Pigeons, whose relation with humans traces back to ancient times (B.C. 3000-5000), are seen in almost every geographical region of the world except for the poles. Pigeons live side by side with humans and other animal species in the nature; and they are bred as a source of food, as a hobby, symbol, and for experimental aims (cooper et al.,1984).
Pigeons constitute the bird family Columbidae within the order columbiformes (Baptista et al.,1997).All races of breeds of domestic pigeon
Columba livia domestica have been evolved from rock pigeon also called a rock dove Columba livia livia or jungli kabootar (wild pigeon) that cohabits with man every where in the world. The domestic pigeon breeds are believed to have been developed in the east and Europe had no original breed of its own. Wild pigeons are pale grey with two black bars on each wing (Blechman et al., 2007).
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There has been a growing interest in meat from alternative animal species like deer (Volpelli et al., 2003),ostriches (Cooper, 1999; Horbanczuk, 2002), and pigeons (ZieleziÅ„ski and Pawlina, 2005). Lean meat is very low in fat (20-50g/kg), pork and poultry have a favourable balance between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (P : S) (Wood et al., 1997 ). Pigeon meat is considered a delicacy and is gaining popularity among consumers in Europe mainly in Great Britain, France, and Italy as well as in the United States and China (ZieleziÅ„ski and Pawlina, 2005).
Pigeon meat is characterized by high nutritive value. Due to low cholesterol and a fairly high protein content, it can be used as a valuable inclusive component of the human diet. As far as FA composition is concerned, pigeon meat resembles meat types of poultry species (Pomianowski et al ., 2009).
Vitamin E is a general term used for the designation of tocopherols and tocotrienols (Î±-,ß-, Î³-, Î´-) (Acker et al ., 1993) . Variations in vitamin E deposition in fatty tissues have been found between different poultry species (Mecchi et al., 1953). It was found that concentrations of tocopherol in turkey liver and breast muscle were only one-fifth to one-third, respectively, those of broilers fed similar dietary levels (Marusich et al., 1975).
They function as the most effective lipid soluble antioxidant ,protecting cell membranes from peroxyl radicals and mutagenic nitrogen oxide species (Acker et al ., 1993). Tocopherols provide immunoprotection (Meydani ,1995), antiproliferative (Azzi et al .,1995) and anticlotting effects (Dowd et al .,1995),platelet adhesives and thrombosis (Hodis et al ., 1995) . Increased vitamin E intake has been inversely associated with the lower risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases (Losonczy et al.,1996).
Bell's palsy or idiopathic facial paralysis is a dysfunction of cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) that results in inability to control facial muscles on the affected side. Several conditions can cause a facial paralysis, e.g., brain tumor, stroke, and Lyme disease. However, if no specific cause can be identified, the condition is known as Bell's palsy(Salinas et al., 2010). Bell's Palsy is a condition causing drooping of one side of the face.People often remember exposure to a cold before developing Bell's palsy. Anywhere from 1 in 1000 to 1 in 250 people develops Bell's palsy in any given year,most commonly striking people over 70 years . but could occur at any stage of life (Rister, 2003 ). Named after Scottish anatomist Charles Bell, who first described it, Bell's palsy is the most common acute mononeuropathy (disease involving only one nerve) and is the most common cause of acute facial nerve paralysis (Salinas et al., 2010).
Nutritional Supplements required for Bell's Palsy Treatment , include:
essential fatty acid(5,000 milligrams daily)
Pyruvate(3000 milligrams daily)
Vitamin E (400 IU daily) ( Rister , 2003).
No treatment for Bell's Palsy, whether conventional or alternative is more effective than vitamin B12, but if patient has shingles three other Supplements may also help to accelerate recovery. Laboratory experiments have shown vitamin E, Sodium Pyruvate (a support supplement) and membrane stabilizing free fatty acid (Rister, 2003).
This project was designed to find out the biochemical basis of the recommendation of the pigeon meat by most of the physicians for the patients of Bell's Palsy "In the present project, the flesh of wild and domestic pigeons will be analysed and compared for the concentrations of oil , Tocopherol and Fatty acid profile. This comparative study will also furnish the scientific reason of preferable use of wild or domestic pigeon for the treatment of patients of Bells'Palsy.
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The main objectives of the present study are as follows :
To evaluate & compare oil contents in flesh of wild and domestic pigeons
To evaluate & compare Tocopherol contents in flesh of wild and domestic pigeons
To evaluate & compare Fatty acid profile in flesh of wild and domestic pigeons
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Pomianowski and Mikulski (2009) excised Two muscles, breast and thigh, from 3 pigeon meat-type breeds (Europigeon,WrocÅ‚awski, King) and were analyzed for proximate analysis, cholesterol content, and fatty acid (FA) profile. Among the breeds considered, the lowest protein content of breast muscle was found in Kings (21.73%), whereas the highest fat (7.07%) and ash (1.11%) content of breast muscle (P â‰¤ 0.01) was located in WrocÅ‚awski pigeons. The cholesterol content of both muscles was lowest in Europigeon (23.6 to 25.2 mg/100 g of tissue) as compared with the King and WrocÅ‚awski pigeons (30.2 to 44.4 mg/100 g of tissue). The total content of polyunsaturated FA was lower in thigh than in breast muscles (by 4.5 to 12%, depending on the breed). As far as FA composition is concerned, pigeon meat resembles meat types of poultry species. However, due to low cholesterol and a fairly high protein content, pigeon meat can be used as a valuable inclusive component of the human diet.
Young and Stagsted (2003) illustrated that in nonstressed birds, antioxidative status was reflected in decreased TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) in pectoralis major (PM ) ,iliotibialis (IL) and liver of ascorbic acid-Î±-tocopherol-supplemented chickens and likewise in liver from oregano-supplemented chickens compared to that of nonstressed control birds. However, postmortem temperature, pH, and water-holding capacity were not affected by supplementation. Drip loss from oregano-supplemented chickens showed increased protein oxidation in specific bands, but this did not relate to water-holding capacity or antioxidative status. When exposed to stress, the concentration of TBARS in the control animals increased in PM and IL. Ascorbic acid-Î±- tocopherol supplementation
protected IL, and oregano supplementation protected PM from stress-induced increases in TBARS. This differential effect between muscles may indicate differences in protection
mechanisms. In conclusion, ascorbic acid-Î±-tocopherol and oregano supplements to chickens protect against stress-induced increase in TBARS, in different muscles.
Abulude et al. 2006 determined the Anatomical weight, proximate composition, selected mineral contents and sensory evaluation in male and female pigeon birds ( Columba guinea G) found in Akure, Nigeria using standard methods . The species analyzed individually , were high in protein (60.63-66.92%), fat (13.28-15.34%) and ash (11.17-15.54%). Moisture, fibre, and carbohydrate contents varied within a narrow range. The mean energy level was 386.93 Â± 30.45 Kcal. The mineral contents were highly variable. The abundant elements were Na, K, Ca and Mg and the remaining elements were present in amounts below toxic levels, while Cd was not detected. The sensory scores in terms of juiciness, attractiveness, tenderness, texture and flavor revealed that these samples were good for consumption. The chemical values indicate good quality protein and dietary minerals.
Sheldon et al .2007 studied , the effect of varying dietary vitamin E levels on the oxidative stability, flavor, color, and volatile profiles of refrigerated and frozen turkey
breast meat was examined. Breast meat was excised from four carcasses per treatment and evaluated after refrigeration (1 and 7 d) or frozen storage (30, 90,150 d) for oxidative
stability and sensory quality by Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) analysis, descriptive flavor profiling, and headspace gas chromatography. The TBA values were inversely related to the dietary vitamin E levels. Refrigerated samples had TBA values 78 to 88% lower for the 10Â´ and 25Â´ vitamin E treatments, respectively, than for the NRC control treatment. No differences in TBA values (refrigerated samples) were detected for the 10Â´, 25Â´, and 20Â´ (3 wk feeding duration) or across all treatments for samples frozen for 5 mo. The 10Â´ and 25Â´ NRC diets produced the most typical and acceptable turkey meat flavors with the fewest oxidized off-flavor notes for both fresh and frozen samples as opposed to the more oxidized flavor notes detected in the control samples. Mean color scores increased, indicative of less pale meat, as the level and duration of feeding dietary vitamin E increased. These findings showed that varying dietary vitamin E levels significantly influenced the oxidative stability and functionality of turkey breast meat.
Dsemeth and Messeyne (1981), studied that the fatty acid pattern of the triglyceroides (TG) and phospholipids(PHL) from liver, adipose tissue and crop of the pigeon at various stages of posthatching development and determined the influence of the changing diet. In each tissue and at all ages PHL contained more stearic and polyenoic but less monoenoic acids than the corresponding TG. Especially in the young squabs the acid composition of the liver (TG as well as PHL) is different from that of the adipose tissue and the crop. In each tissue and at all ages of pigeons, the TG had a relatively simple fatty acid pattern consisting mainly of Ci6 and C,ÂÂ»components and containing more palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) acid but only trace amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated acids compared to the corresponding PHL. This class contained a higher amount of stearic (18:0) and linoleic (18:2) acid and up to 31% (liver at hatching) C20 and C22 polyenoic acids, mainly arachidonic (20:4) and docosahexaenoic (22:6).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
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The study will be conducted at following laboratories :
Research Laboratory , Department of Zoology, GC University Faisalabad
Pesticide Chemistry Lab, Plant Protection Division ,Nuclear Institute For Agriculture And Biology (NIAB) .
Specimen Collection :
Random samples of domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) and wild pigeons (Columba livia livia ) will be procured from local supplier at Faisalabad city.
Preparation Of Samples:
The selected pigeons will be slaughtered ,defeathered and excised to take out four body parts ( Chest, Wings, legs & liver ) .
Proximate analysis of the samples for moisture , Protein ,Fat , ash and minerals will be done according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists; AOAC(2000) .
Analysis For Tocopherol & Fatty Acid
For the analysis of Tocopherol & Fatty acids composition, following methodology will be adopted :
Blending / mixing of Flesh:
High Speed blender ( Braun Multimix MX_32 , Germany ) will be used to mix flesh thoroughly .
Extraction Of Fat From Pigeon Flesh:
The extraction of fat will be done by using Soxhlet apparatus .25g of each sample will be taken in extraction thimbles .And 125 ml of n_hexane will be taken in 250ml round bottom flask (Quickfit).The extraction will be proceeded for 12 cycles to collect complete oil .
Concentration of oil :
From the extract of n_hexane and oil , n_hexane will be evaporated by using rotary evaporation apparatus . The extract will be transferred to Round bottom flask, and then will be evaporated the content of n-hexane at appropriate temperature of water bath (60°c) under suction up to dryness.
Preparation Of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME)- Fatty Acid Analysis -:
Preparation of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and Fatty acid analysis will be done by using Official Method and recommended practices of American Oil Chemists Society ;AOCS(1993) .
Tocopherol Analysis :
For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of tocopherol HPLC coupled with Fluorescence detector will be used (Gliszczynsha - Swiglo and Sikorsha ,2004) .Analysis of Tocopherol will be done by using all HPLC analysis of tocopherols at room temperature on waters 600 high performance liquid chromatograph(Waters , Millford ,M.A,USA). For determination of tocopherols in oils , a mobile phase consisting of 50 % acetonitrile (Solvent A ) And 50 % of methanol (Solvent B ) was used with the flow rate 1ml / min. Injection volume was 20 Âµl ; rheodyne injection was used .
Tocopherols were identified by using their retention times with those of corresponding standards and by spiking of samples with appropriate standards .