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Encoding RIP from Elaeis Guaneensis Jacq

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Detection and expression profiling of two novel transcripts encoding RIP from Elaeis guaneensis Jacq. in Ganoderma boninense interaction

1. Introduction

Among several oil-producing plants, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a tropical crop which is exclusively grown for oil production. Its high oil yield is extracted from oil palm’s thick fleshy mesocarp which is extremely rich in oil (80% of dry mass). Furthermore, oil palm has the highest oil production (oil per unit land) compared to other oil-producing plants. The extracted oil has been used widely for several applications including, food, cosmetics, and bio-fuel (Paterson 2007; Murphy 2009; Alizadeh et al. 2013).

Among various diseases , the basal stem rot (BSR) is known to be the most serious disease in oil palm (Ho and Nawawi 1985). Furthermore, the BSR is caused by Ganoderma boninense which is considered specifically as a “white rot fungus”. The lignin is broken by the fungus leaving whitish cellulose exposed (Paterson 2007). The infection process is initiated when the oil palm roots are penetrated by fungal mycelia, which is spread out to the stem bole, after which the trunk eventually collapses (Rees et al. 2009). Malaysia and Indonesia have suffered the most severe losses from the BSR; furthermore, the diseases has been identified in Malaysia several decades ago (Ho and Nawawi 1985; Idris et al. 2004; Rees et al. 2007).

Oil palms of different genetic origins have shown to have resistance to BSR. However, the genes involved in the resistance of oil palms against G. Boninense were unknown (Idris et al. 2004; Durand-Gasselin et al. 2005). Recently, few defence related genes were identified in oil palm. The major pathogen on oil palm in Malaysia has been identified as G. boninense Pat. Stem rots of oil palm caused by species of Ganoderma are a major threat to the sustainability of the oil palm production. In this study, we have isolated one cDNA encoding RIP’s EST, from oil palm. Its expression in oil palm root infected by G. boninese; was investigated to shed light on its potential involvement during early disease development.

2. Materials and methods

2.1 Sample preparation

A total of 24 six-month-old oil palm seedlings (Elaeis guineensis Jacq., DxP, GH500 series) were purchased from Sime Darby Plantation Sdn. Bhd. (Banting Malaysia) and divided into two groups with 12 seedlings in each group, one of these groups were treated with Ganoderma boninense Pat. Strain PER71, while the remaining group served as controls. Seedlings treated with G.boninense were inoculated by sitting each seedling on rubber woodblock fully grown with G.boninense PER71 while the other group of seedlings were inoculated with fungal surface mulch as described by (Alizadeh et al., 2011). Three biological replicates of the seedlings were harvested from each treatment at 4, 8, 12 wpi, respectively. The leaves, roots and stem cell were frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C (Tan et al., 2013).

2.2 RNA extraction

Total RNA was extracted from treated and untreated oil palm root tissues using a modified CTAB method briefly, 0.1 g tissue was ground in liquid nitrogen into a very find powder. The powder was immediately transferred into 1.5 ml extraction CTAB buffer [ 2% (w/v) cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, CTAB; 100mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0; 2M NaCl; 25 mM ethylenediamineteraacetic acid, EDTA; pH 8.0; 2% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP; and 2% (v/v) β-mercaptoethanool]. Equal volume of chloroform/isoamylalcohol (24:1, v/v) was added into the tube and centrifuged at 12,857 g for 15 min at 4°C. The upper layer was transferred into a new tube and equal volume of phenol/chloroform/isoamylalcohol (25:24:1, v/v/v) was added and centrifuged. This step was repeated until a clear supernatant was obtained. The supernatant was adjusted to a final concentration of 2M LiCl, and incubated at 4°C for overnight, and then centrifuged. The RNA was dissolved in 5ml diethypyrocarbonate (DEPC) – treated water. An equal volume of chloroform/isoamylalcohol was added, mixed, and centrifuged at 12,857 for 30 min at 4°C. Precipitation of RNA was performed by adding 0.1 vol of 3M sodium acetate (pH 5.2), 2 vol 100% ethanol and incubated at -80°C for overnight. After centrifugation, the pellet was washed using 70% ethanol and dissolved in 20ul DEPC-treated water. The quality of RNA was examined by using a Nanodrop( BioRad) at 230, 260 and 280 nm. The RNA integrity was examined using 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The RNA was treated with DNase I (Qiagen, USA) following the manufacturer’s instructions.

D:\MRYM\RNA 10mth 2013-04-04 15hr 26min.jpg D:\MRYM\RNA 2,3mth dark 2013-03-16 19hr 01min.jpg

Figure : Total RNA from various treated and untreated oil palm tissues. Lane A: Untreated control seedling. Lane B: Treated seedlings. 1) Leaf. 2) Basal stem. 3) Root

3. Semi-quantitative Reverse transcriptase (RT-) PCR

3.1 Isolation of cDNA

Omniscript ™ Reverse Transcriptase kit (Qiagen Kit) was used for cDNA synthesis by the following kit manuscript. To obtain the sequence of cDNA from oil palm, gene specific primers were designed based on oil palm expressed sequence tag (EST) (Ho, 2010) and RIP’s type I alignments, using primer 3 version 0.4.0(frodo.wi.mit.edu).

3.2 Sequence analysis of cDNA

Semi-quantitative Reverse transcriptase (RT-) PCR was performed on EST using PCR machine with Reverse transcriptase enzyme. Equal amounts of RNA (1ug) extracted from control and treated oil palm root samples were converted into cDNA by using the Omniscript two step Reverse Transcription Kit for cDNA Synthesis (Qiagen, USA) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The resulted sequences shown significant similarities to RIP (Naher et al., 2011).

3.3 Expression profiling

Expression levels were calculated by Quantity One 1-D Analysis software 4.6.5 (Bio-Rad) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. PCR products were resolved on 1.5%(w/v) agarose gel (1xTAE) with a DNA mass standard marker (MassRuler TM DNA Ladder, Fermentas). The density of the DNA mass standard dilution series was used to generate calibration curve for absolute quantisation of sample bands by linear regression with extrapolation to zero for each experiment. The density of each sample band was then converted to an absolute quantity using the calibration curve. For each sample band was then converted to an absolute quantity using the calibration curve. For each experiment, the relative band quantity obtained by densitometrric analysis was normalized to the value of the internal control (house-keeping gene) bands which were run in parallel. Identification of differentially expressed genes was based on consistent ford-change across experimental replicates relative to untreated negative control. Fold changes of ≥2- fold or ≤0.5-fold were considered as significant.

3.4 Statistical analysis

A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine statistical differences (SPSS version 17;SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). When the ANOVA was significant at P< 0.05 the Duncan’s multiple range test was used for means comparison. The t-test was used to compare between group means.(Alizadeh et al., 2011)

4. Results

4.1 sequence analysis EgRIP-1b

The partial cDNA of EgRIP-1b (Dr. Ho personal comment) encodes a putative type I ribosome inactivating protein. The partial sequence consists 167 nucleotide residues. (Fig. 2). This sequence has the highest identity with RIP type I from Populus trichocarpa (98%, XP_002328056.1), Hordeum vulgare (90%, AAA32951.1) and Chain A, Structure Of Mutant Rip From Barley Seeds (90%, 4FBA_A). The NODE_77734GT was classified in a RIP-like superfamily. A putative conserved domain of catalytic residues and some RIP family domain were in this sequence, including that it is a member of the RIP superfamily.(Fig. 5)

(Naher et al., 2011)





Fig. 2. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of NODE_77734GT.

4.2 sequence analysis EgRIP-1a

The partial cDNA sequence EgRIP-1a (GenBank ID: ...) encodes a protein of 17 amino acid. The sequence consists 178 nucleotides (Fig. 3). This sequences has the highest identity with other type I RIPs from Nicotiana tabacum (47%, ABY71831.1), Musa acuminate (47%, ABY71832.1), Alocasia macrorrhizos (47%, ABY71829.1), Agave sisalana (47%, ABY71828.1) (Fig. 6.a) and (Fig. 6.b)





Fig. 3. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of EgRIP-1a.

Fig. 4: multiple alignment of NODE with other type I RIPs. Amino acid residues that are identical in all sequences are highlighted in black while amino acid residues that are highly conserved are highlighted in gray; dashes represent gaps introduced to maximize the alignment.



Fig. 5: Multiple alignment of EgRIP-1a with other RIPs. The protein sequences and their accession numbers used for analysis of detected sequence. a) Nucleotide residues that are highly conserved are highlighted in gray; dashes represent gaps introduced to maximize the alignment. b) Amino acid residues that are identical in all sequences are highlighted in black with amino acid residues that are highly conserved are highlighted in gray; dashes represent gaps introduced to maximize the alignment.

4.3 Expression profiles (of RIP) in oil palm root upon Ganoderma inoculation

A total of 2 cDNA sequences encoding putative defence-related proteins from oil palm were chosen for gene expression profiling in this study. A relative semi-quantification of EgRIP-1b and EgRIP-1b transcripts were performed by calibrating the expression of each gene with an endogenous control, actin. Fig.6 Shows the relative expression level of EgRIP-1b in roots and basal stems in response to the inoculation of G. boninense at different time points compared with that of negative control plants. In G. boninense-treated plants, the gene expression of EgRIP-1b in oil palm roots at 2 wpi was induced. The expression level were n- and n-fold of the uninfected root tissues at 8 and 12 wpi, respectively.(Naher et al., 2011) The expression level was studied in 3 replication of each sample, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences in expression levels in inoculated plants (Alizadeh et al., 2011).

EgRIP-1a was up-regulated n-fold and n-fold at X wpi, respectively; before the transcript level decrease at Y wpi in oil palm root tissue following G.boninense infection (Fig...). EgRIP-1a expression level were m-, m- and m-fold of the uninfected basal stem tissues at 2,4, 8 and 12 wpi, respectively. EgRIP-1b and EgRIP-1a were not expressed in time zero, untreated samples and leaf tissues.

(I) diseased (II) healthy

(a) D:\MRYM\1mth trt 30.4.13.jpg D:\MRYM\3mth untreated 2013-03-30 21hr 06min.jpg

(b) C:\Users\Maryam\Desktop\Administrator 2002-01-01 07hr 27min.jpg F:\MRYM\New Folder (3)\M13 primer nested clon 7.5.13.jpg

(c) F:\ \akhari\New folder\betaactin.jpg F:\ \akhari\New folder\betaactin.jpg

Fig. 6. Differential expression of EgRIP-1b in variety tissues in response to I) G.boninese treatment compare to those in II )control.. a) root tissue, b) stem cell tissue, c) standard (Rippmann et al., 1997)

a) b)

Fig. 7. Expression level mean in each biological replicate a) in root; b) in stem

(I) diseased (II) healthy

(a) D:\MRYM\akhari\detect op3a 25.5.jpg C:\Users\Maryam\Desktop\primer dimer.jpg

(b) D:\MRYM\op1 2mth trt 27.4.jpg F:\MRYM\clony pcr 2002-01-01 08hr 50min.jpg

(c) F:\ \akhari\New folder\betaactin.jpg F:\ \akhari\New folder\betaactin.jpg

Fig. 8. Differential expression of EgRIP-1a in variety tissues in response to I) G.boninese treatment compare to those in II) control.. a) root tissue, b) stem cell tissue, c) leaf tissue d)control (Rippmann et al., 1997)

a) b)

Fig. 9. Expression level mean in each biological replicate a) in root; b) in stem

Fig. 10. Semi-quantification of oil palm EgRIP-1a and EgRIP-1b expression levels in root tissues at 2-12 week after inoculation with G.boninense. Significant up-regulation of gene expression compared to untreated negative control.



Alizadeh F, Abdullah SNA, Chong PP, Selamat A Bin (2013) Expression Analysis of Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Genes during Interactions of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) with the Pathogenic Ganoderma boninense and Symbiotic Trichoderma harzianum Fungal Organisms. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter. doi: 10.1007/s11105-013-0595-y

Durand-Gasselin T, Asmady H, Flori a, et al. (2005) Possible sources of genetic resistance in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) to basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense--prospects for future breeding. Mycopathologia 159:93–100. doi: 10.1007/s11046-004-4429-1

Ho YW, Nawawi A (1985) Ganoderma boninense Pat . from Basal Stem Rot of Oil Palm ( Elaeis guineensis ) in Peninsular Malaysia. Pertanika 8:425–428.

Idris AS, Kushairi A, Ismail S, Ariffin D (2004) SELECTION FOR PARTIAL RESISTANCE IN OIL PALM PROGENIES TO Ganoderma BASAL STEM ROT. Journal of Oil Palm Research 16:12–18.

Murphy DJ (2009) Oil palm: future prospects for yield and quality improvements. Lipid Technology 21:257–260. doi: 10.1002/lite.200900067

Paterson R (2007) Ganoderma disease of oil palm—A white rot perspective necessary for integrated control. Crop Protection. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2006.11.009

pilotti CA (2005) Stem rots of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense: Pathogen biology and epidemiology. Mycopathologia 159:129–137.

Rees RW, Flood J, Hasan Y, et al. (2009) Basal stem rot of oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis ); mode of root infection and lower stem invasion by Ganoderma boninense. Plant Pathology 58:982–989. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02100.x

Rees RW, Flood J, Hasan Y, Cooper RM (2007) Effects of inoculum potential, shading and soil temperature on root infection of oil palm seedlings by the basal stem rot pathogen Ganoderma boninense. Plant Pathology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01621.x

Tan Y-C, Yeoh K-A, Wong M-Y, Ho C-L (2013) Expression profiles of putative defence-related proteins in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) colonized by Ganoderma boninense. Journal of plant physiology. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2013.05.009

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