This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
The aim of this assay is to introduce the painkiller drug fentanly and the other formulations of fentanyl which are available in the market and their possible site effects. As well as explaining about the fentanyl ionyses.
Fentanyl is a potent narcotic analgesic which is approximately 100 times more effective than morphine therefore 100 µg of fentanyl is equal to 10 mg of morphine which offers a quick action in a short time to be able to manage acute or chronic pain. Usually it is used for patients who are suffering of long or short term of analgesic such as cancer pain ,pain after surgeries ,severe back pain, neuropathy and arthritis in different places for example in the intensive care unit, operation room or at home. Fentanyl frequently controlled the pain, by blocking pain messages to the brain. The general chemical name of fentanyl is 1-phenethyl-4-N propionylanilinopiperidine and the chemical fomule is C22H28N2O
Fentanyl was first produced in 1960s by a Belgium pharmaceutical called Dr Paul Jansse who introduced the intravenous anesthetic under the name of Sublimaze. Afterward In the mid-1990s, Dr Janssen developed and introduced the Duragesic patch to the clinical trail. It has a formation of an inert alcohol gel which is infused with select fentanyl doses which provided a regular administration of the opioid drugs over a period of 48 to 72 hours. After the patch, the lozenge and the flaver lollipop of fentanyl were introduced under the brand name of Actiq, than in 2006 the US food and drugs Administration has approved the fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system ( the Ionsys ) which manage pain over a period of 24 hours.
Usually most of the potent drugs have a large number of sites effects even if it is very efficienc, rapetlly for managing pains. fentanyl is one of this drugs which is recognized to cause a variety numbers site effects and allergic reactions to serious side effects which can lead to deadly in the case of overdosing. All formulation of fentanly has some similar general site effects which could varies between every one, such as light headed, feeling dizzy, getting a strange feeling, (especially if they are not in bed if the take the medication), stomach pain drowsiness and headaches. Also there are a significant number of allergic reactions such as difficulty breathing, swelling of the mouth, chest pain, fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat, depression, bleeding, or inflammation; numbness or tingling in the hands, legs, or feet; severe drowsiness; severe dry eyes, mouth, or skin, severe or persistent dizziness, yellowing of the eyes or skin.
Lozenge or lollipop
fentanyl lozenges are planned for opioid-tolerant patients, who are treated with a similar opioid drug like morphine. Because it is a potent painkiller it has to be prescribed by the doctor also patient has to be treated with a similar opioid durgs. These fentanyl lozenges are very effective for treating patients with cancer pain. Furthermore it is quite helpful for breakthrough pain for those who suffering of back pain. it is a solid formulation of fentanyl citrate which is attached to a glue in the form of a lollipop. This lozenge is able to dissolves slowly in the mouth and been absorbed through the buccal mucosa. The part is a berry-flavored lozenge on a stick which is placed inside the mouth and next to the cheeks so that the patient can move it easily around the mouth by using the stick (as shown on the fentanyl lollipop picture). This way allows the medication to be absorbed into the blood stream very easily and rapitlly in 15 minutes. As the swallowing of the drugs make it less effectiveness and eating of these drugs can cause deaths. Like most of the other fentanly formulation the lozenges are available in six dosages, starting from 200 to 1600 µg. the lozengens and the lollipop has the samilare . t
Fentanyl intravenous is widely used for anesthesia and analgesia usually used in operating rooms and intensive care units which could be injected or infused. This solution do not contain any bactriostat, antimicrobial agent or buffer solutions as it is only planned for the use of single dose injection if a small doses is required. It can be administered to both children and adults. They receive the dosage through the route of a bolus or as infusion. The needle is held with a sticker in the arm through the skin into the vein so that the drugs can be delivered to the bloodstream and gives messages to blocking the pain receptors in the brain. It is provided in 2 ml, 10 ml and 50mg/l
Fentanly Intravenous injections(figer 3 )
Fentanyl transdermal patch it is used for managing chronic pain. This patch works by releasing fentanyl drug into body fats. After it has been realesed into the body fat the drugs release slowly into the bloodstream over a period of 48 to 72 to provide a long term pain relief. They have five patch sizes; the smallest size is 12.5 mg/hour, 25 µg/h, 50 µg/h, 75 µg/h, and 100 µg/h. each dosage is based on the size of the patch, some individuals are not allowed to take fentanly patch such as individuals who are willing to become pregnant or already pregnant or are breast feeding, also patients who are allergic to some food medications or drinking more than three alcohol contains in a day.
Mechanism of iontophoretic drug delivery
iontophoretic transdermal system:
The fentanyl iontrophretic transdermal system (fentayl ionsys) is a device which is designed for managing an acute pain as a short term of treatment after a surgery to provide 24 hours preprogrammed, disposable system. This device is only used while patients are in hospital due to the possibility of abuse. The device al most looks like the patch both are adhesive on the skin and both do not contain any needles on top of it has extremely small size similar to the credit cared size. This device contains a Plastic top cover
These plastic top cover contain a battery, electronics and plastic bottom housing. Also it contains two hydro gels and a polyisobutylenc skin adhesive which tolerate it on the skin. One of these hydro gels contains fentanyl hydrochloride acid (HCL) and the other one contains the pharmacologically inactive ingredients. The device is programmer to deliver 40Ug of fentanyl hydrochloride acid over a period of ten minutes which provide a best possible pain control rapidly and safely.
After adhesive the back secure of the fentanyl Ionsys device to the upper arm or chest the patient or the health care professionals have to active the system by pressing the lower button twice for 3 seconds. The battery inside the ionsys then makes an undetectable low-intensity electrical field which allowes the fentanyl gel reservoir inside the device to transfer through the skin into the bloodstreams to block the pain receptors. As a result of this the device will be activated and a red light will be indicated and the administering of the first dosage of the fentanly will take place. Each dose which contain 40ug is deliver in 10 minutes, but the first flashes is indicated by the red light and the emitting diode after the fived doses has been delivered which containing 240ug over a period of one hour the second flashes stared from the sixed dose up to the tented doses until it reach the 80 doses which is delivered over the 24 hours. Next the patient has to remove and dispose the ionsys and replace it with a new one on a different skin area.
Over the years a significant numbers of opioid medication were establish in the marked for managing chronic and acute pain. fentanyl was one of this synthetic opioid which was first manufactured in the 1960s by a Belgium Pharmaceutics called Dr Paul Janssen. These synthetic opioid was first introduced as an intravenous analgesic under the name Sublimaze. After that in the middle of 1990s the patch and a few other delivery methods of fentanyl were introduced to as painkillers such as the lozenge and lollipop which is taken orally, intravenous solution which might be injected or infused usually used in the intensive care unit or in surgeries and finally the ionsys which was approved to the clinical trail in 2006 by the US food and drugs administration. The ionsys and the patches works in the same way both are absorbed through the skin into the bloodstream, but the difference between them is that the ionsys contains a battery which delivers the drugs automatically after activating the system. The dosing of any of this formation depended on the patient condition. Fentanyl has a few numbers of side effects additionally it could also be very dangerous, because it have a highly potential for abuse and high rise of overdosing.