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There are many types of skin infection which can be influence by environmental factor. Most of the skin infection arrived from fungal, yeast, bacterial and parasite. Even for environment require biological or physical mechanisms to spread.(25)The major sources of mechanisms that contaminating by environmental factor are air, water and the latter animal, bird and insect vectors.(25)The environmental factor can be include physical burn and hot climate.
The burn are a form of trauma that leave the skin at increased risk of infection.(29) The common bacterial that grow on the burn are Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.(29) Furthermore there is disease such as Bullous impetigo. This disease is caused by Staphylococcus aureus. They are the gram positive cocci that are microscopically observed as individual organisms.(32) S. aureus causes disease through tissue invasion and toxic production. Furthermore the effect of the toxic produce by S. aureus can be distant from the focus of infection or colonization.(32) They are mostly occurs in the neonate as vesicles that rapidly expand/enlarge into fragile bullae that rupture which leaving an erosion with a surrounding curst.(30) Impetigo is an acute disease, it can be contagious, it is superficial pyogenic skin infection that commonly occurs mostly in children. This disease is mostly active in hot humid climate.(31) Patients with impetigo have history of minor trauma such as insect bites, scabies and varicella.(31) Treatment for Bullous impetigo are prescription-strength antibiotic ointment mupirocin.(33) However for the failure of oral antibiotics mean that the infection is cause by the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA).(30)
Another type of bacterial skin infection is ecthyma gangrenosum. This disease is caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.(30) this infection can caused secondary disease such as neutropenia, hematologic malignancies, immunodeficiency syndromes, chemotherapy, burns or indwelling catheters.(30) This can be found in anogentital areas. The progress of the disease can be haemorrhagic bullae which rupture and become ulcers with eschar.(30) The antipseudomonal penicillin is appropriate for the causative while the causative agent is being established.
Another type of skin infection cause by environment factor is the fungal infection.(27) Fungal infections are commonly found in skin and an organ system exposed to an environmental insult.(30) the common fungal infection in hot climate is candidal intertigo. This is cause by Candida which is normally found in the skin and mucosa.(30) The most pathogenic are the Candida. albicans. C. albicans prefer high humidity area for the optimum growth as maceration in those areas affords to easier vertical penetration into the tissue.(30) Candida infections of the genitalia could be warm, hot, moist, dry and psoriasifor. (30)To able to diagnose a fungal infection, the specimens should be taken by scraping the edge wounded area. Than the simple should be delivering it to laboratory for microscopy.(29) the microscopy testing should been prepared by digestion of keratin in the specimen with potassium hydroxide solution to expose any fungal bodies present.(29) Candida yeast is normal flor of the mouth, digestive tract and vagina that usually causes no harm. However in certain condition Candida can overgrow on mucous membranes and moist areas of skin. The most area that effected are the lining of the mouth, the groin, the armpits, the skin under breast of the women and the skin fold of the stomach.(34) health profession can identify candidiasis by looking at its distinctive rash or the thick, white, pasty residue it generate.(34) This fungal infection can be easily treated by topical imidazole antifungal drug such as clotrimazole cream.(26)
In addition parasite can cause a great deal of infection relating to skin. Mosquitoes, flea and ticks are not only bite it can also become infected with aggressive pathogens or it can introduce arthropod-borne pathogens including malaria and severe viral infections.(26) Most of the arthropod and insect bites are come from the hot, humid and typical environment. Common source of parasite disease are caused by hymenoptera. Hymenoptera contain wasps, hornets, bees and ants.(30) they have membranous wings and venoms that contain proteinaceous allergens, formic acid and kinins.(28) The most serious risk for individuals allergic to hymenopterid stings is anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis should be treated carefully with epinephrine.(30) In typical country there are many people surfer from lymphatic filariasis as the disease is transmitted throw by mosquitos. The disease is caused by the thread like parasitic filarial worms call Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi.(35) Therefore by having back waste system and water transport system in the city could give better opportunity for mosquito to grow. This could result in more disease carried. For typical country such south East Asia and middle Africa there are more people with elephantiasis. Since those country are still developing the cleanness of the country is not to the level with those of developed country.(35) Elephantiasis destroys the balance of the fluid of the body and can cause devastating the painful manifestation. Furthermore it can lead to swelling of the arm, leg, breast and swelling of the scrotum.(35) The parasite can live in the body for years without showing any symptom. Those chronic sufferers with the most severe symptoms tend to be adult. To able to treat this disease is by a combination of albendazole and diethylcarbamazine.(35) By having loose clothing is a useful barrier against mosquitoes, files and ticks.(26) Insect repellents can also be used on skin which are not cover by the clothing. The most effective of all insect repellents is DEET (N,N-diethylmetatoluamide).
Other common types of parasite cause skin infection are the scabies. The mite cause scabies are Sarcoptes scabiei. Scabies itself cause major distress by breaking down of the epidermis as it is due to burrowing of the mites.(36) It is become easier for secondary pathogenic bacteria to get into to the portals which serve by excoriation.(36) Most of the secondary infection are cause by group A streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes).(36) Scabies are well know throw out the century by many places in the world such in China, India, and the Middle East.(36) This disease is transmitted by contact to contact so therefore it play major role by overcrowding and poverty therefore it is important to have good hygienic policy have to be placed.(36) To prevent scabies from epidemic disaster the health team of the country should check the environmental, number of rooms pre house and number of residents in the house including the pets. By having clean water and clean waste disposal will improve the prevention of the Scabies causing mites.
There are many environment factors involving in skin. Most of them are serious and some of them are not life threating as much. Skin is a very important defence in body. By having infection and diseases it will be more vulnerable for other invaders to enter the body. This will result in more serious problems.