Forecasting Function For Lung Cancer



Cell division under normal circumstanses is a controlled process. When the body lose this control over cell division it causes cancer (Henderson, 2009). Cancer is a class ofdiseasesin which abnormal cellsshow their growth beyond the normal limits, invasion and destruction of adjacent tissues andmetastasis. Metastasis means the spread of cancer to other parts of the body by traveling through lymphatic's or blood vessels. Uncontrolled growth, invasion and metastasis are the three malignant properties of cancers which are not displayed by benign tumors (Anand, 2008).

Cancer is the leading death causing disease in economically developed as well as in developing countries where it is the second leading cause(Global Cancer Facts and Figures, 2007). Cancer incidences are rising in developing countries because people choose the lifestyle that increases the chances of developing cancer. These choises include tobacco smoking, lack of physical exercise and inappropriate dietry habbits (The Global Burden of Disease, 2004). Between 90-95% cancer cases are due to environmental factors and 5-10% cases are due to genetic (WICR Alternative medicine for treatment). The common environmental factors include:tobacco(25-30%), diet andobesity(30-35%),infections(15-20%),radiation(both ionizing and non ionizing, up to 10%), stress, lack ofphysical activity, andenvironmental pollutants (Anand, 2008).

2.2 Cancer Types

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There are around 200 differenttypesofcancerthat can affect the human body (Global

Medi Assist, 2010). In 2008 estimated number of cancer cases reported were 12.7 million out of which 7.6 million patients were died, with 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths in the economically developing world (Ahmedin, 2011). Among females breast cancer is most prevalent. In males it is the lung cancer that is frequently diagnosed.In developed countries frequency of lung cancer is preceded by prostate cancer (Ahmedin, 2011). Table 1 gives the estimated numbers cancer incidences and number of deaths from various cancer types in 2010 as reported by the American Cancer Society (Cancer fact and figures, 2010). From table 1 we can conclude that among all the cancer types lung cancer is the most prevalent one followed by colorectal and breast cancer.

2.3 Lung Cancer and its Types

The uncontrolled growth of abnormal lung cells is regarded as lung cancer (Cancer, World Health Organization, 2007). Schematic illustration of the lung cancer is shown in Figure1. Note that this figure has been borrowed from ( This cancer is the foremost cause of cancer-associated deaths worldwide, accounted for an estimated 157,300 deaths in the United States in 2010 (Cancer Facts and Figures, 2010). The five-year survival rate for the disease is only 15 percent. Several causes of the lung cancer have been identified, and tobacco being the most common one. The risk of the lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and the time over which smoking has done. Other factors include radon gas, asbestos, pollution and lung infections (Jemal, 2010). In males, lung cancer incidences are premier in Southern and Eastern Europe, Micronesia and Polynesia, North America, and Eastern Asia, while rates are low in sub Saharan Africa. In females, the maximum lung cancer cases are found in Northern Europe, North America, and Australia/ New Zealand (Jacques, 2011). As females initiated extensive smoking long after males their lung cancer cases are reported  years after males (Harris, 2011).

There are two major types of lung cancer.Lung cancer type is defined on the basis of morphological differences among cancer cells. In order to determine treatment and prognosis knowledge of the type of lung cancer is necessary. Each type grows and spreads in different ways and therefore treated differently. Therefore, lung cancer is divided in to two major groups, non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Table 2 summarizes the main types of lung cancer and their incidences (see Table 2)

Among other types of the lung cancer, the most common type is non-small cell lung cancer which accounts for 80% of all lung cancers. Although smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer is commonly found in non-smokers and women (Alberg 2003; Boffetta et al 1998; Hackshaw 1998; The health effects and regulation of passive smoking 1994; Schick 2005). Small cell lung cancer accounts for 15% of lung cancers. In small cell lung cancer cell division time is less.Chemotherapy against this type initially works well but not on the advanced stage. Small cell lung cancer usually begins in the large airways of the lungs and often spreads to thebrain. There are two stages of small cell lung cancer,limitedandextensive stage. The patients in 60-70% cases have already extensive stage disease at the time of diagnosis. Major cause of small cell lung cancer is smoking, althoughother causescan contribute as well (Eldridge, 2010).

2.3.1 Stages of Lung Cancer

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Lung cancers are divided into four stages and they are given as follows.

i) Stage 1

The cancer cells are present in small number and they are confined to a small area and in any lymph nodes there is no cancer. This is the earliest stage of lung cancer. If detected at this stage more treatment options are available and greater chances of cure (see Figure 2(a)). Note that this figure has been borrowed from

ii) Stage 2

This stage means that the cancer mass is between 5 and 7 cm long but no lymph nodes are affected. In the case, if it is5cm or less long then cancer cells are usually seen in the lymph nodes closer to the affected lung (see Figure 2(b)). Note that this figure has been borrowed from

iii) Stage 3

In this stage, inflamation and mucus production affect the whole affected lung. Stage 3means that the cancer mass is larger than 7cm and cancer cells are present in the lymph nodes is in the lymph nodes in the close proximity of the lung (see Figure 2(c)). Note that this figure has been borrowed from

iv) Stage 4

In this stage, the cancer is either spreaded  to both lungs,or to the secondary sites such as the liver or bones. There may also be the collection of fluid around heart or lung.

Symptoms of lung cancer include: coughing with blood, difficulty in breathing, weight loss,fatigue and, constant pain in the chest or elsewhere (Hamilton, 2005). Unfortunately, if the lung cancer is diagnosed too late, then its treatment becomes impossible. The detection at early stages can lead to more treatment options, less invasive surgery, and higher survival rate. In the case of early detection, it can save the life. Therefore, strategies are needed to be designed to detect the cancer in its early stages or before the onset of disease during annual medical examination.

2.4 Applications of Bioinformatics in Cancer Detection

During last several years huge volume of biological data was produced due to the progressive understanding of proteomics, genomics and molecular biology. (Vassilev, 2005). For the storage, organization and analysis of this information, need of computer programs and databases was considered. There comes bioinformaticsthat integrated biological and computer science for the interpretation of massive biological information. The cenral aim of bioinformatics is to get an indepth understanding about biological processess.In the beginning, main objective of use of computer was storage, maintenance and analysis of biological data. This process is referred to as computational biology. Cellual activities are distorted in diseases. In order to understand the altered activities one need to get a widespread knowledge about normal cellular activities. All this require a combined effort of computer science and biological science. The existing analysis tools and techniques used in computational biology are unable to meet new and complex requirements of biologists. Also, the existing relational database management systems (DBMSs) are unable to handle these requirements. Therefore, there is an urgent need of new database technology to handle these new requirements. A database management system (DBMS) that store, retrieve and manipulate biological data is referred to as Bioinformatics. It has evolved such that it now involves the examination and elucidation of various types of biological data including the sequences of nucleotides and amino acids, protein structures, and domains etc.

Bioinformatics tools are, therefore, important to study the change in protein expression in cancerous and non cancerous tissue, change in immune response in cancerous conditions, to conduct translational research in different organ confined carcinoma: translating results from the laboratory bench to bed side delivery of patient care and communicating the lessons learned back to the bench, to develop and implement algorithms that help in differential diagnosis of organ confined tumor etc.

Table 1: The anticipated cancer incidences and deaths by frequent cancer types

Cancer Type

Estimated New Cases

Estimated Deaths

Cancer Type

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Estimated New Cases

Estimated Deaths




Lung (Including Bronchus)



Breast (Female - Male)

207,090 - 1,970

39,840 - 390




Colon and Rectal (Combined)



Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma









Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer