Formation Of A Covalent Bond Biology Essay

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INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Reactive dyes are most widely used for dyeing cellulosic fabrics. Their application involves the formation of a covalent bond between dye molecule and polymer of the particular fiber. The great strength and relative inertness of the covalent bond to most common degrading agents securely anchors the reactive dye molecules to the polymers of the cotton fibers. It is for this reason that cotton textile materials which have been dyed with reactive dyes have very good light fastness. (1)

Depth of color is known as shade. When fabrics are dyed, recipe is used in which many ingredients are used, such as urea, leveling agent, anti migration agent, foaming agents and other auxiliaries to match shade. Shades are classified according to quantity of color. In dark shades, high quantity of color is used, so these are known as dark shades.

Crocking fastness is the migration of color from the dyed surface to another surface by intense contact, for example by rubbing (soiling/staining). (2)

Crocking is problem faced by the textile wet processing industry. Nowadays when customers purchase any fabric, they focus upon crocking fastness. The reason for this is that every one wants to get a product having good quality and a fabric having a weak crocking fastness is proof of low quality. This problem is more serious with dark shades, because high amount of dye is used to prepare dark shades.

Crocking is tested by crock meter. There are two main crocking test methods.

ISO 105-D02 and AATCC Test Method 8

In the test methods, the influence of the moisture is taken into account (dry or wet crocking tests). Rubbing may partly destroy wet cellulosic fibers, leading to additional staining. The rubbing force for the wet testing procedure is about double the rubbing force for dry rubbing. Due to this reason, the wet rubbing ratings of the same sample are always poorer than the dry ones (up to two ratings difference).

Some of the methods which improve rubbing fastness, are formation of films coating the fibers, reduced rubbing of the smoothed surface and it is also done by hydro phobation. In reducing the rubbing forces, the finish products can behave similarly to lubricants. Generally also finishes cause an effect (durable press and easy-care finishes with cross linking agents for cellulose fibers), which reduce the swelling of hydrophilic fibers. Less migration of dyestuff but poorer tensile strength of the cellulose fiber cause more abrasion.

Work has been done to improve crocking fastness. On the basis of the research, improvements have been put forward for dye characteristics, loose color, water quality, stitch structure and surface smoothness of the fabric. And the improvement measures in each step have been put forward. (3)

Other researchers suggested bringing improvements in optimizing the dyestuff, controlling the pH value of the fabric as well as using appropriate fixing agent. (4)

1.2 Justification

The problem of wet crocking is being exposed in recent years. Nowadays industries are getting fewer orders due to poor wet crocking. So it is need of textile wet processing industry that work should be done for improvement of wet crocking of cellulosic fabrics.

Because quality of a fabric depends upon its fastness properties. (5)

One of those properties is crocking fastness. As there will be higher resistance to degrading effects, so a fabric would have better quality. So a fabric of good quality should have improved crocking fastness.

Dyestuff is also under consideration. Because selection of dyestuff also effects crocking fastness.

Work has been done to improve dyestuff as to improve wet crocking, but it is not sufficient. In Pakistan, also this problem is being faced by textile industries that customers are nowadays very emphasizing and demanding high crocking improvement.

The reason of selecting crocking fastness for research, rather than washing and light fastness, are because they consume high energy and time and also high considerations about environment would be needed to be set for that.

1.3 Aims and objectives

For achievement of dark shades, when the fabric is dyed, sufficient amount of dye is required to achieve required shade. (6) Wet cellulosic fibers may be partly destroyed by rubbing, leading to additional staining.

Quantity of dye can not be decreased because shade will be affected in that case. In solution of this problem, focus should be upon cross-linking agents used during finishing, which work as binders and fixation of dyes upon the fabric and resist fading of the fabric. One important thing is that shade should not be changed with application of cross linking agents and strength should not be decreased. Its tensile strength depends upon the kind of fiber, especially; small abraded colored fiber particles cause the staining effect on the partner textile. When crocking fastness rating is determined, coarse fiber particles are not taken into consideration.

Here we have following objectives to achieve.

1. Wet crocking improvement.

2. Shade should not be changed.

CHAPTER # 02

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Cotton

Cotton is being cultivated for more than 5000 years. (7) Pakistan is one of the countries where cotton is produced and consumed in huge quantity. (8) Being a natural fiber, its composition includes about 85.5% cellulose, 8% moisture and remainder impurities (oil and wax 0.5%, proteins, pectoses and coloring matter 5.0% and mineral matter 1.0%). (9) Cotton fabrics are extensively used throughout the world. Its structure includes of cuticle, primary cell-wall, secondary cell-wall and a lumen.

2.1.1 Micro structure of cotton

Cotton fiber is a single plant cell. Its cross-section is oval, compared with the normal hexagonal plant cell. Its structure includes of cuticle, primary cell-wall, secondary cell-wall and a lumen. Cuticle is the outermost layer or skin of the fiber. It is composed of a waxy layer (cotton wax) only a few molecules thick. Due to waxy nature, it remains adhered to the primary cell-wall and due to inert nature; rest of the fiber is also protected by it against chemical and degrading agents. During cotton finishing much of the cuticle or wax is removed by Kier boiling and bleaching. Due to this, cotton absorbs moisture more quickly. Most of the remaining cuticle is removed by subsequent laundering. Deterioration of the cotton textile material increases, as the extent of the cuticle is decreased further.

Immediately underneath the cuticle, there is the primary cell wall. It is about 200nm thick. It is composed of fibrils, very fine threads of cellulose. The thickness of the fibrils is about 20 nm, but their length is yet unknown. The primary cell wall can be visualized as a sheath of spiraling fibrils. The fibrils spiral at about 70ËšC to the fiber axis. Strength is imparted to the primary cell wall and hence, to the fiber, by this spiraling. Further towards the center is secondary cell-wall, which forms bulk of the fiber. Secondary cell wall is made up by concentric layers of spiraling, cellulosic fibrils, not unlike the growing rings of trees. Thickness of its fibrils is about 10nm, but they have undefined length. The fibrils of secondary wall spiral at about 20Ëš to 30Ëš to the fiber axis, near the primary cell wall. The spiral angle widens to about 20Ëš to 45Ëš for the fibrillar layers nearer the lumen. These spiraling fibrils are responsible for the strength and ability of the cotton fiber and hence of the yarns and fabrics. Whenever the direction of their spirals of the fibrils is changed, in a result, a weak area exists in the secondary wall structure. Altering of the direction of the twist of the fibers by the convolutions of the fiber happens at these weak areas. Lumen is the hollow canal, running the length of the fiber. Its walls are the innermost, concentric layers of spirals of the secondary cell wall. The central vacuole of the growing cotton fiber was once the lumen. Cuticle was full of cell sap. The cell sap was composed of a dilute, aqueous solution of proteins, sugars, minerals and cell-waste products. On the evaporation of the sap, its constituents remained behind and color of the cotton fiber was contributed by it. The pressure inside the fiber became less than the atmospheric pressure on the outside, as the sap evaporated. The collapse of fiber inward resulting in the characteristic kidney-shaped cross-section of the cotton fiber is caused by this.

2.1.2 The cotton polymer

(10)

Fig. 2.1

The cotton polymer is a linear, cellulose polymer. There are about 5000 cellobiose units in the cotton polymer, so its degree of polymerization is 5000. Its length is about 5000 nm and thickness is about 0.8 nm, so it is a very long, linear polymer. There are Vander Waal's forces on cotton polymer, but more important chemical groupings on the cotton polymer are the hydroxyl groups or -OH groups. These are also present as methylol groups or -CH2OH. Their polarity gives rise to hydrogen bonds between the OH-groups of adjacent cotton polymers.

Cotton is a crystalline fiber. About 65-70 per cent of its polymer system is crystalline and correspondingly about 35-30 per cent amorphous. That is the reason of well orientation of cotton polymers and so they are probably no further apart than 0.5 nm, in the crystalline regions. This is the maximum distance across which hydrogen bonds can form between polymers. In the polymer system of cotton, hydrogen bonds are the dominant and most important forces of attraction present. Due to this reason, Vander Waal's forces which are also present have little relevance. The polymer system of cotton can be imagined as a role of wire netting, because the appearance of the cellulose polymer is not unlike a chain of hexagonal units.

2.1.3 Hygroscopic nature

As there are countless polar -OH groups in its polymers; so they attract water molecules, being also polar. Due to this reason cotton fiber is very absorbent. But entry of the water molecules is only possible in the polymer system in its amorphous regions, as the inter-polymer forces are too small for the water molecules in the crystalline region. Static electricity is prevented to be developed due to hygroscopic nature of polymer system of cotton.

Reactive Dyes

Reactive dyes were produced by Rattee and Stevens in 1953. These were first dyes which could form a covalent bond with cellulose. Due to chemical reaction, these are known as reactive dyes. The reactive dyes are water-soluble anionic dyes, which react with hydroxyl groups of cellulose to become covalently bonded to the fiber. The chemical reaction between a reactive dye and a cellulose fiber takes place in the presence of a base. (11)

Base (-HCl)

DYE-Cl + H-O CELLULOSE ï‚® DYE - O - CELLULOSE + SALT

Supramine Orange R (CI Acid Orange 30) is believed to be the first commercially available dye capable of covalent reaction with a textile fiber.

Reactive dyes have simple dyeing procedure with no oxidation and reduction. (12)

2.2.1 Mechanism of Reactive Dye Fixation

It utilizes dichlorotriazine as reactive linker. It is Nucleophilic aromatic substitution. It allows for a wide variety of chromophores to be used.

It requires a nucleophilic group on the chromophore

Fig. 2.2

(13)

2.2.2 Natural cellulosic fibers

An electrolyte is added in that water in which, the reactive dye is dissolved, to assist exhaustion of the dye. Then the textile material is introduced to the dye liquor and the dye is exhausted onto the fibers.

Alkali must be added to the dye liquor, as the reaction between dye and fiber may take place. This reaction can be carried out with alkali with some reactive dyes at room temperature. However, to effect the reaction between the dye molecule and the polymer system of the fiber, in some cases to the boil, the temperature of the dye liquor must be increased, with most reactive dyes. There are specific temperatures for reactive dyes at which reaction between dye and fiber are optimum. In any case, the addition of an alkali is required for the formation of the covalent link. The formation of covalent link takes place between the dye molecules and the hydroxyl groups of the cellulosic fiber.

2.2.3 Methods of dyeing with Reactive dyes

2.2.3.1 Pad-Batch

Semi continuous method of dyeing is cheap where excellent color fastness can be achieved. All the types of shades from light to dark can be achieved. It is more environmentally sound and higher quality dyeing method. Dyes and auxiliaries are prepared in separate tanks.

Dyes and auxiliaries are mixed just before color trough to avoid the hydrolysis of dyes. Fabric is continuously padded in dyes and trough at temperature 20-25ËšC. Fabric may be taken from trolley and batcher. Fabric after padding is wound on to a batcher immediately with help of plastic. It is wrapped to prevent drying out. When batching time is completed fabric is washed on washing range of pad steam. The color fastness of pad batched fabric is excellent, especially light fastness can be obtained with great results. The matching of shade on pad batch is difficult.

This method has higher production than exhaust dyeing method but less than continuous because fixation of dyes is completed in 8-12 hours.

Cold pad batch dyeing is a more environmentally sound and higher quality dyeing method. The process removes salt from the effluent, reduces the use of water and energy, reduces the volumes of effluent and occupies less space on the production floor. It also uses fewer chemicals, and the switch to Cibacron C dyes further reduces the color carried in the effluent.

2.2.3.2 Pad-Dry-Cure

This is process of Continuous dyeing. This is also known as Thermosol process. Here fabric is padded in dye liquor, dried and cured at higher temperature. After padding, the material passes through pre drying unit which may consist infrared pre dryers which removes 30-45% of interior moisture and hot flue chambers where fabric is completely dried. The dried material containing the film of padding mixture is then heated to the desired temperature which is usually 150-180ËšC for reactive dye and 200ËšC for disperse dye. Thermo sol range complete range scray, padding, I. R curing chambers. Thermo sol range with four chambers for drying and curing. Scray is used for fabric storage to avoid stoppage of machine. Entry of fabric happens with Airing, V.T.G and I.R zones. Here is padder with trough and automatic dosing systems. Here are drying and curing chambers with air circulation mechanism. Here, construction of Chamber is with uniform flow of material and uniform temperature. Face back problems are reduced by even circulations of air. Compensators are used at starting of each chamber to reduce crease problem.

2.2.3.3 Pad-Steam:

Pad steam has limited use. This process is applied only to cellulose materials. It is also used for combination of processes with themosol i.e.; vat development or chemical pad. At pad steam by wet on wet method only light shades less than 10g/l can be produced. Pad steam is one go process. Fabric is continuously dyed and washed which is then ready for finishing. Unlike thermo sol saturated steam is used for the fixation of dyes. Dark shades like black are mostly produced by pad dry chemical pad

Pad steam range:

Main sections

Entry

Pad steam range with steamer

Pad steam washing range

Washing or oxidizing tanks with dozing systems

Drying of fabric after washing

Exit

2.3 Shades

Colors are applied on textiles to provide them beauty, luster and various designs. Quantity of color is known as shade.

2.3.1 Dark Shades

When high quantity of color is applied on textiles, to provide them luster and designs of color, those are known as dark shades.

Dark and navy shades play a crucial role in the industry for all textile end article segments whether knitting, shirting, toweling or bedding. (8)

2.4 Crocking

A change in color of the rubbed textile (by bleeding and fading) is known as rubbing fastness. The staining effect is caused by small abraded colored fiber particles on the partner textile, depending on the fiber's kind, especially its tensile strength. When the crocking fastness rating is determined, coarse fiber particles are not given so importance. Also it is the reason of staining if the dyestuff involved is water soluble and not sufficiently fixed on the fiber. But limited/restricted wet crocking fastness has even been determined in dyeing with the best wet properties, for example vat dyeing, because of cellulose fiber abrasion.

2.4.1. After treatment with softeners, silicones, cross linking agents

• For fiber (tensile strength, wet abrasion)

• For textile in contact: shade, surface, kind of fiber and fabric

• Intensity of the contact: pressure, time, moisture and temperature.

2.4.2 Applied chemistries

Partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate (Pac/PVA) or polyvinyl ether and the application of pigment binders can achieve improved rubbing fastness, mostly based on acrylic copolymers similar to those used as hand builders

Application methods mostly use pad-dry techniques.

2.4.3 Crocking: Standard Test Methods

AATCC Test Method 8 - Basic Crock meter Method

AATCC Test Method 116 - Rotary Vertical

AATCC Test Method 165 - Carpets

ISO 105-D02 - Organic Solvents

ISO 105-X12 - Colorfastness to rubbing

SAE J861 - Organic trim materials

ASTM D5053 - Leather

2.4.3.1 AATCC Test Method 8

Here, recommended specimen size is 5cm by 13cm. In this test, wet and dry samples can be tested. Mount white test cloth with the weave parallel to the direction of rubbing. Run test for 10 complete turns. Evaluate the white test cloth using the Gray Scale for staining

For the wet test:

Technique should be established for preparing wet crock cloth squares by weighing a conditioned square. Then a white testing square should be thoroughly wetted out in distilled water. The wet pick-up should be 65 ± 5% during the test. Before evaluation, white cloth should be dried and conditioned.

2.4.3.2 AATCC Test Method 116

This method is especially useful for prints where the singling out of areas smaller than possible to test with Method 8 is required. This is specific for both wet and dry tests. 20 complete turns are specified. Staining is evaluated with the Gray Scale.

2.4.3.3 AATCC Test Method 165 (Carpets)

This method is used for testing before/after treatments such as shampooing, steam or hot water extraction, or antistatic/antisoil application. This can be used for both wet and dry testing. Ten complete turns (one per second) are needed. Staining is evaluated with Gray Scale.

2.4.3.4 ISO /DIS105-X12 - 1999 Colour fastness to rubbing

This method is suitable for all kinds of textiles. Here, two alternative sizes of rubbing fingers are specified. Here, cylinder of a 16 mm diameter finger exerts a download force of 9 N and a finger with a rectangular rubbing surface of 19 mm x 25.4 mm (crock block) exerting a download force of 9 N for pile fabrics including textile floor coverings.

It is suitable apparatus referring to AATCC TM 8. Wet and dry, both tests can be done on it. Size of specimen should be at least 50 mm x 140 mm

2.4.3.5 Crock meter - CM1

This is manual unit recommended for shorter tests. It has cycle counter. It is available in standard with 16mm finger and 9N arm. Both wet and dry tests can be done on it.

2.4.3.6 CM5 Crock meter

Being recommended for long/frequent tests, it is automatic unit, which is electrically powered and it also counts up timer with automatic shut down

2.4.3.7 CM6 Crockmeter

This is manual unit. It reciprocates rotary motion to meet AATCC Test Method 116. For both wet and dry testing, it can be used.

(15)

2.4.4 Mostly used Evaluation methods

• ISO 105-X12 and AATCC Crock meter Method, Test method 8: Color fastness to crocking.

• For small fabric samples and for printed samples AATCC developed the Rotary Vertical Crock meter Method (AATCC Test method 116).

• For testing loosened fiber material, for example flock, tuft, loose stock, the method and device according to Ruf is recommended. The tested material is pressed with a rubber membrane and then rubbed.

2.4.5 Troubleshooting and special problems

Possible problems with finishes used to improve rubbing fastness include the following:

• There may be only small effects often. Silicone finishes (soft handle, water repellency, stretch) may reduce the crocking fastness, although silicones give very smooth films around any kind of fiber.

• More disperse dye migration is often caused by softeners on dyed polyester (especially thermo migration) and also reduced crocking fastness is caused. On the basis of fatty acids and azoic dyeing, this is similar to softeners.

• An after treatment is needed for deeply dyed polyester, to obtain acceptable crocking and wet fastness properties mostly with reducing agents that destroy the low or unfixed

Disperse dyes.

2.4.6. Rubbing/Crocking fastness

Fig. 2.3 Crock meter

2.4.6.1 Effect of depth of shade/selection of Dyes

For reactive dyes, rating will be relatively higher with high solubility and good washing fastness properties. However, in deep shades, a fastness rating of 2-3 on the grey scale is achievable, even with dyes with good washing fastness, and is considered satisfactory and acceptable. The liquid introduced with the wet crocking cloth results in deterioration in rub fastness of up to 2 points in comparison to dry rubbing, in all cases.

2.4.6.2 Effect of Mercerizing

For the mercerized cotton, the color transfer is relatively less, and the rubbing fastness grade is higher. There is a 30% less extent of removal of fiber particles, due to change in the fiber structure on mercerizing, during wet rubbing and lesser amount of color on the fiber for the same visual depth of shade.

2.4.6.3. Effect of finishing treatments

Various types of finishes are applied to fabrics for getting different results. Different types of finishing treatment are applied to dyes, viz. softness, polysiloxanes, Zr-compounds, fluorocarbon, chitosan and cellulase enzymes etc. Fabrics do not show improvements in wet rubbing ratings. With some of the cross linking agents, rubbing fastness grade is lowered by 1/2 to 1 unit. In one of the recent study it is claimed that for reactive dyed blacks and Bordeaux materials, with polyacrylate finishes there is some improvement in the wet rubbing fastness rating.

2.4.6.4 AATCC test method for analyzing color fastness to crocking

Size of the test: 5 x 13 cm. (2 x 5 in)

Conditioning: Prior to testing, condition each specimen for at least 4 hours in an atmosphere of 21°C and 65% RH.

Apparatus: AATCC Crock meter, AATCC Chromatic Transference scale, Gray scale for staining, White AATCC Textile Blotting paper specimen holder for crock meter.

2.4.6.4.1 Procedure:

(i) Dry crocking test

(a) Place a test specimen on the base of the crock meter resting flat on the abrasive cloth with its long digression in the direction of rubbing.

(b) Place specimen holder over specimen as added means to prevent slippage.

(c) Mount a white test cloth square, the weave parallel with the direction of rubbing over the end of the finger which projects downward from the weighted sliding arm. Use the special spiral wire clip to hold the test square in place. Position the clip with loops upward. If the loops point downward they can drag against the test specimen.

(d) Lower the covered finger onto the test specimen. Beginning with the finger positioned at the front end, crank the rneter handle 10 complete turns at the rate of one turn per second to slide the covered finger back and forth 20 times. Set and run the motorized tester for 10 complete turns. Refer to individual specifications for any other required number of turns.

(e) Remove the white test cloth square, condition and evaluate.

(ii) Wet crocking test

Establish technique for preparing wet crock cloth square by Weigh a conditioned square, then thoroughly wet out white testing square in distilled water. Prepare only one square at a time.

Bring the wet pick up to 65+ 5% by squeezing wet testing square between

blotting paper through a hand wringer or similar convenient means.

Avoid evaporative reduction of the moisture content below the specified level before the actual crock test is run.

Continue crocking procedure as per Dry crocking test.

Dry the white test square with air, then condition before evaluating. In the case of napped, brushed or sanded material when loose fiber might interfere with the rating, remove the extraneous fibrous material by pressing lightly on the crock circle with the sticky side of cellophane tape before evaluating.

Assessment: Gray scale 1-5 for staining, where 1 is for poor, 5 is for excellent

2.4.6.5 TEST METHODS of American Association of Textile Chemicals and Colorists (AATCC) to check rubbing fatness:

(i) AATCC 8-2001

One of the test methods of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) is AATCC 8-2001. In this method a standard white cotton fabric is rubbed against the surface of the test fabric. For test of wet crocking, the standard fabric is wet before rubbing against the test fabric. After rubbing under controlled pressure for a specific number of times the amount of color transferred to the white test squares is compared to an AATCC color chart and a rating is established.

Grade 5 = no color transfer

Grade 1 = high degree of color transfer

(ii) AATCC 116-2001:

One of the test methods of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) is. AATCC 116-2001. Specifically for printed fabrics that do not lend themselves to the AATCC 8-2001 method, this test is used. In this test, the test fabric is held at the base of a Rotary Vertical Crockmeter and is then rubbed with a standard cotton white fabric either dry or wet. After rubbing under controlled pressure for a specific number of times the amount of color transferred to the white test squares is compared to an AATCC color chart and a rating is established.

2.4.6.5.1 Application process of improver WPU for wet rubbing fastness

In above research done by Jie, ZHU Quan of Donghua University, Shanghai, China, deep color fabrics were prepared with self-made waterborne polyurethane to improve the wet rubbing fastness of cotton fabric dyed with reactive dyes. Through discussion on the dosage, curing temperature and time, the optimal process of padding was settled, that is WPU 40 g/L, curing 3 = min ,and without softening. The results showed that WPU can evidently enhance dry and wet rubbing fastnesses of fabrics with little affect on other color fastnesses, while the color fastness to chlorinated water was improved. (16)

2.5 AUXILIARIES

These chemical compounds include carriers or swelling agents, leveling agents, anti-foaming agents, dispersing agents, detergents and wetting agents. The way in which these auxiliaries affect the dyeing process and their chemical constitution is fairly complex.

2.5.1 Carriers or swelling agents

To improve the dye exhaustion, carriers are added to the dye liquor for highly crystalline fibers such as polyesters. Only pale colors can be achieved by aqueous dyeing without carriers, because of their very crystalline nature. The dye is assisted by the addition of carriers to the dye liquor to penetrate the extremely crystalline polyester fibers. How the carriers improve the dye ability of polyester fibers, there is no universally accepted explanation for that, but most widely accepted theory is that carriers help to swell the fiber and make it easier for the dye molecules to enter the polymer system. As a general rule, carriers are only used to dye polyester fibers with disperse dyes.

2.5.2 Leveling agents

The dye liquor is helped by the addition of leveling agents to produce a more uniform color in textile fibers. Retarders or retarding agents are those leveling agents which tend to slow down the dye uptake of the fibers. In such situations where dyes tend to rush on to the fiber and result in an unevenly colored textile material, it is essential to use retarders.

Leveling agents are surface active agents, and are chemically related to soaps, synthetic detergents and wetting agents. They may be anionic, cationic or non-ionic organic compounds.

2.5.3 Description of auxiliaries used

2.5.3.1 TENAWET PAD

It is product of German BAYER. It has excellent wetting efficiency right into the core of the fibers, side/centre absorption differences are leveled out.

TANAWET PAD is particularly suitable for a wide range of applications in the cotton sector, due to its excellent wetting efficiency, low-foaming quality and suitability.

2.5.3.2 TANATERGE RE

This is an auxiliary used for after-soaping reactive dyeings on cotton and cellulosic fibers and their blends. It provides very good removal of hydrolyzed, substantive absorbed dyes. It is suitable for post-scouring flock, yarn, woven and knitted fabrics.

2.5.3.3 TANAWET Q

TANAWET Q is especially suitable for wetting textiles on jet, yarn and beam apparatus and padding equipment having very good wetting properties. It is suitable for enzymatic desizing. It has very good deaerating properties and is very suitable for discontinuous and continuous preparation and dyeing processes. Its other main characteristics include very low foaming, readily biodegradable and APEO-free.

2.5.3.4 FIBRAWASH RS

FIBRAWASH RS is extremely suitable soaping agent for reactive dyeing and prints on cellulosic fibers and their blends.

FIBRAWASH RS promotes solubility of hydrolysed reactive dyes and there is speedy migration of hydrolysed dye from the textile fiber. It corrects water hardness in soaping baths for reactive dyeing and prints. It has no electrolytic effect. FIBRAWASH RS has no demetallizing effect.

2.5.3.5 BAYPRET NANO-PU

BAYPRET NANO-PU provides Nano-emulsion for optimal distribution over and penetration into the fabric. It forms a film around and between fibers. It yields unique properties and applications possibilities. It has special finishing and can also be used to obtain special handle modifications. It also provides anti-pilling treatments and has increased durability of selected softeners and resin finishes. It yields durable hydrophilic finishes on all fibers.

CHAPTER # 03

EXPERIMENTAL WORK

3.1 Dyeing:

3.1.1 Fabric Specifications:

Weave: Twill Weave,

Count: Warp: 15,

Weft: 15,

3.1.2 Dyeing recipes

3.1.2.1

Recipe I

DYES:

1 g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 0.1

2g/l NAVY BLUE SPD: 0.2

1g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 0.1

20g/l Sodium Carbonate: 2

50g/l Urea: 5

1g/l wetting agent TANWET Q: 1

10g/l Antimigraring agent LEVALLIN MIP: 1

Total: 100ml

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Coldwash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.2

Recipe II

DYES:

2 g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 0.2

4g/l NAVY BLUE SPD: 0.4

2g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 0.2

20g/l Sodium Carbonate: 2

70g/l Urea: 7

1g/l wetting agent TANWET Q: 1

10g/l Antimigraring agent LEVALLIN MIP: 1

Total: 100ml

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Coldwash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.3

Recipe III:

DYES:

5 g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 1

10g/l NAVY BLUE SPD: 2

5g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 1

20g/l Sodium Carbonate: 4

70g/l Urea: 14

1g/l wetting agent TANWET Q: 0.2

10g/l Antimigraring agent LEVALLIN MIP: 2

Total: 200ml

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Coldwash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.4

Recipe IV

DYES:

8 g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 1.6

15g/l BLUE SPD: 3

9g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 1.8

20g/l Sodium Carbonate: 4

70g/l Urea: 14

1g/l wetting agent TANWET Q: 0.2

10g/l Anti migrating agent LEVALLIN MIP: 2

Total: 200ml

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Cold wash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.5

Recipe V

DYES:

15 g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 3

8g/l BLUE SPD: 1.6

9g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 1.8

20g/l Sodium Carbonate: 4

70g/l Urea: 14

1g/l wetting agent TANWET Q: 0.2

10g/l Antimigraring agent LEVALLIN MIP: 2

Total: 200ml

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Coldwash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.6

Recipe VI

DYES:

9 g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 1.8

7g/l BLACK DN CONES 1.4

10g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 2

20g/l Sodium Carbonate: 4

70g/l Urea: 14

1g/l wetting agent TANWET Q: 0.2

10g/l Antimigraring agent LEVALLIN MIP: 2

Total: 200ml

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Coldwash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.7

Recipe VII

DYES:

9 g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 1.8

2g/l BLUE SPD: 0.4

5g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 1

20g/l Sodium Carbonate: 4

70g/l Urea: 14

1g/l wetting agent TANWET Q: 0.2

10g/l Antimigraring agent LEVALLIN MIP: 2

Total: 200ml

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Coldwash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.8

Recipe VIII

DYES:

10 g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 2

10g/l BLUE SPD: 2

2g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 0.4

20g/l Sodium Carbonate: 4

70g/l Urea: 14

1g/l wetting agent TANWET Q: 0.2

10g/l Antimigraring agent LEVALLIN MIP: 2

Total: 200ml

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Coldwash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.9

Recipe IX

DYES:

1 g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 0.2

2g/l BLUE SPD: 0.4

1g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 0.2

20g/l Sodium Carbonate: 4

70g/l Urea: 14

1g/l wetting agent TANWET Q: 0.2

10g/l Antimigraring agent LEVALLIN MIP: 2

Total: 200ml

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Coldwash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.10

Recipe X

DYES:

15 g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 3

5g/l BLUE SPD: 1

2g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 0.4

20g/l Sodium Carbonate: 4

70g/l Urea: 14

1g/l wetting agent TANWET Q: 0.2

10g/l Antimigraring agent LEVALLIN MIP: 2

Total: 200ml

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Coldwash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.11

Recipe XI

DYES:

2g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 0.4

5g/l BLUE SPD: 1

1g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 0.2

20g/l Sodium Carbonate: 4

70g/l Urea: 14

1g/l wetting agent TANWET Q: 0.2

10g/l Antimigraring agent LEVALLIN MIP: 2

Total: 200ml

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Cold wash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.12

Recipe XII

DYES:

8g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 1.6

2g/l BLUE SPD: 0.4

10g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 2

20g/l Sodium Carbonate: 4

70g/l Urea: 14

1g/l wetting agent TANWET Q: 0.2

10g/l Antimigrating agent LEVALLIN MIP: 2

Total: 200ml

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Cold wash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.13

Recipe: XIII

Drimarine CL Navy

2g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 0.4

3g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 0.6

30g/l SUNFIX NAVY MFRD: 6

Total 200ml

UREA: 25

PAD: 0.4,

MIP: 3,

RG: 1

Soda Ash: 8

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Coldwash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.14

Recipe: XIV

Drimarine CL Black:

80g/l BLACK DN CONES: 16

125g/l UREA: 25

40g/l Soda Ash : 8

25g/l TANAWET PAD: 0.4

15g/l LEVELLIN MIP: 3

5 g/l ULTRAPRINT RG: 1

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Coldwash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.2.15

Recipe: XV

Drimarine CL Burgandy:

25 g/l SUNFIX YELLOW MFD: 5

38 g/l SUNFIX RED MSFB: 7.6

3.2 g/l SUNFIX NAVY MFRD: 0.64

UREA: 25

PAD: 0.4,

MIP: 3

RG: 1

Soda Ash: 8

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 160ËšC for 1.5 minutes

↓

Washing

↓

Coldwash for 90 seconds

↓

Cold wash

↓

Hot wash at 95ËšC with PERLAVIN RIS

↓

Neutralize

↓

Soaping at 95ËšC

↓

Cold Rinse

3.1.3 Finishing with cross linking agents.

3.1.3.1 Finishing Recipe:

40g/l BAYPRET NANO PU: 20

Total: 500ml

↓

Drying at 120ËšC for 2 minutes

↓

Curing at 140ËšC for 1.5 minutes

3.1.4 RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS

3.1.4.1 Tensile Results

3.1.4.1.1 Dyeing

Drimarine CL Navy: 41

Drimarine CL Burgundy: 001640

Drimarine CL Black: 000136

3.1.4.1.2 Finishing

Drimarine CL Navy: 42

Drimarine CL Burgundy: 001639

Drimarine CL Black: 001637

3.1.4.2 Result Samples

3.1.4.2.1 Sample I

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.2 Sample II

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.3 Sample III

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.4. Sample IV

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.5 Sample V

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.6 Sample VI

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.7 Sample VII

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.8 Sample VIII

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.9 Sample IX

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.10 Sample X

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.11 Sample XI

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.12 Sample XII

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.13 Sample XIII

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.14 Sample XIV

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

3.1.4.2.15 Sample XV

Dyed Dry crocked Wet Crocked

Finished Dry crocked Wet Crocked

â-  3.1.4.3 Crocking Test Results

3.1.4.3.1 Dyed samples

Dyed

Dry

Wet

1

4/5

3

2

4/5

3/4

3

4/5

3/4

4

4/5

3/4

5

4/5

2/3

6

4/5

3

7

4/5

3

8

4/5

3

9

4/5

3/4

10

4/5

3

11

4/5

3/4

12

4/5

3

13

5

3

14

5

4

15

4/ 5

3/4

3.1.4.3.2 Finished samples results

Finished

Dry

Wet

1

4/5

3/4

2

4/5

4

3

4/5

4

4

4/5

4

5

4/5

3

6

4/5

3/4

7

4/5

3/4

8

4/5

3/4

9

4/5

4

10

4/5

3/4

11

4/5

3/4

12

4/5

3/4

13

5

4/5

14

5

4

15

4/ 5

4

3.1.4.4 Fabric softness

3.1.4.4.1 Dyed

Less soft

3.1.4.4.2 Finished

Softer

â-  3.1.4.5 Shade

Batch: Navy after Finishing Standard Navy before Finishing

DE*

DL*

Da*

Db*

DC*

DH*

Batch is

D65/10

0.434

0.233

-0.268

-0.249

0.239

-0.277

Lighter less red bluer

F11/10

0.516

0.172

-0.351

-0.336

0.348

-0.340

Lighter greener bluer

Batch: Burgundy after Finishing Standard Burgundy before Finishing

DE*

DL*

Da*

Db*

DC*

DH*

Batch is

D65/10

1.169

-1.060

-0.404

-0.282

-0.483

-0.096

Darker less red

less yellow

F11/10

1.292

-1.120

-0.501

-0.405

-0.637

-0.098

Darker less red

less yellow

Batch: Black after Finishing Standard Black before Finishing

DE*

DL*

Da*

Db*

DC*

DH*

Batch is

D65/10

0.516

-0.426

-0.127

-0.262

0.089

-0.277

Darker less red bluer

F11/10

0.585

-0.470

-0.230

-0.260

0.177

-0.299

Darker less red bluer

CHAPTER # 4

CONCLUSION & FUTURE SUGGESTIONS:

The objective was improvement in wet crocking of dark shades dyed with reactive dyes. Wet crocking was improved till some extent, but still it was not upto high level. Improvement in fastness rating was from dyeing to finishing was from 4 to ¾ and 5 to 4/5, in some cases. So still work is needed to improve it. Also Hydrophobicity was increased with improvement in wet-crocking. This is also main consideration point along with crocking improvement. So work should be done to control hydrobicity along with improvement in wet crocking;

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