Oxidative stress resulting from the toxic effects of free radicals on the tissue plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Production of free radicals may be greatly induced by exogenous factors like environmental pollutants, drugs, radiation , and pathogens . these reactive oxygen species(R.O.S) create a homeostatic imbalance which generates oxidative stress and causes cell death and tissue injury .. Involvement of R.O.S is implicated in neurodegenerative and other disorders such as alzheimers disease , parkinsons disease , multiple scelorsis , down syndrome , inflammation , viral infection , autoimmune pathology and digestive ulcers . To circumvent the damage caused by R.O.S, multiple defense systems collectively called antioxidants are present, with protective efficiency. Depending on the balance between R.O.S and the availability of antioxidants in the microenvironment of the cell. Antioxidant approach to disease management holds potential as most of the diseases are mediated through reactive oxygen species, also with rapid advancement of civilization , industrialization , overpopulation , there has been proptional rise in stressors1.
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Modern man is exposed to stressors like atmospheric pollution, food adulteration , highly ambitious and competitive lifestyle and synthetic drugs . Homeostatic mechanism is geared towards counteracting the everyday stressing living. if the stress is extreme , long lasting or unusual , the normal mechanism may not be sufficient . In this case the stress triggers a wide set of bodily changes, called the general adaptation syndrome G.A.S . There is a large and relatively consistent literature on the effects of stress on the physical and mental illness and infections. Body reacts to such a situation by eliciting various autonomic and visceral and endocrinal responses in a variety of situations for example release of hormones like cortisol and adrenalin , disruption of gastric mucosal integrity has been reported during stress. Bot h peripheral and central mechanism seen to regulate these changes 2. These lead to increased heart rate,B.P, and metabolic rate . All intended to increase the performance and the ability to
reduce stress. . But beyond threshold these factors can be damaging . Stress has been postulated to be involved in the pathogenesis of variety of diseased states , for example psychiatric disorders like depression , endrocrine disorders , including diabetes mellitus , male impotency , cognitive dysfunction , peptic ulcer , hypertension and ulcerative colitis . The stress effects are determined by the duration rather than the intensity of stressful stimuli. Therefore chronic mild stress is more damaging than acute transient stress.
There are a number of formulations available in the modern medicine that are effective against mental and physical disorders in stress. Modern medical practitioners prescribe antianxiety drugs like benzodiazepines in stress., which are intended for symptomatic relief rather than dealing with the root cause and stress.
They have limited role in prevention of the stress disorder because they cause sedation ,euphoria and periodic paralysis and may even cause tolerance and physical dependence on prolonged use. Moreover they are not effective against chronic stress induced in behavior, depressed immunity and cognition and male sexual dysfunction.. Evidence of impaired immune function has been conclusively shown in both experimental and clinical stressful situations.
In Indigenous system of medicine , there are a number of herbal drugs and formulations available , to withstand stress without altering any physiological function of the body . These drugs improve physical, mental health, resistance of the body to infection and other external factors , which perturb the homeostasis of human systems . Drugs showing such activities are called as adaptogens2. .
The present work deals with the evaluation of certain ayurved an ad siddha drugs for Antioxidant and adaptogenic activity . The ayurved and siddha system of medicine includes several plants that are categorized as Rasayanas and are agents that promote health and longevity by augmenting defense against disease , arresting aging , revitalizing the body in debilated conditions and increasing the capability of indivual to resist the adverse environmental factors . The kayakarpam therapy in Siddha acts by imparting absolute immunity to disease . 3-6
The very meaning of Kayakarpam or kayakalpam , Rasayana as it is termed in ayurveda as it is termed in Ayurveda or rejuvenation refers to nutrition and its transportation in the body. Such a state of improved nutrition is claimed to lead to a series of secondary attributes like prevention of ageing , improved longevity , immunity against diseases , increased vitaility and lusture of the body . They emphasize more on preventive aspects and refusing the diseases through Kalpam and Kalpa sadanai . The bestowing of longevity is attained through karpa Aviltham .Karpa medicines and karpa Yogam ( Regimens of life ) . Amuri , Muppu are indicated as primordial preparations used in Kayakarpa procedure and are mixed with every other Siddha formulation to improve the efficacy . Siddha is a traditional medical system of India. It is of Dravidian origin and has its entire literature in Tamil language. Its origin is also traced to mythological sources belonging to the ancient tradition. Siddha system of medicine is used to cure fungal infections, cough,
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cold, diarrhea and fever. Siddha system is very effective in treating ailments such as
Varieties of joint diseases, skin diseases, liver problems and urinary tract infections. They
are also known for rejuvenate, antioxidant and adaptogenic properties. In Siddha
Medicine the use of metals and minerals are more predominant in comparison to other
Indian traditional medicine systems. The use of more metals and chemicals was justified
by the fact that to preserve the body from decomposing materials that do not decompose
easily should be used. The other reason perhaps was that the south Indian rivers were not
perennial and herbs were not available all through the year. One of such preparation is
The aimof this study
Kayakarpa drugs are potent preparations that might prove to be right alternatives to address some untackled present day diseases and conditions .Tthey can be good resources to improve general immunity and prevent diseases. In Siddha literature the preparations called amuri , Muppu are highly acclaimed Kayakarpa preparations .T carry out the pharmacological screening is the objective of the study
Siddha system of medicine is one of the oldest medical systems of India . the palm leaf literature could be traced in Tamil dating back 3100. b.c giving a detail account of the intensive work done by Siddhas of south India . In modern days Siddha system of medicine is declined due to lack of scientific proof . By providing rational proof to the formulations and standardizing their way of preparation and carrying out various studies with the experimental dataâ€™s would help in re-establishing their claim which otherwise would become extinct. By the above work we can provide universal acceptance and usefulness to this system of medicine and give recognition to this ancient system of medicine.
The Primary objective of the study involves evaluation of theAyurvedic drugs and traditional siddha preparation for antioxidant and adaptogenic activity (Part A)
The second part of the study involves the detail chemical investigation of the bioactive fraction ( Part B)