Evaluation For Effect On Glucose Diffusion Biology Essay

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Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia that is induced by decreased cellular glucose uptake and metabolism. Control of plasma glucose concentrations is vital to decrease the incidence and severity of long term diabetic complications. Currently dietary changes, oral hypoglycemic agents as insulin injections are utilized to prevent hyperglycemia.

Plants represent a vast source of dietary supplements for improving blood glucose control. Part of the antihyperglycemic action of antidiabetic plants may be by decreasing glucose absorption invivo . The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the methanolic extract of the plant on glucose movement across a dialysis membrane into external solution, which can be a convenient model for assessing glucose absorption invitro2.

Evaluation of plant extract for its effects on glucose diffusion:2

A simple model was used to evaluate the effects of plant extracts on glucose movement invitro .This involved the use of a sealed dialysis tube(6cm x 15mm) into which 15ml of a solution of D-glucose(1 mg/100ml) and 2ml of NaCl (0.15M) was introduced and appearance of glucose in the external solution was measured. The dialysis tube was sealed at each end with a dialysis membrane and placed in a 100ml beaker containing 45ml of 0.15M NaCl .The tubes were kept at room temperature (30±2ᵒC ) . The movement of glucose into the external solution was monitored. In the first series, the experiment was conducted in the absence of the plant extract (50gm/litre) and the concentration of glucose diffused was measured in the external solution at the end of 6 hours by glucose oxidase-peroidase method colorimetically.

Comparison of the effects of newly synthesised chalcones with that of the plant extract on glucose diffusion:

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The second experimental series investigated the effects of newly synthesised chalcones(AC1 -AC12 and BC1-BC7 ) on glucose diffusion. Under similar conditions, at the end of 6 hours, the amount of glucose in the external solution was measured for each individual chalcone to evaluate its antidiabetic activity and also to compare it with the effect shown by the flower extract which is chalcone containing.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

In the present study, a dialysis membrane based evaluation was used to study glucose diffusion. The movement of glucose is measured from internal solution (NaCl) to external solution. This is assumed to be similar to the glucose diffusion across the gastrointestinal tract. Mechanisms playing role in release and transport of glucose across the intestinal brush border membrane down to the blood stream have attracted much attention to control PPHG (postprandial hyperglycemia). Majority of the studies reported the potential use of antidiabetic medicinal plants on inhibition of glucose transport. Drugs that reduce PPHG by suppressing the absorption of carbohydrate are effective in prevention and treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

First, the amount of glucose that diffuses from the dialysis tube under standard experimental conditions , in the absence of any drug is measured. That was found to be 166mg/dL. This was treated as control. Next, the methanolic flower extract was added and the glucose diffusion was measured. It was seen that in the presence of the plant extract , the glucose diffusion was reduced by 40%. This can be due to the chalcone (2',4-dihydroxy chalcone-4-glucoside) present in the flower extract.

Table : 5

Comparison of the effect of chalcones synthesised by scheme I with plant extract

S.No.

Compound

Time

Concentration of Glucose (mg/dL)

1

Absence of drug

6 Hrs

166

2

Plant Extract

6 hrs

100

3

AC1

6 Hrs

113

4

AC2

6 hrs

104

5

AC3

6 Hrs

113

6

AC4

6 hrs

109

7

AC5

6 Hrs

118

8

AC6

6 hrs

100

9

AC7

6 Hrs

119

10

AC8

6 hrs

114

11

AC9

6 Hrs

123

12

AC10

6 hrs

109

13

AC11

6 Hrs

119

14

AC­12

6 hrs

123

In the second set of experiments, the plant extract was substituted with each of the newly synthesised chalcones AC1-AC12 & BC1-BC7 , under similar experimental conditions. The glucose diffusion was monitored for 6 hours and the concentration of glucose was measured at the end of the study period. All the synthesised chalcones exhibited antidiabetic activity. Among the newly synthesised chalcones that were studied AC6 [(2Z)-1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one )] shows antidiabetic activity equal to that of the plant extract (40%). But the compound BC2[(2E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one] shows less antidiabetic activity than the other compounds (20%).

Table :6

Comparison of the effect of chalcones synthesised by scheme II with plant extract

S.No.

Compound

Time

Concentration of Glucose (mg/dL)

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1

Absence of drug

6 Hrs

166

2

Plant Extract

6 hrs

100

3

BC1

6 Hrs

114

4

BC2

6 hrs

133

5

BC3

6 Hrs

109

6

BC4

6 hrs

114

7

BC5

6 Hrs

114

8

BC6

6 hrs

109

9

BC7

6 Hrs

123

Modern pharmaceuticals are typically oral dosage forms containing single synthetic chemicals, which have potent clinical activity. On the oter hand, medicinal plants, unlike pharmacological drugs have several chemicals working together catalytically and synergistically to produce a combined effect that surpasses the total activity of their individual constituents. It is a known scientific fact that a siginificant number of many potent drugs used today trace their origins to plants. For instance, the famous cardiac stimulant digitalis and the antidiabetic drug metformin from the plant Glega officinalis. The higher retardation of glucose diffusion by the plant extract when compared to the synthetic chalcones in our study may be attributed to this69.