Estimating Energy Intake And Expenditure Biology Essay

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One of the most important terms that someone needs to know in order to lose weight, maintain the current body weight or finally getting weight is energy balance. So what is the energy balance? Energy balance is the link between energy (calories) consumed through foods and drinks (Energy Intake) and calories burned through physical activity and daily routine (Energy Expenditure). In cases where the energy balance is positive there is an increase in weight to the person while the loss of weight is characterized by a negative balance. Finally, when energy intake is equal to energy expenditure, our weight remains stable. Therefore, it is necessary to be able to calculate the energy intake and energy expenditure in order to maintain a healthy weight for the long term.

Aim:

In this practice we have to calculate the energy intake and energy expenditure in three consecutive days so as to use these results for calculating the energy balance in a healthy person.

Method:

As I have already mentioned, the purpose of this practice is to calculate the energy balance. To achieve this, the subjects followed an effective method. Firstly, the subjects weighed and wrote down everything that they ate and drank, even when they ate out, for three consecutive days including one weekend day and two week days, using their digital dietary scales. Moreover, by the time the subjects finished their recording, moved to analyze the energy content of their diet by using a calculator and tables of food. In that way they were able to calculate the total energy content and sources of food that were eaten for each of the three days.

In addition, in order to estimate their total energy expenditure they were recording their activities for the same days on which they were recording the energy intake starting by the time they woke up until the time they fall asleep. For this activity they used one card for each 24-hour period, capturing every five minutes what they were doing during the whole day. When the subjects filled the cards with activities at the end of the 24 hours, they wrote the physical activity ratio (PAR) for each activity, with the help of relative books (Nutrition a reference handbook). Furthermore, the subjects calculated their basal metabolic rate by using prediction equations (e.g Henry equations), for estimating the total energy expenditure. After that, for each of the three days, the subjects estimated their energy balance by adding the energy intake and energy expenditure for each day and dividing by three so as to estimate the main energy. Finally, in order to calculate the total energy balance they used the energy balance equation. (Energy balance = energy intake - energy expenditure)

The following example shows how results were calculated for energy intake:

Food Standards Agency (2002). McCance and Widdowson's the composition of foods 6th edn. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.

74g Semi-skimmed milk UHT

Find food in book

Select number code (e.g 216)

Calculate energy content, eg.

100 g contains 194 kJ

1g will contain 194/100

1g will contain 1.94 x 74

74g Semi-skimmed milk UHT contains 144 kJ

The following example shows how results were calculated for energy expenditure:

Bender, DA and Bender, AE (1997) Nutrition: A Reference Handbook.BMR: 3,327 KJ/min

Activity code: SL (SL = sleeping)

Energy cost: PAR x BMR

1.0 x 3,327 = 3,327

Time slots x 5 (minutes):

84 x 5 = 420 minutes

Total energy (KJ): Energy cost x Time slots

3,327 x 420 = 1397, 34 KJ

To calculate energy balance we need:

Balance equation:

Balance = Intake - losses

If intake = losses -> nutritional balance

if intake > losses -> positive balance

if intake < losses -> negative balance

The results (in kJ) for the three days:

DAY 1 (Sunday)

DAY 2 (Monday)

DAY 3 (Tuesday)

Main

Total Energy Intake:

3317 KJ

3698,5 KJ

3009,5 KJ

10025 KJ

Total Energy Expenditure:

6705,7585 KJ

6525,9105 KJ

6214,874 KJ

19446,54 KJ

ENERGY BALANCE: Energy balance = energy intake - energy expenditure

DAY 1 (Sunday)

Energy Balance = 3430 KJ - 6574,602 KJ = -3144,602

DAY 2 (Monday)

Energy Balance = 3817 KJ - 6316,9675 KJ = -2499,9675

DAY 3 (Tuesday)

Energy Balance = 3233 KJ - 6181,566 KJ = -2948,566

TOTAL ENERGY BALANCE: 10025 - 19446,54

= -9421,54

Discussion:

In accordance with the above results, we can understand that the total energy intake is less than the total energy consumption (negative energy balance), so the body does not take as much energy as needed. That leads to a negative energy balance and weight loss. To be honest, by watching the 3-day food diary, I expected these results. Nevertheless, I am not satisfied about this, because negative energy balance can cause various damages like decline in metabolism, reduction in physical performance, decreases in bone mass etc. To create a nutritional energy balance the excessive physical activity must be limited and we have to consume foods and liquids with more calories.

For this practical we used our digital dietary scale, to weigh what we ate and drank. This method may be the easiest and most inexpensive but not so accurate. Our measurements would certainly be more precise if we used for example the bomb calorimeter. Besides, energy expenditure could be measured instead of prediction equations which are the easy way with direct or indirect calorimetry. With direct and indirect calorimetry we have accurate results but unfortunately are the most difficult and complex way for measuring energy expenditure due to the special equipment needed.

Conclusion:

Taking everything into consideration, as I have already mentioned, the aim of this practical is to understand the importance of the energy balance in our daily life. As far as I am concerned, at the end of this study, I realized how vital the energy balance in our lives is, as its impacts have a major role in the human health through the life cycle.

Appendix:

DAY ONE - SUNDAY

Food description

Food table code

Weight

(g)

Energy

(kJ)

Other nutrients*

(units)

PROTEIN

FAT

CARBOHYDRATE

Slice white bread

53

50

465,5

3,9

1,3

23,0

Cottage cheese, plain reduce fat

265

20

67

2,6

0,3

0,6

Turkey meat

494

11

49

2,4

0,1

0

Coffee Infusion

2

8

0,2

Tr

0,3

Milk, semi-skimmed UHT

216

25

48,5

0,8

0,4

1,2

Apple, eating

921

87

173

0,3

0,09

10,2

Chicken breast, casseroled meat only

481

120

810

34,0

6,21

0

Spaghetti, white, boiled

36

200

884

7,2

1,4

44,4

Tomato ketchup

1217

12

59

0,2

0,01

3,4

Lemonade

1111

100

93

tr

0

5,8

All bran Kellogg's

78

40

458

5,2

1,6

24,2

Milk, semi-skimmed UHT

216

100

194

3,3

1,6

4,9

Coffee Infusion

2

8

0,2

Tr

0,3

Total

3317

60,3

13,01

118,3

Activity Diary

Code

Activity

Code

Activity

Code

Activity

SL

Sleeping

DR

Dressing

SWR

Showering

MB

Making beds

DRIV

Driving

EAT

Eating

SA

Sitting active

SF

Serving Food

STY

Studying

W1

Walking at normal pace

WD

Washing dishes

PTBL

Prepare Table

ST

Standing Still

TV

Sitting active watching television

SCR

Sitting acting in the car

SR

Sitting at rest

PC

Sitting active playing computer

CLH

Cleaning House

Record of activity - day =

Min 

Hr 

:00

:05

:10

:15

:20

:25

:30

:35

:40

:45

:50

:55

00:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

01:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

02:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

03:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

04:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

05:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

06:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

07:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

08:

MB

MB

DR

DR

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

ST

ST

ST

ST

09:

ST

ST

ST

W1

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

DR

DR

TV

TV

10:

TV

EAT

EAT

EAT

EAT

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

11:

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

12:

W1

W1

W1

W1

W1

W1

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

13:

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

14:

CK

CK

CK

CK

PTBL

PTBL

EAT

EAT

EAT

EAT

EAT

EAT

15:

WD

WD

WD

WD

PC

PC

PC

PC

SR

SR

SR

SR

16:

SR

SR

SR

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

17:

SA

SA

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

STY

STY

STY

18:

SWR

SWR

SWR

DR

DR

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

EAT

EAT

19:

CLH

CLH

DRIV

DRIV

DRIV

SF

SF

SF

SF

SF

SF

SF

20:

SF

SF

WD

WD

WD

WD

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

21:

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

CLH

CLH

CLH

CLH

CLH

CLH

22:

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

23:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

Activity calculation - day =

BMR (kJ/min) = 3,327

Activity code

PAR

Energy cost

PAR x BMR

(kJ/min)

Time

slots x 5

(minutes)

Total energy

(kJ)

SL

1,0

3,327

540

1796,58

BED

2,5

8,3175

10

83,175

DR

2,5

8,3175

30

249,525

ST

1,5

4,9905

35

174,6675

SCR

1,3

4,3251

100

432,51

DRIV

1,6

5,3232

15

79,848

SF

2,5

8,3171

45

374,2875

WD

1,8

5,9886

40

239,544

TV

1,2

3,9924

170

678,708

PC

1,2

3,9924

20

79,848

SWR

2,5

8,3175

15

124,7625

EAT

1,2

3,9924

60

239,544

STY

1,2

3,9924

120

479,088

CK

1,8

5,9886

110

658,746

PTBL

2,1

6,9867

10

69,867

SA

1,2

3,9924

10

139,924

W1

3,2

10,6464

35

372,624

CLH

2,2

7,3194

40

292,776

SR

1,2

3,9924

35

139,734

Total

1440

6705,7585

Food description

Food table code

Weight

(g)

Energy

(kJ)

Other nutrients*

(units)

PROTEIN

FAT

CARBOHYDRATE

Slice white bread

53

50

465,5

3,9

1,3

23,0

Cottage cheese, plain reduce fat

265

18

60

2,3

0,2

0,5

Turkey meat

494

11

49

2,4

0,1

0

Apple, eating

921

67

133

0,3

0,07

7,9

Chicken nuggets

536

45

500

8,4

5,8

8,7

White rice basmati, easy cooked, boiled

24

120

704

3,12

1,5

37,0

Stock cubes, vegetable

1229

15

158

2,0

2,6

1,7

Tomatoes raw

858

65

47

0,5

0,195

2,0

Pepper capsicum, green raw

834

55

36

0,4

0,165

1,4

Cucumber

805

45

18

0,315

0,045

0,675

Olive oil

380

11

407

Tr

10,9

0

Vinegar

1231

10

9

0,04

0

0,06

Salt

1226

5

0

0

0

0

Plums, average raw

987

73

113

0,4

0,07

6,4

Bread white French stick

57

50

561

4,5

0,9

28,0

Ham

405

23

104

4,2

0,7

0,2

Cucumber

805

12

5

0,034

0,012

0,18

Tomatoes raw

858

34

25

0,28

0,102

1,0

Apple

921

153

304

0,6

0,2

18,0

Total

3698,5

33,689

24,859

136,715

SECOND DAY - MONDAY

Activity Diary

Code

Activity

Code

Activity

Code

Activity

L

Lying down

DR

Dressing

SWR

Showering

SL

Sleeping

DRIV

Driving

EAT

Eating

SA

Sitting active

SF

Serving Food

STY

Studying

W1

Walking at normal pace

WD

Washing dishes

PF

Prepare Food

ST

Standing Still

TV

Sitting active watching television

SCR

Sitting acting in the car

SR

Sitting at rest

PC

Sitting active playing computer

LEC

Sitting active in the lecture

MB

Making beds

CLH

Cleaning House

MF

Mopping floor

Record of activity - day =

Min 

Hr 

:00

:05

:10

:15

:20

:25

:30

:35

:40

:45

:50

:55

00:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

01:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

02:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

03:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

04:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

05:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

06:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

07:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

DR

DR

MB

MB

CLH

CLH

08:

PF

PF

EAT

EAT

EAT

EAT

W1

W1

W1

W1

W1

W1

09:

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

SCR

SCR

SCR

10:

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

11:

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

SCR

SCR

SR

SR

SR

SR

SR

SR

12:

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

13:

MF

MF

MF

PF

PF

TV

TV

TV

TV

SR

SR

SR

14:

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

15:

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

CK

16:

PF

PF

CLH

CLH

CLH

CLH

EAT

EAT

EAT

EAT

EAT

EAT

17:

WD

WD

WD

MF

MF

TV

TV

TV

ST

SCR

SCR

SCR

18:

ST

ST

W1

W1

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

19:

EAT

EAT

EAT

EAT

EAT

EAT

EAT

DRIV

DRIV

DRIV

DRIV

DRIV

20:

DRIV

DRIV

DRIV

SWR

SWR

DR

DR

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

21:

STY

STY

STY

STY

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

PC

PC

22:

PC

PC

PC

SR

SR

SR

SR

SR

WD

WD

SR

SR

23:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

Activity calculation - day =

BMR (kJ/min) = 3,327

Activity code

PAR

Energy cost

PAR x BMR

(kJ/min)

Time

slots x 5

(minutes)

Total energy

(kJ)

SL

1,0

3,327

510

1696,77

MB

2,5

8,3175

10

83,175

DR

2,5

8,3175

20

166,35

ST

1,5

4,9905

15

74,8575

SCR

1,3

4,3251

80

346,008

DRIV

1,6

5,3232

40

212,928

PF

2,0

6,654

30

199,62

WD

1,8

5,9886

25

149,715

TV

1,2

3,9924

145

578,898

PC

1,2

3,9924

25

99,81

SWR

2,5

8,3175

10

83,175

EAT

1,2

3,9924

85

339,354

STY

1,2

3,9924

105

419,202

CK

1,8

5,9886

85

509,031

LEC

1,2

3,9924

80

319,392

MF

3,4

11,3118

25

282,795

W1

3,2

10,6464

40

425,856

CLH

2,2

7,3194

30

219,582

SR

1,2

3,9924

80

319,392

Total

1440

6525,9105

THIRD DAY - TUESDAY

Food description

Food table code

Weight

(g)

Energy

(kJ)

Other nutrients*

(units)

PROTEIN

FAT

CARBOHYDRATE

All bran Kellogg's

78

50

572

4,1

0,8

23,9

Milk, semi-skimmed UHT

216

80

155

2,64

1,28

3,9

Lemonade

1111

100

93

tr

0

5,8

Slice white bread

53

50

465,5

3,9

1,3

23,0

Cottage cheese, plain reduce fat

265

18

60

2,3

0,2

0,5

Tomatoes raw

858

34

25

0,28

0,102

1,0

Turkey, meat

494

11

49

2,4

0,1

0

Apple

921

153

304

0,6

0,2

0

White rice basmati, easy cooked, boiled

24

120

704

3,12

1,5

37,0

Sweet corn baby, canned drained

855

100

96

2,9

0,4

2,0

Cucumber

805

67

27

0,5

0,07

1,005

Tomatoes raw

858

60

44

0,4

0,2

1,9

Popcorn plain

1077

15

415

0,9

6,4

7,3

Total

3009,5

24,04

12,552

107,305

Activity Diary:

Code

Activity

Code

Activity

Code

Activity

SL

Sleeping

DR

Dressing

SWR

Showering

SA

Sitting active

DRIV

Driving

EAT

Eating

CARD

Playing cards

SF

Serving Food

STY

Studying

W1

Walking at normal pace

WD

Washing dishes

PF

Prepare Food

ST

Standing Still

TV

Sitting active watching television

SCR

Sitting acting in the car

SR

Sitting at rest

PC

Sitting active playing computer

LEC

Sitting active in the lecture

MB

Making beds

CLH

Cleaning House

MF

Mopping floor

Record of activity - day =

Min 

Hr 

:00

:05

:10

:15

:20

:25

:30

:35

:40

:45

:50

:55

00:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

01:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

02:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

03:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

04:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

05:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

06:

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

07:

MB

MB

CLH

CLH

CLH

CLH

DR

DR

EAT

EAT

TV

TV

08:

TV

MF

MF

SCR

SCR

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

09:

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

10:

ST

W1

SR

SR

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

11:

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

SCR

SCR

SR

SR

SR

SR

12:

SCR

SCR

W1

SR

ST

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

13:

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

14:

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

15:

W1

SCR

PF

PF

WD

WD

WD

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

16:

STY

STY

STY

STY

STY

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

17:

TV

TV

TV

TV

MF

MF

MF

SCR

SCR

W1

W1

SR

18:

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

LEC

19:

W1

SCR

SR

SR

EAT

EAT

SWR

SWR

DR

DR

STY

STY

20:

STY

STY

STY

STY

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

21:

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

22:

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

TV

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

23:

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

SCR

CARD

CARD

CARD

CARD

CARD

CARD

Activity calculation - day =

BMR (kJ/min) = 3,327

Activity code

PAR

Energy cost

PAR x BMR

(kJ/min)

Time

slots x 5

(minutes)

Total energy

(kJ)

SL

1,0

3,327

420

1397,34

MB

2,5

8,3175

10

83,175

DR

2,5

8,3175

20

166,35

ST

1,5

4,9905

10

49,905

SCR

1,3

4,3251

110

475,761

PF

2,0

6,654

10

66,54

WD

1,8

5,9886

15

89,829

TV

1,2

3,9924

200

798,48

SWR

2,5

8,3175

10

83,175

EAT

1,2

3,9924

20

79,848

STY

1,2

3,9924

80

319,392

LEC

1,2

3,9924

380

1517,112

MF

3,4

11,3118

25

282,795

W1

3,2

10,6464

30

319,392

CLH

2,2

7,3194

20

146,388

SR

1,2

3,9924

50

199,62

CARDS

1,2

3,9924

30

139,772

Total

1440

6214,874

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