Exploring The Concept Of Aquafarming Biology Essay

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The cultivation of marine species is also an ancient practice. Following in the footsteps of the Egyptians, the Romans also developed aquaculture practices as they are known to have cultivated oysters. All of the early forms of aquaculture differed greatly from much of the aquaculture practiced today. Fish farming in its modern form was first introduced in 1733 when a German farmer successfully gathered fish eggs, fertilized them, and then grew and raised the fish that hatched. To do this, male and female trout were collected when they were ready for spawning. The eggs and sperm were pressed from their bodies and mixed under favourable conditions. After hatching, the fishlings were taken to tanks or ponds in which they were cultivated. Initially this "fish farming" was limited to freshwater fish. In the 20th century new techniques were developed to successfully breed saltwater species.

Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practised in marine environments.

Particular kinds of aquaculture include fish farming, shrimp farming, oyster farming, algaculture (such as seaweed farming), and the cultivation of ornamental fish. Particular methods include aquaponics, which integrates fish farming and plant farming.



A fish is any aquatic vertebrate animal that is covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. Most fish are "cold-blooded", or ectothermic, allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change. Fish species raised by fish farms include salmon, bigeye tuna, carp, tilapia, catfish and cod.


Shellfish is a culinary and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.

Molluscs include many species of clams, mussels, oysters, winkles, and scallops.

Crustaceans commonly eaten are shrimp, prawn, lobster, crayfish, and crabs.

Echinoderms a phylum of marine animals. Echinoderms are found at every ocean depth, from the intertidal zone to the abyssal zone. However sea urchin roe is quite popular in many parts of the world.


Aquatic plants, also called hydrophytic plants or hydrophytes, are plants that have adapted to living in or on aquatic environments. Because living on or underwater surface requires special adaptations, aquatic plants can only grow in water or permanently saturated soil. Aquatic vascular plants can be ferns or angiosperms. Seaweeds are not vascular plants but multicellular marine algae, and therefore not typically included in the category of aquatic plants. Plant has less need to regulate transpiration. Many species of aquatic plant are invasive species. Aquatic plants make particularly good weeds because they reproduce vegetatively from fragments


Leeches are annelids comprising the subclass Hirudinea. There are freshwater, terrestrial, and marine leeches. Leeches are hematophagous. Although most leeches do not feed on human blood, but instead prey on small invertebrates, which they eat whole.

Frogs are amphibians. Most frogs are characterized by a short body, webbed digits (fingers or toes), protruding eyes and the absence of a tail. Due to their permeable skin, frogs are often semi-aquatic or inhabit humid areas, but move easily on land. Adult frogs follow a carnivorous diet, mostly of arthropods, annelids and gastropods. The distribution of frogs ranges from tropic to subarctic regions, but most species are found in tropical rainforests.  

Crocodile is any species belonging to the family Crocodylidae. Member species of the family Crocodylidae are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. Crocodiles tend to congregate in freshwater habitats like rivers, lakes, wetlands and sometimes in brackish water. They feed mostly on vertebrates like fish, reptiles, and mammals, sometimes on invertebrates like mollusks and crustaceans, depending on species.

Tortoises or land turtles are land-dwelling reptiles of the family of Testudinidae, order Testudines. Like their marine cousins, the sea turtles, tortoises are shielded from predators by a shell. The top part of the shell is the carapace, the underside is the plastron, and the two are connected by the bridge. The tortoise has both an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton.



Brackish water may result from mixing of seawater with fresh water, it may occur in brackish fossil aquifers. It has more salinity than fresh water. Certain human activities can produce brackish water, in particular certain civil engineering projects. Brackish water is also the primary waste product of the salinity gradient power process.


Fresh water may come from either a surface or ground source, and typically contains less than 1% sodium chloride. Freshwater creates a hypotonic environment for aquatic organisms. This is problematic for some organisms with pervious skins or with gill membranes.


Seawater typically contains about 3.5% sodium chloride. The 3.5% salt content of seawater produces the most corrosive chloride salt solution. Seawater is normally more corrosive than fresh water. The rate of corrosion is controlled by the chloride content, oxygen availability, and the temperature


The role of aquaculture in ensuring a consistent supply of aquatic species for human consumption cannot be overstated. Medical research into the health benefits of frequently eating fish is plentiful. One popular buzz word within the healthy eating movement is Omega-3 fatty acids, which are typically found in most fish. Multiple research studies indicate these fatty acids help reduce many forms of cancer and promote healthy brain tissue. Eating fish regularly has also been shown to reduce the risk of heart disease through reducing the probability of clot formation, lowering blood pressure and increasing the good cholesterol levels in the blood stream.

Advances in feed formulations and production technology have raised the productivity and sustainability in aquaculture. Planton can be used to stabilize pond water quality and to lower the content of toxic compounds.It can also increase and stabilize water temperature. Besides that,aquaculture also serves as a source of employment. It prevents over fishing since fishes continue to reproduce and helps in the reduction of the extinct of species of fish or other sea creatures.aquafarming allow better use of wetland so it support export-foreign exchange & positive Balance of Trade.For food security Pharmaceutical product & Biotechnology such as chlorella tablet.Then,it can utilizing land unsuitable for agriculture and utilizing inland water bodies such as shallow lakes.

Other important is an increasing the supply of highly valued species and improving the reliability of fish supplied in the marketplace.So it will offsetting losses in the capture fisheries or innative fish populations.Lastly,it servicing the sport fishing industry and controlling parasites like mosquito and snail larvae that cause diseases such as dengue fever and malaria.



Carrageenan, as known as carrageenins, is defined as a linear sulfated polysaccharides which are extracted from algae (Irish moss) or red seaweeds.

Carrageenans are large, highly flexible molecules which curls forming helical structures. This properties gives ability for carrageenan to form a variety of different gels at room temperature. There are four main types of carrageenan, that are Kappa, Kappa 2, Iota and Lambda.

Carrageenan is widely use in the food and the other industries as thickening and stabilizing agents. It can be used in the preparation of certain wines and beers to produce good clarity. Many processed sliced meats, poultry and seafood are enriched with carrageenan as a water binding, improve texture, fat replacement and tolerant to high levels of salt. Carrageenan may also be marketed in its jelled form as a personal lubricant.

Some use carrageenan to make foods like vegetarian marshmallows, to gel jelly, or stabilize desserts like ice cream and milk shakes. It provides wide range of textures and flavour release, all without the need for refrigeration. For marbling work, the ancient art of paper and fabric marbling uses carrageenan mixture to float paints or inks upon the paper or fabric. The paper or fabric is then laid on it, absorbing the colors.


Agar or agar-agar is a gelatinous substance derived from red algae. This gelling agent is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the cell walls of some species of red algae, primarily from the genera Gelidium and Gracilaria, or seaweed (Sphaerococcus euchema).

Agar-agar is a natural vegetable gelatin counterpart. White and semi-translucent, it is sold in packages as washed and dried strips or in powdered form. It can be used to make jellies, puddings, and custards. Other than that, it is widely used as a laxative, a thickener for soups, in jellies, ice cream and other desserts, as a clarifying agent in brewing, and for paper sizing fabrics. Besides, it is also used as an impression material in dentistry, make salt bridges for use in electrochemistry and as a transparent substitute for sand and a source of nutrition in formicariums (ant farm).


Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit) that found in exoskeletons of crucstaceans. Chitosan is produced by removing the shells from shellfish such as shrimp, lobster and crabs.

In agriculture, chitosan is used primarily as a plant growth enhancer to boost the ability of plants to defend against fungal infections. It is used as insecticides, feeds to promote growth of livestock and fishes. Moreover, chitosan helps improves colour of sauces and sediments of vinegar, treat waste water and eliminate heavy metals.

For biomedical use, chitosan is used to make bandages and other hemostatic agents as it has a properties of allowing blood clotting rapidly. Contact lens, artificial skin, surgical sutures, artificial dialyzer and artificial blood vessels contain chitosan too. Besides, chitosan can also be used to heal scars and wounds. For functional food uses, chitosan act as prevention of ageing, enhancement of resistance, balancing of automatic and synthetic nerves and regulating of hormone levels of men and women.


Alginate, also called algin or alginic acid, is an anionic polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where it, through binding water, forms a viscous gum. It absorbs water quickly in extracted form and it is capable of absorbing 200-300 times its own weight in water. Its colour ranges from white to yellowish-brown. It is sold in filamentous, granular or powdered forms.

Similarly, alginate is use in manufacture of different products. It is used as an addictive in dehydrated products like slimming aids and also manufacture of paper and textiles. It is also used for waterproofing and fireproofing fabrics, as a gelling agent, and in food industry, act for thickening drinks, ice cream, soups, jellies and cosmetics products. Calcium alginate is used for burn dressings that promote healing and can be removed with less pain than conventional dressings. Other than that, alginate is also used in culinary arts, most notably in the esterification techniques, where natural juices of fruits and vegetables are encapsulated in bubbles that "explode" on the tongue when consumed. One of the most obvious examples is the use of alginate to make apple caviar.


Hirudin is a naturally occurring peptide in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches (such as Hirudo medicinalis) that has a blood anticoagulant property. This is fundamental for the leeches' alimentary habit of hematophagy, since it keeps the blood flowing after the initial phlebotomy performed by the worm on the host's skin.

Hirudin is the most potent natural inhibitor of thrombin. Hirudin binds to and inhibits only the activity of thrombin forms with a specific activity on fibrinogen. Therefore, hirudin prevents or dissolves the formation of clots and thrombi and has therapeutic value in blood coagulation disorders, in the treatment of skin hematomas and of superficial varicose veins, either as an injectable or a topical application cream. In some aspects, hirudin has advantages over more commonly used anticoagulants and thrombolytics, such as heparin, as it does not interfere with the biological activity of other serum proteins and can also act on complexed thrombin.


A pearl is a hard calcium carbonate produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk, such as an oyster, clam or mussel. Just like the shell of a mollusk, a pearl is made up of calcium carbonate in minute crystalline form, which has been deposited in concentric layers. The value of the pearls in jewelry is determined by a combination of the luster, color, size, lack of surface flaw and symmetry that are appropriate for the type of pearl under consideration. Among those attributes, luster is the most important differentiator of pearl quality according to jewelers. The unique luster of pearls depends upon the reflection, refraction, and diffraction of light from the translucent layers. The thinner and more numerous the layers in the pearl, the finer the luster.

The ideal round pearls are the rarest and most valuable shape, but many other shapes of pearls occur. Pearls come in eight basic shapes: round, semi-round, button, drop, pear, oval, baroque, and circled. It can be dyed yellow, green, blue, brown, pink, purple, or black.



Solar Feeders

Solar feeders are an automatic feeders for controlled feeding. The model "STANDARD" is delivered with a (600 mA) solar panel, which supplies a motor with the needed energy. This feeds without battery, without electronic, (some seconds, some seconds pause) from sunrise to sunset (also on rainy days). The daily feeding amount (1-5 mm Pellet) is adjustable from 0.1 kg up to 100 kg/day.

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Pendulum Feeders

The model "PENDULUMFEEDER" is a self feeder for 1-5 mm pellets with a disc. When the fish touch the pendulum, the feed falls from the disc directly into the water. The slot between feeder and disc can be adjusted. As accessory a tube or ring holder hopper support is available.

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Vertical Incubators for Salmonid Eggs

This vertical incubator guarantees safe rearing conditions and is available with 4, 8 or 16 trays approx. 60 x 60 cm made from strong non toxic plastic material and includes the aluminium frames and all egg trays with PVC coated polyester screens. This incubator for the professional breeding and hatching of eggs and fry can be combined and arranged in different ways, to utilise the water and space as effectively as possible. The water from the inlet, flows through the trays on which the eggs stays, and leaves the water tray over the front during the side canals to the next tray, were it flows again through the egg tray and so on, so that all trays will be supplied with sufficient oxygen. Without disturbing the other trays, each tray can be drawn out and controlled easily.

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Illuminated submerged net cages for the fingerling production with natural zooplankton. The production method is based on plankton feeding in the natural environment like: lagoons, bays, fjords, lakes and large ponds, by means of attracting the organisms using a lamp located in the center of fine meshed submerged nets. Mainly Copepods and Cladoceres - but also a variety of other zooplankton organisms are photo sensitive and steadily swarm into the cages towards the light source.

The 2x2x2 m net cages are manufactured from highly resistant mono-filament polyester, is fitted with a zipper for easy access and a conduit for the electric cable. The net cage is stretched onto a strong stainless steel or aluminum frame. An efficient Solar-Generator is supplied for remote site operation. The operation and maintenance is limited to the functional control of the system, a periodic cleaning with a portable high pressure cleaner, in order to prevent clogging effects, caused by detritus, algae and faeces, and the observations of the plankton development in the location.  The system is environmentally safe since no feeds or fertilizer are applied, the construction materials are inert, and the plankton consumption is minimal and does not affect the natural stocks.

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These waterproof (IP67) and pocket size testers (153 mm long, 24 mm diameter, weight just 45 g) with digital display are ideal for aquaria or aquaculture and any other field applications. There are different models with replaceable electrode and automatic temperature compensation available that read conductivity or salinity, pH-value and temperature or redox potential at an affordable price. The tester are factory calibrated, but can be manually calibrated and measurements are highly accurate with high resolution (1,00 to 0,01). The modular design allows easy electrode and battery replacement. A rugged splash-proof and floating casing prevents water infiltration. All the testers work with common batteries (3 x 1.5 V) and have a long live.

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Aluminium Boats are for fisheries and water sports. This multi-purpose boats are made of seawater resistant aluminium, welded with modern technologies and need no antifouling. The integrated floats secure this boats are unsinkable. As accessory the following is available: Stand with steering, Build-in-tank, Electro-outfitings, Swimming ladder, Reeling and Persenning etc. The smaller recreational boats Type A are made as multi part and can be divided for transport (to 125x135x55 cm) or also extended on demand by additional body modules. The larger working boats Type C are made in double wall and are verified by Lloyd's Register in Hamburg and have the EU-conformity certificate (CE-Module-C).

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This "ECO" injector is a new developed static aerator for the water inlet pipe in tanks, raceways and small ponds, that works hydraulically and has no moving parts. It is designed to ensure cost-effective use of any viable water source. For degassing, aeration, oxygenation and dosing with chemicals (thereby avoiding the slightest wastage and maximizing efficiency). In enriching the water with air or pure oxygen, this aerator can create good circulation with a lesser amount of water than is usually supplied, with consequent energy savings. It works hydraulically exploiting the act the water passing through it at high speed achieved by means of suitable flow rates and pressures with the special 3 interchangeable nozzles and creates a great pressure drop and consequently a tremendous suction capacity, without introducing additional energy. This injector is also available with 12 V DC (3.5 A) submersible plastic pump, if no pressure is available, or it can be connected to any pump.

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Table 1 Fish Production from Marine Landings and Marine Aquaculture in the Year 2000-2004

The table above show the data about the fish production from marine landings and marine aquaculture in the year 2000-2004. It show that the total volume of fish production decrease at the year of 2001 but keeping increase after year 2001.

Figure 1 Quantity and Value from Mariculture Production Based on Commodities in 2004

Figure 2 Annual production and contribution according to system from brackish water culture sector, 2004

The bar chart and pie chart above show the annual production and contribution according to system from brackish water culture sector, 2004. The pie chart show that Malaysia produce the most production of cockle that is 44%.


For the selection criteria for aquaculture organism ,the first criteria is suitability to local environment. A suitable environment play an important role for the aquaculture organisms .The local environment require to climate , water quality and the others .A suitable climate will make sure that the organisms will growth rapidly .Water quality also very important for the growth of organisms. So, we must make sure that the organisms that we want to feed must suitable to the local environment.

The next criteria is growth rate. We must preferably the organisms that have rapid growth rate to reach market size in a short time. For the high value species ,slow growth rate is not a problem. Rapid growth rate is an important factor in select aquaculture organisms. With a high growth rate, we can always fulfill the demand of market and become more competitive if compare with others company.

Feeding habits also a selection criteria for aquaculture organisms .Organisms that feeds low in the trophic level require cheaper diets. Ability to take artificial feed is a big advantage over live feeds. Feeding habits require to the food chain between the aquaculture organisms and the environment.

The next selection criteria is reproductive biology. The organisms must be able to breed in captivity. Species with high fecundity (large number of eggs per spawn or multiple spawning per season) is desirable. The aquaculture organisms that we feed must be able to breed to increase the number of organisms.

Hardiness is also a selection criteria for aquaculture organisms .We need to choose species that can adapt to culture stresses and maintain high survival and growth. The aquaculture organisms that we feed must have high immunization. When got any disease happen, we will not face the problem to produce the organisms.

The other criteria is marketing. We need to feed the culture species that has market demand .The species must can be marketed in various forms and added value products.



Static freshwater ponds

Ordinary fresh water fish culture ponds are still-water ponds. They vary a great deal in waterspread area and depth. Some are seasonal and some perennial. The ponds may be rainfed (also called sky ponds) or may have inlet and outlet systems. The water supply may be from a stream or a canal or from an underground source such as wells, tubewells etc. The water retentivity of the ponds depends on soil composition of the pond bottom and subsoil water level.

Brackishwater ponds

The principle of operation of brackishwater ponds is different from those of freshwater ponds. Here the pond or the farm is essentially located on a tidal creek or stream and there is a system of sluices to control the ingress and egress of water into and from the ponds. Examples are: Milkfish farms in Philippines.


Mariculture is aquafarming in the saltwater of the sea. It may be in seas, bays, bayes, sounds etc. For examples, traditional mariculture in inshore and offshore waters by a large number of countries notably, U.S.A, Japan etc. Though a new development, it has assumed considerable importance and has great potential Examples, mariculture of several species of salmonids, Salmo salar, Seriola quinaueradiata etc.


Running water culture use adequate supply of well-oxygenated water and inexpensive and nutritious feed. Its advantages: arevery dense stocking, abundant supply of dissolved oxygen, easy removal of waste products, high rates of production but requirement of large volumes of water, dependence on artificial feed, high initial cost, energy wastage in swimming against currents.


Raceway and tank culture is feasible only if large quantities of cheap, high-quality water are available for a "once-through" or "open" system. The shape of raceway most are rectangular, however, a few are circular. Some farmer establish a system of raceways making use of the contour of the land. Raceway may be of concrete, block, tile, bricks or other durable material or be earthen. Raceway can be used in rearing almost any type of fish but are utilized almost exclusively in trout production and to a lesser degree with catfish. The major disadvantage of raceways is the high initial cost of raceways, materials used in construction and availability of good water at an economical rate.


Cage culture is an aquaculture production system where fish are held in floating net pens. Cages are widely used in commercial aquaculture overseas and individual cage units come in all shapes and sizes and can be tailored to suit individual farmer's needs. Cage units can be purchased through commercial outlets, but can also be made from readily available construction materials such as polypipe, wood or steel. Cages can be used in both freshwater and marine environments. The advantages of cage culture are it use existing waterbodies, technical simplicity with hich farms can be establish or expanded.

Cage Systems:

Intensive & Semi-intensive

Intensive and semi-intensive cage culture systems are those where fish are stocked at high densities and are fed on artificial diets. Appropriate stocking densities will depend on the species stocked and prevailing environmental conditions.


Extensive systems are those which rely on the natural productivity of the water and require no external feeding. MAFRI has used extensive cage culture to successfully grow goldfish and carp in wastewater however, the species options for this type of aquaculture are limited as many of the likely candidates are exotic and bio-security cannot be ensured in cage culture.


Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture. It includes crop rotation, multi-cropping, intercropping, companion planting, beneficial weeds, and alley cropping.

Polyculture is one of the principles of permaculture. It is the practice of culturing more than one species of aquatic organism in the same pond. Polyculture combine fish having different feeding habits in proportions that effectively utilize these natural foods. As a result, higher yields are obtained. Polyculture began in China more than 1000 years ago. The practice has spread throughout southeast Asia, and into other parts of the world.


Monoculture means the use of land for growing only one type of plant, or the plant culture that results from such use. The practice of monoculture on a landscape thus has an effect that is the opposite of biodiversity, and can sometimes be responsible for the spread of plant diseases. Examples, Japanese knotweed is an example of a weed that forms a monoculture.

This term is also frequently borrowed for other uses, such as raising one species of livestock in a factory farm, or even in fields other than agriculture to describe any group dominated by a single variety.



Raft are constructed using bamboo tied together with monofilament nylon or GI wire and provided with plastic drums as floaters. Rafts are installed parallel to the flow of tide. Ropes are hung on the raft, and weighed down to prevent them from floating. Raft method is used in protected areas as in the Seto Inland sea of Japan.


The long-line system has horizontal lines attached to wooden barrels or metal drums at or near the surface from which strings of seed oysters are suspended. The long-line system is used in offshore grounds. The system can withstand rough sea which might destroy rafts.

Raft and long line methods are most productive as they minimise losses by predation and maximize production.


Seed oysters are attached to wooden sticks riven into bottom in the intertidal zone. Stake method is in areas about 2m deep during low tide, the slender ends of the full-length bamboos are staked firmly to the bottom in rows. The two rows are connected by short horizontal bamboo support forming a rough square with long beam. The entire series of squares are good for a long plot. Several plots are made, leaving sufficient rowing space between plots.


In the on bottom method, oysters are directly placed on the bottom. This is commonly used in the east coast of Scotland along with long-line and raft methods.

In both stake and on-bottom method, crawling predators take a toll of oysters.



The integrated layer chicken-fish farming operation is undertaken with the commercial strain of layers where the birds are kept at the floor over the pond. Though this integrated system of farming requires skilled management for both layer chicken and fish but it proves economically and technically viable at farmers condition. Recently cage rearing of layers over the fish pond has been introduced. In this case droppings drop directly to the pond without any wastage. INTEGRATED BROILER-FISH FARMING

Integrated broiler-fish farming is a successful system practiced in the country in a small number. The economics analysis of this integrated system showed that this is economically and technically highly viable. But this system has got some limitation in rural areas of Bangladesh. The regular supply of day-old chicks with two month interval and marketing of broilers could pose problems in the rural areas. INTEGRATED GOAT-CUM-FISH FARMING

Intensive goat raising are increasing due to high mutton cost. Manure from goat and sheep is also potential for integrated animal-fish farming system but this is not yet used in widespread integration with fish culture. Libunao (1990) reported that the fish feed produced in the ponds with goat manure is efficiently utilized by the fish biomass. He also mentioned that the growth of tilapia increased with the rate of goat manure loading. Goat-fish farming is being practiced by the one NGO name "Bangladesh Mission" in Bangladesh. INTEGRATED RICE-CUM-FISH FARMING

Culturing fish and growing rice together in the same paddy fields is an old practice in Asia and the Far East. The integrated culture of captural wild fish into rice fields in fresh water or estuarine areas of different regions of Bangladesh is an old practice.


Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are the newest form of fish farming production system and typically an indoor system that allows for farmers to control environmental conditions year round. While the costs constructing a RAS are higher than either pond or cage culture. This system water goes waste whereas here the same water is reused. In this system, water is filtered continuously and recirculated, often after aeration, to the fish pond.


The aquaculture industry is fast expanding around the globe and causing major environmental and social disruptions. Since aquaculture has spread rapidly, it can be damaging environmentally. Despite the environmental concerns, profitable aquaculture can funnel money into promoting sustainable practices. The economic viability of aquaculture can be improved by increasing per yield reducing cost of production and procuring better price for producer by qualitative improvement of the produce and creating better marketing facilities, strategy and channels. Aquafarming should be cultivated to a beneficial level to ensure food safety and supplies for people in the future.