Fruits Porous Skin Smooth Biology Essay


Lemons are oval citrus fruits, porous skin smooth. Some fruits have a pointed bottom of the fruit, while others such as Florida lemon rounded base. Ponderosa lemon is bigger than other varieties. Lemon fruit color is between greenish yellow and bright yellow. Lemon looks very similar to limes, lemons tend to be a bit big; lemon is yellow when it is ripe, but the lime is green.

The lemon tree is not very big. The lemon grows in small, spiny trees, reaching a height of 10-20 feet. Lemon leaves are a dark green color, dry alternately arranged. This seems to be a slender petiole of the leaf (wing). Lemon flower has five fragrant, white petals. (1. Rosie Lerner, Purdue University, 2000)



The lemon's true home cannot be found, although someone said it is in northwestern India, northern Burma, and China.

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In the 1st century AD, the lemons entered Europe. But they were never widely cultivated. The lemons after were introduced to Persia, and then to Iraq and Egypt by 700 AD. At this time, the lemon was recorded in a 10th century Arabic history book, and as an ornamental plant for people used in early Islamic gardens. Arabs grew it widely in the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150 A.D.

In the middle of the 15th century, the first grow of lemons in Europe began in Genoa. The lemon seeds were carried to Hispaniola in 1493 by Christopher Columbus. And then Spanish spread it to New World. It was mainly used for ornamental plant and medicine. Until the 18th and 19th centuries, the lemons were widely planted in Florida and California. (2. Unknown, 2012)

Commercial lemon culture has been developed in Guatemala in the past 20 years, peel oil was produced primarily for its main oil industry and lemon juice was reconstituted secondarily by dehydrating the fruit and preparing the powder. Lemon peel oil is also being grown primarily now in Southern Mexico. Lemons, as the fresh fruit, are not so much in the market of Latin America. In South America, Argentina leads in lemon culture with Chile a distant second. Among the world's leading lemon growers and exporters are Italy, Spain, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Lebanon, South Africa and Australia. Lemons can be grown only at medium and high elevations in the Philippines. (3. Morton, J. 1987)


Many countries can be growing lemons; the main countries are India, Burma, China, Italy and Spain, Argentina, United States, Australia, Brazil.

Brazil is the top producer and Argentina is one of the major producers of lemons. China is the largest lemon exporter in the world and Italy and Spain both are the largest exporter of lemons in Europe. (4. Nicholas Ramos, 1999)

Top Ten Lemons and Limes Producers - 2007


Production (Tonnes) India

2,060,000F Mexico

1,880,000F Argentina

1,260,000F Brazil

1,060,000F Spain

880,000F People's Republic of China

745,100F United States

722,000 Turkey

706,652 Iran

615,000F Italy

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No symbol = official figure, F = FAO estimate, A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);

Lemon Sole Distribution Map


(5.Unknown, 2012) (6. Unknown, 2012)

Follow the data; we can see India is the largest product of lemon country in the world. Mexico is the second product of lemon country in the world.

Propagation and harvest

The rough lemon is widely grown from seed. The Meyer lemon is easily growing by rooting large cutting in the nursery, and can be planting them directly in the grove. The budded trees just used 2 or 3 years to grow up and the remaining 30 even much longer years can product the lemon fully.

When we harvest lemon that we need consider its storage is viable in the future. We should cut bottom of lemon, because we will damage to lemon skin from sharp stalks, if we do not do like that. We need to consider moist air that will make lemon mildew. So when we are harvesting it in the morning, because that time has moist air on the lemon skin. (7. Morton, J. 1987)



Lemon trees need a sunny position. The lemon is more sensitive, they are less able to recover from cold injury, and it has more or less continuous state of growth. The leaves fall in 22° to 24° F (-5.56°-4.44° C). The wood will be damaged heavily if the temperature drop to 20° F (-6.67° C), only when a fortnight of near-freezing weather appear to slow down growth. At 29° F (-1.67° C), the flowers and young fruits are killed. Near ripe fruit will be serious damage below 28° F (-2.22° C). On the other hand, the lemon get best quality in coastal area than oranges and grapefruit, because of the temperature is more suitable. So the lemon has a limited temperature range.

Lemons can be grown in both dry and damp atmosphere. The damp atmosphere has a disadvantage is in the processes of curing and storing. California is a large lemon growing area, the annual rainfall between 25 and 125 cm. The lemon must be irrigated when it during in a long and dry periods.


The soil should be silty clay loam of high water-holding capacity; or the soil is sand, clay and sandy-clay-deep, there are with high permeability and good drainage; it is suitable for lemon tree growing. If the black soil is not touch calcareous subsoil, it will also suitable for lemon tree growing. The ph. should during 5.5 to 6.5. If the soil acid is too high, we should to apply lime to make sure that it is good for lemon tree growing. (8. Morton, J. 1987)

Varieties of lemon


It is usually no seedless or near-seedless fruits. It was found at riverside of California.


It was planted in the Alpine Grove in Avon Park in 1934. This kind of fruit can be used for frozen concentrate.


It was found in the Bearss grove near Lutz, Florida, in 1952. The peel is rich in oil.


Oval to broad-elliptic, with pronounced nipple, short neck; peel somewhat rough, medium-thick, becoming thinner in summer, tightly clinging.


It has a low collar at the base; peel yellow, longitudinally ridged, slightly rough, juicy, very acid.

Femminello Ovale

It is from the oldest Italian. It is medium size; peel yellow, finely pitted, medium-smooth, medium-thick, tightly clinging; tender, juicy, very acid, also has excellent quality.


It is from Genoa, Italy. It has medium size; peel yellow, medium-thick, tightly clinging. It can be living in a cold temperature.


It was found by Harvey Smith on the property of George James in Clearwater, Florida.


It has short neck or collar at base; large; peel yellow, smooth, glossy, thin, tightly clinging; crisp, juicy, very acid, faintly bitter. Very few seeds.


It comes from Portugal. It has base faintly necked; peel yellow, barely rough, faintly pitted, sometimes slightly ribbed, medium-thick, tightly clinging; tender, juicy, very acid, with few or no seeds.


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It has been planted in Texas and in Queensland, Australia, and New Zealand. It is with short nipple; of medium size, small tree with few thorns, prolific, cold-resistant; produces few water sprouts, and is only moderately subject to greasy spot and oil spotting.


It has been planted in Italy. It is with small nipple and no neck, medium-small; peel yellow, smooth except for large, sunken oil glands, thin, clinging very tightly; not very juicy, not sharply acid.

Nepali Oblong

It comes from Assam. It is fine-grained, very juicy, of medium acidity, with few or no seeds.

Nepali Round

It comes from Indian. It is juicy, seedless.

Rough Lemon

It comes from northern India. It is oblate, rounded or oval, base flat to distinctly necked, apex rounded with a more or less sunken nipple; of medium size, peel lemon-yellow to orange-yellow, rough and irregular, medium-juicy, medium-acid, with moderate lemon odor and flavor; seeds small.

Sweet Lemon

It comes from India. The fruits are usually insipid, occasionally acid.

(9. Morton J. 1987.)


Lemon is widely used in culinary and non-culinary by humans. Lemon juice is about 5% acids; it gives lemons a sour taste and a ph. of 2 to 3. So makes lemon juice a cheap, it can be used widely.

Culinary uses

The whole lemon can be used, but we mainly use the lemon juice to cooking and baking.

Lemons are usually not eaten on their whole. It general for the lemonade, it will dilute the juice and add sugar. Lemons also utilized as garnishes for drinks, like iced tea or a soft drink, with a slice on the rim of the glass. It also can be used to make lemon jam, but it has a little bitter.

The lemon juice can be used as an ingredient in many dishes, such as salad dressings and cooked meat or vegetables. Lemon juice is particularly squeezed onto fish dishes. Some people like to eat lemons as fruit; but it can be damage teeth.

Lemons sometimes can be a good short-term preservative. For example, used it on the sliced apples can keep the apple fresh about a day. It can prolong the use time of fruit.

Non-culinary uses of lemon

Lemons have been used in several non-culinary purposes, such as an epilepsy remedy, a bleaching agent and an invisible ink.

Lemons can be making extract oils and essences. Lemon oil or the essential oil is widely used in furniture polish, cosmetics and perfumes. The commercial pectin can be made from the peel of the lemon.

It also can be used in school experiment for students study. Such as lemons is to attach electrodes and use them as a battery to power a light. The electricity generated may also be utilized to power a motor to move the lemons such as the car or truck. (10. Unknown, 2011)

Lemon as a medicinal, the lemon juice can be help people to control blood pressure, it can be make the blood clearly, reduces swollen spleen, and strengthens immune system, because it has vitamin C, B, B2, calcium and iron. It is very good for people health; it can be help body against germs and bacteria. (11. Lothi, 2008)

Many countries have the Festival of lemon. Such as every year on October 13th & 14th, the Lemon Festival is celebrated in California. (12. Unknown, 2012) Every February and March at the end of the harvest season, the old town Menton has the Festival of lemon. (13. Beverly Yip, 2009)

Change agents

Lewis P. Chichester

A lemon squeezer is extract juice from lemons or other citrus fruits like oranges, grapefruit, or lime. The oldest of lemon squeezer is a patent for a cast iron lemon squeezer, it made by Lewis P. Chichester issued on July 3, 1860. The lemon squeezer is a useful piece of equipment. It can be used to squeeze fresh lemon juice; and it can be easy to control, save time, reduce the wastage. (14. Michael Shah, 2005)

Alessandro Volta

In 1800, Alessandro Volta discovered that an acidic mixture of lemon juice served as an effective conductor of electrons between two dissimilar metals. While the grade school lemon battery itself was not created by him, he is the closest known source to that discovery. Without his knowledge, people may not have had the incentive to attempt the actual lemon battery. (15. Lauren Nelson, 2010)

Graft Technology

According to the department of horticultural at Purdue University, as early as the 5th century B.C. the Greeks and Romans practiced the art of grafting. By the 2nd century B.C., lemon and citron, two of the citrus trees, were being grafted together. Now we can see a lot of different types of fruit. (16. Katherine Bostick, 1999)


Lemon juice concentrate

Lemon juice concentrate can be easy to buy and use, it can be keep for a long time. It is made from fresh lemon.


Many people like eat different cake and sugar. These things have different flavor. People can use the lemon to make the Lemon cake and Lemon candy, and so on. The lemon flavor can be attracting a lot of people.


Many different drinks are in the market of the world. They have a lot of good flavor. The lemon can be used in some liquid, make a new flavor and provide more vitamin C. For example, we can make the lemon Coke, the lemon beer, and lemon tea, and so on.


In daily life, people will use a lot of articles for daily use, like shampoo, toothpaste, washing powder, and so on. A good flavor can be attracting more people to buy it, especially women. The fresh lemon flavor can be used in these kinds of things. Such as the lemon of air freshener is very popular in the world.

Lemon powder

Lemon powder is made from lemon juice. It is use spraying and drying technology. It can be easy to use and take when you go outside.


Lemon has a low calories, one medium size lemon has about 102 calories. A medium size lemon has 0.92 grams (g) of protein. In the averaged size of lemon has 7.83 g of carbohydrates. Lemon is a low-fat food; a medium size of lemon has about 0.25 g of fat. Each medium size of lemon has about 22 milligrams (mg) of potassium, 116 mg of potassium; it also has 44.5 mg of vitamin C and 18 IU of vitamin A. (17. Sarah Davis, 2009)


Human resource

The manual labor is very important, because machine picking lemon is impossible and also due to the lemon needs fast import and export after picking. It needs to be quickly covered in wax to avoid loss of water in lemon.

Natural resource

Lemon need enough sunlight, it should has a suitable climate, soil, water and temperature.

Future trends

Genetically modified lemon tree

The lemon tree cannot grow in a cold temperature. In the future, I think it can be easy to grow in any temperature after change the gene.


The lemon has good flavor, now a lot of product can be made with lemon. In the future, I think the lemon can be used in the pasta. It will make the pasta has flavor of fresh lemon. Already being used in pasta, cannot be a future trend?


Sometimes, lemon peel is wasted. In the future, I think lemon peel can give other trees fertilization as organic matter. Good idea, but give more detail

Lemon as an energy source

Citric acid is the biggest acid of the organic acid. Due to the physical properties, chemical properties, derivative performance, it is widely used in the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical of the industry's most important organic acid. In the future, I think lemon can become a kind of energy, it can make the power energy is no single Good idea, provide more detail

Lemon Fuel

Lemon fuel, a possible future energy which could replace the petrol we using nowadays has surfaced itself in the form of converted fruit sugar. It has been proved that lemon can be used to make biofuel by fusion the converted fruit sugar from it and biofuel is known as a green alternative to petrol.

Lemon as a definite cure for cancer??

A latest medical research from Baltimore Institute of Health Sciences shows that lemon is a miraculous product to cure cancer and it is 10,000 times stronger than chemotherapy. Once this clinical effectiveness in humans is proved, it could shake the very foundation of the modern cancer therapy.

Contemporary uses and current applications

Lemon can be used for lemon perfume in the perfume industry.

Lemon can be used for bakery. Such as lemon cake, lemon biscuits, lemon pie.

Lemon can be used for liquid. Such as lemon beer, lemon milk, lemon tea.

Lemon can be used for garnish dishes in the restaurant, café, club, and bar.

Lemon can be used for chocolate, like lemon chocolate, mix of lemon chocolate.

Lemon can be used for Commodity. Like lemon shampoo, lemon toothpaste, lemon washing powder.