and tissues exposed to the high glucose levels.

Type 1 diabetes: The body stops producing insulin or produces too little insulin to regulate blood glucose level. Type 1 diabetes is typically recognized in childhood or adolescence. It used to be known as juvenile-onset diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes can occur in an older individual due to destruction of pancreas by alcohol, disease, or removal by surgery or progressive failure of pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin. People with type 1 diabetes generally require daily insulin treatment to sustain life.

Type 2 diabetes: The pancreas secretes insulin, but the body is partially or completely unable to use the insulin. This is sometimes referred to as insulin resistance. The body tries to overcome this resistance by secreting more and more insulin. People with insulin resistance develop type 2 diabetes when they do not continue to secrete enough insulin to cope with the higher demands. At least 90% of patients with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is typically recognized in adulthood, usually after age 45 years. It used to be called adult-onset diabetes mellitus, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These names are no longer used because type 2 diabetes does occur in younger people and some people with type 2 diabetes need to use insulin. Type 2 diabetes is usually controlled with diet, weight loss, exercise and oral medications. More than half of all people with type 2 diabetes require insulin to control their blood sugar at some point in the course of their illness.

Beside this there are other forms of diabetes like Gestational diabetes, Pre-diabetes etc.

Complications of diabetes: Both forms of diabetes ultimately lead to high blood sugar levels, a condition called hyperglycaemia. Over a long period of time, hyperglycaemia damages the retina of the eye, the kidneys, the nerves and the blood vessels.

Damage to the retina (diabetic retinopathy) is a leading cause of blindness.

Damage to the kidneys (diabetic nephropathy) is a leading cause of Kidney failure.

Damage to the nerves (diabetic neuropathy) is a leading cause of foot wounds and ulcers, which frequently lead to foot and leg amputations.

Damage to the nerves in the autonomic nervous system can lead to paralysis of the stomach (gastroparesis), chronic diarrhoea and an inability to control heart rate and blood pressure with posture changes.

Diabetes accelerates atherosclerosis, or the formation of fatty plaques inside the arteries, which can lead to blockages or a clot (thrombus), which can then lead to heart attack, stroke and decreased circulation in the arms and legs (peripheral vascular disease).

Diabetes predisposes people to high blood pressure and high cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These independently and together with hyperglycaemia increase the risk of heart disease, kidney disease and other blood vessel complications.

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious condition in which uncontrolled hyperglycaemia (usually due to complete lack of insulin or a relative deficiency of insulin) over time creates a build-up in the blood of acidic waste products called ketones. High levels of ketones can be very harmful. This typically happens to people with type 1 diabetes who do not have good blood glucose control. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be precipitated by infection, stress, trauma, missing medications like insulin, or medical emergencies like stroke and heart attack.

Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic nonketotic syndrome is a serious condition in which the blood sugar level gets very high. The body tries to get rid of the excess blood sugar by eliminating it in the urine. This increases the amount of urine significantly and often leads to dehydration so severe that it can cause seizures, coma, even death. This syndrome typically occurs in people with type 2 diabetes who are not controlling their blood sugar or have become dehydrated or have stress, injury, stroke, or medications like steroids.

In the short run, diabetes can contribute to a number of acute (short-lived) medical problems.

In this paper four types of diabetic diseases are taken and using the fuzzy equivalence relations how a patient can be diagnosed is explained. They are Diabetes general, Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), Diabetic nephropathy, Diabetic retinopathy.

Symptoms for diabetic general (initial stage): Fatigue, weight loss, Polydipsia, Polyuria, altered mental status, Polyhpagic

Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis: Nausea and vomiting, dehydration, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, Polyuria, thirsty, loss of appetite, dry skin, dry mouth.

Symptoms of diabetic nephropathy: Loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, Polyuria, swelling of legs and puffiness around the eyes, itching, easy bruising, pale skin, headaches, numbness in the feet or hands, disturbed sleep, bleeding, high blood pressure, bone pain, decreased sexual interest and erectile dysfunction.

Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy: All the symptoms similar to staring stage of diabetic, mild to severe blurring or vision loss, cataract, glaucoma.