Fruiting Bodies Of The Fungi Biology Essay


Among all the edible commodities, mushrooms have attracted the attention of human beings, not only because of their fascinating shape, size, colors and structures but also because of the edible nature, neutraceutical properties and their practical applications in various products. Mushrooms are a source of food, nutrition and minerals and now a day they are also valued because of the unique flavor, palatability and direct utilization supersedes all non-conventional foods.

Mushrooms have been eaten and appreciated for their flavor, economic and ecological values, and medicinal properties for many years. They have a chemical composition which is attractive from the nutritional point of view. In general mushrooms contain 90% water and 10% dry matter. The protein content varies between 27% and 48%, carbohydrates are less than 60% and lipids 2-8%. The total energetic value of mushroom caps is 1.05-1.50 J/kg of fresh mushroom.

Oyster mushrooms are the most suitable fungal organisms for producing protein-rich food from various agro wastes without composting. Oyster mushrooms are lignocellulolytic fungi causing a white rot of wood and grow naturally in temperature, subtropical and tropical forests on dead wooden logs of deciduous and sometimes coniferous trees. They can also grow on decaying organic matter. Their fruiting bodies are distinctly shell, fan or spatula-shaped with different shadows of white, cream, grey, yellow, pink or light brownish depending upon the species. However, the colour the basiodiocarps is extremely variable and influenced by temperature, light intensity and the nutrition of the substrate.

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Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp), the third largest commercially produced mushroom in the world, are found growing naturally rotten wood material. The growing increase in consumption on oyster mushroom is largely due to its taste, medicinal and nutritional properties. Pleurotus sp. one of the most produced species, is cultivated mainly on sawdust. The unavailability of sawdust and the fact that felling of trees in most regions of the world is prohibited makes it imperative that other sources of substrates be utilized for its cultivation. In the tropics and subtropics, large volumes of unused lignocellulosic by-products can be found. These by-products are left to rot in the field or disposed off through burning. Cultivation of mushrooms on these by-products may be one of the solutions to transforming these inedible wastes into accepted edible biomass of high market value. The spent substrates from mushroom cultivation can also potentially be used as an animal feed supplement, possibly providing additional animal feed resources. Pleurotus species, a widely accepted mushroom cultivated in Ghana, degrades and grows directly on these lignocellulosic by-products. Although large volumes of by-products are available in Ghana their use as substrate for mushroom cultivation has not been fully exploited.

The primary objective of this study was to recycle agro waste into value added medicinal and gourmet mushrooms using the mushroom producing whit-rot basidiomycetous Plerotus species. Keeping in view the present investigation was carried out to search out non conventional agricultural waste for the successful cultivation of Oyster mushroom. In view of the importance of mushroom to man, is animal and environment it is good for each family to grow mushroom, if only, for their own consumption. This study was therefore designed to investigate the suitability of three agricultural wastes as substrate for the cultivation of some edible mushrooms


Procurement of culture

Pleurotus florida was procured from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore and it is stored at 25oC.

Spawn production

Sorghum grains were half cooked and excess water was drained out. CaCO3 Powder was added to get 10 percent of the wet weight of grain, then filled in polypropylene bags, plugged with non- adsorbent cotton and sterilized in an autoclave at 121oC at 15 lbs for 30 minutes. After cooling, the bags were inoculated with mycelial culture and incubated at 30-35oC for about 15 to 18 days complete spawn for run and chlamydospore formation.

Cultivation of Mushroom

Mushroom House

For the cultivation of mushroom, housing is essential. A small hut 10Ã-10 size without ventilation is made for mushroom cultivation. To maintain the stable temperature 25-30oC and the moisture maintained at 65% by spraying the water.

Preparation of Substrate for the cultivation of Mushroom

1Kg of substrate were chopped into 2-5cm of uniform size was made. The chopped substrates are sterilized by autoclaving at 121oC for 15lbs. After sterilization the substrate was air dried to 65% moisture (no water drips when squeezed beginning hands).

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Preparation of Bed

The air dried substrates were packed into 12Ã-24cm polythene bags. The substrate was layered 5cm and 50gm of spawn distributed and holes are made to maintain the aeration. The holes are also used for the formation of budding and they easily come out from the bags. After these steps the cylindrical bag is hanged on the hut and maintain the moisture level at 65% at a temperature of 25-30oC for the growth of mushroom. The matured mushrooms are harvested on different time intervals from 22nd day onwards.

Harvesting of mushroom

Harvesting of mushroom has been conducted at three different phases. First phase was from 15-22 days, second phase was of 23-30 days and third phase was of 31-38 days. During theses phases the mushrooms have been harvested based on the maturation and appearance of the colour. Using sterile blade, the mushroom is spliced from bed and it was quantified using weighing machine.

Optimization Studies

Effect of Substrate

Different substrates such as paddy straw, sawdust and sugarcane baggase at different concentration of about 250gm, 500gm, 750gm and 1000gm were used for the production mushroom cultivation.

Effect of Inoculum

Different concentration of inoculum such as 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 grams of spawn to each substrate were used for the study of best inoculum concentrations have been screened.

Effect of Incubation time

Different time interval 15-22, 23-30, and 31-38 days have been studied to maintain the yield of mushroom.


In the present study three different agricultural wastes, such as paddy straw, sawdust and sugarcane baggases were used to find out the most cheap and high yielding substrates for the commercial cultivation of the Pleurotus florida. These above mentioned agro-wastes were selected, because all these were abundantly and cheaply available in the fields of India, round the year. Each agro-waste was used as a single substrate; no combination of the agro-wastes was used in order to make the mushroom cultivation easier and to calculate the potential of each agro-waste for mushroom production.

These wastes were also selected, by keeping in view the previous experimentation of the different scientists which used variety of agro wastes for cultivation of mushrooms in the past. stated that the cultivation of edible mushroom using agricultural residues such as rice and wheat straw is a value added process to convert these materials, which are otherwise considered to be wastes, into human foods.

was used wood waste to cultivate wood-inhabiting ligninolytic white-rot Basidiomycetes of the genus Pleurotus. used rice bran and sugarcane baggase for the cultivation of Pleurotus species.


Fruiting bodies of Pleurotus species were produced within 3-5 weeks. The caps of the fruiting bodies were initially hollow with a curved inner surface; with time, they usually became broadly concave and finally flat. The caps were harvested at 5-15 cm in diameter. They were initially grayish blue on the inner surface and became lighter gray to pale yellowish brown to light tan with age.

Optimization Studies

Effect of Substrate

The mycelium growth of mushroom sp. is mainly dependents upon the substrate, nutrients and the growing conditions. In this present investigation, three different agro wastes were used for the cultivation of Pleurotus florida and the growth of this mushroom growth was optimized with various concentration of spawn.

Among the three different substrates (paddy straw, sawdust and sugarcane baggase), paddy straw yielded the maximum production of about 1200g/1000g followed by sugarcane baggases and saw dust with the production of 676g/1000g and 519g/1000g. Similarly, observed that the cellulose activity Pleurotus and Volvariella species varied with the substrate and was more on paddy straw than other substrates.

Effect of Inoculum

Different concentration of spawn (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 grams) were used along with different substrates (paddy straw, sawdust and sugarcane baggase). With the 250g of spawn, 1000g of paddy straw showed the maximum production.

Effect of Incubation time

Between the different time intervals, 15-22 days of incubation period yielded the highest production of 520g with 1000g of paddy. On the other hand, reported the incubation period for the different tested media ranged from 30 â€" 41 days, sawdust recorded the shortest period, while sugar cane baggase recorded the longest one.

Comparative effect of different substrates on the Production of Pleurotus florida

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Different substrates of paddy straw, sawdust and sugarcane baggases were analyzed for the production of mushroom. Comparing the three lignocellulosic residues as substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus florida showed that paddy straw supported best growth of P. florida as evidenced by complete and heavy colonization of substrates forming a compact white mass of mycelium within 2 weeks of inoculation. The performance of the three substrates was also evident by their elevated biological efficiency values on soybean straw followed by paddy straw. Among these substrates, paddy straw yield maximum of 1200 g. This is remarkable when compared to rest of the substrates. These results suggested the best suitable substrate for the production of much is paddy straw.