Effects Of Sodium Chloride On Antioxidant Enzyme Activities Biology Essay

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After slaughtering, the change of muscle into edible meat destroys the balance between pro-oxidation and antioxidation, resulting in instigation and propagation of lipid oxidation [1,2,3,4]. Lipid oxidation (LO) is one of the principal causes of quality deterioration in meat and stored foods. It produces toxic compounds that are not only harmful for human health but also deteriorate the color, flavor, texture, and nutritive value [1,5,6]. The vulnerability of raw meat to LO depends on animal species and muscle type [7,8,9]. It is suggested that the catalase activity and variations in heme pigment content determined the rate of LO in raw meat [7,9].

Endogenous antioxidants delay or prevent LO by decreasing free radical activities in meat. The use of antioxidants in poultry diets is an efficient way for increasing oxidative stability of meat [10]. These antioxidants can control the oxidation in many ways in the muscle [11]. These antioxidants include the ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol (Vit E), coenzyme Q10, dipeptides and selenium (Se). The antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), are also contributing to the oxidative defense [12]. The GSH-Px is a Se-containing enzyme, responsible for catalyzing the reduction of lipid and hydrogen peroxides (H2O2) to less injurious alcohols and water [13]. The heme containing CAT enzyme catalyzes the decomposition of H2O2 into water and oxygen molecule [14]. The removal of H2O2 by CAT enzyme inhibited oxymyoglobin oxidation [15], that prevented the formation of metmyoglobin. The H2O2 activated metmyoglobin is considered as a main factor in LO in stored meat [16].

Se has a sparing effect on Vit E, is chief chain-breaking antioxidant and the main protector against LO in living organisms and increased its content of meat and egg yolk in chickens [17]. It has been reported that the activity of Vit E is improved by the supplementation of Se in the diets, thus producing a better quality of meat [18]. The efficient utilization of Vit E is based upon the Se-based antioxidant enzymes. Thus, an adequate Se intake is required to ensure the best utilization of expensive Vit E [19].

Over the past few years, consumer demands of high meat quality have substantially increased. Meat color and drip loss are primary features for the evaluation of meat quality for consumers. Drip loss, in which liquid leaks from the tissue, is also considered problems in meat quality because it decreases the appearance of meat after packing and the lowered the juiciness of the cooked meat and meat products. The previous studies reported that the broilers receiving SS had a higher drip loss at 24 h than those receiving SY [20,21]. It has also been found that SY is more beneficial than SS in decreasing drip loss of loin muscle in pigs [22].

It is also known that high levels of oxidation can damage cell membranes, decreasing their integrity and allowing further leakage of intracellular fluids. Along with other factors, consumers also consider a loss of water during handling and cooking as an indicator of poor meat quality. Therefore, the water-holding capacity of meat is another important meat quality characteristic. The pH of muscle is also a key feature that also affects meat color, tenderness, and water-holding capacity. A strong negative correlation is exists between pH and drip loss [23]. Shear force value is indicative of meat tenderness, which has been noted as the most important factor in consumer perception of palatability or quality of meat products. The tenderness has been noted as the most important factor in consumer perception of quality of meat products [24].

Fresh meat and meat products are commonly marketed at refrigerated temperatures of 2-5 °C. At this temperature, many undesirable changes can occur during refrigeration. The endogenous antioxidant enzymes could potentially delay these oxidative changes in stored meat. However, less information is available on factors that influencing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity in meat products is limited. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is one of the commonly used non meat additives that can affect the anti-oxidative potential of these antioxidant enzymes. It is used in meat and meat based foods for improving flavor and the inhibition of microorganisms by restriction of the free water in the meat products. It also tenderizes meat by increasing ionic strength and increases water holding capacity. However, NaCl (0.5-2.5%), has an undesirable side effect that it promotes LO in raw and cooked meat and accelerates formation of metmyoglobin and discoloration in raw meat even at concentrations normally used in meat products [25].

The objectives of the present experiment was to investigate effects of Se sources on meat quality and effect of different concentrations of NaCl on antioxidant enzymes activities, TAC, and lipid oxidation in ground Se enriched chicken raw breast meat during refrigerated storage for 12 days at 4 °C.

3.2. Materials and Methods

3.2.1. Chickens, Diets and Feeding Protocol

As mentioned in the chapter no 2 on page no 61.

3.2.2. Se Determination of Chicken Breast Meat

As mentioned in the chapter no 2 on page no 62.

3.2.3. Meat pH and Color Measurement

The pH and color of breast (Pectoralis major) muscles were determined at 24 h of postmortem. The color was determined by using a Chromometer CR-400 (Minolta sensing, Incorporated, Japan). Lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were measured.

3.2.4. Meat Drip Loss

Breast pectoralis major muscles of Se supplemented chickens at 42 days of age, were taken from the carcass for the determination of drip loss(%) was determined as described by James et al., 2002 [26].Briefly, samples were trimmed to 5 Ã- 2 Ã- 1 cm size, blotted to remove the surface water, and the initial muscles weights were determined. Samples were placed in a plastic bag filled with air and fastened to avoid evaporation and left at 4°C. The final breast muscle weight was determined at 24 and 48 h of postmortem by using the following formulae.

Drip loss% = (Initial breast muscle fillet weight-Final breast muscle fillet weight) x 100

Initial breast muscle fillet weight

3.2.5. Cooking Loss and Shear Force

Cooking loss of chicken breast meat samples (20 g each and cubic in shape from meat muscles) was determined by following the method of Honikel (1998) and shear force was determined on raw and cooked breast muscles samples according to the method of Wattanachant et al., 2004. [27,28].

3.2.6. Preparation of meat samples of different concentrations of NaCl for antioxidant enzymes activities

Breast meat of chickens supplemented with different Se sources and levels were obtained from the carcasses after slaughtering at age of 42days of feeding, ground through a plate with 1.27 cm diameter holes, and reground through a plate with 0.32 cm holes. Each raw ground Se enriched breast muscle was divided into different batches and each one was randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: no additive (control) and with additive, NaCl (1.50% and 3.0%). The two levels of NaCl correspond to ionic strengths of 0.35 and 0.7, respectively. Twenty gram portions of each treatment were put in sealed plastic bags and stored at 4 °C for 0,3, 6, 9, and 12 days of storage days. After removal of the chicken breast meat samples on 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 storage days and they were stored at −80°C until further analysis.

3.2.7. Determinations of Antioxidant Enzymes Activities, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances of Raw Chicken Breast Meat

As mentioned in chapter no 2 on page numbers 65-68.

3.3. Results

3.3.1. Meat Quality of Breast Muscles

In out this study, we found that the pH value, at 24 h postmortem, was increased in the SY-І group compared with other groups in breast muscles (Table 3.1). The treatments supplemented with SY improved the pH value. The drip loss, at 48 h postmortem, of the MS group was lower than other groups, but there was no significant difference in the drip loss at 24 h postmortem in dietary treatments. The cooking losses were also lower in SY supplemented groups. The cooking loss was lowest in SY-І group compared with the SS group (20.12 vs 17.21). Supplementation of mixed selenium sources enhanced the color lightness and redness values of breast meat as compared with other treatments, but there was no influence on color lightness among SY-II and MS groups. The color yellowness values of breast muscles were not influenced in all dietary treatments.

Table 3.2-3.6, shows antioxidant enzymes activities (over storage days and different concentration of sodium chloride), TAC, and TBARS values for chicken breast meat supplemented with different Se sources and levels for 42 days of age and stored at 4°C for 12 days. GSH-Px activity was higher in SS group, While CAT, T-SOD, TAC and MDA values were much higher in SY supplemented chicken breast meats than in control, SS and MS. GSH-Px activity was lower in control group chickens than in Se supplemented groups. For GSH-Px activity and TBARS value interactions between Se supplementation, salt concentrations and the storage days at 4°C studied were significant. CAT activity showed significant interaction for Se

Table 3.1. Effects of different Se sources on the meat quality traits of breast muscles in broiler chickens after 42 days of age

Meat quality traits

Dietary treatments

Control

SS

SY-I

SY-II

MS

Breast muscles

pH24 h

6.37±0.06a

6.25±0.02a

6.70±0.11c

6.42±0.04ab

6.43±0.10ab

Drip loss24 h (%)

0.91±0.15

0.74±0.09

0.75±0.21

0.67±0.14

0.67±0.13

Drip loss48 h (%)

1.62±0.29a

1.63±0.30a

1.13±0.19ab

1.08±0.15ab

0.96±0.10b

Cooking loss (%)

19.15±1.14ab

20.12±0.65a

17.21±1.26b

19.19±0.69ab

17.30±0.98ab

Shear force (kg)

2.23±0.21

1.89±0.36

1.83±0.25

1.96±0.20

2.21±0.24

Lightness(L*)

51.88±1.44a

48.57±2.09ab

49.56±0.98ab

47.05±1.35b

45.60±0.71b

Redness (a*)

2.00±0.33ab

2.13±0.48ab

2.23±0.31ab

1.36±0.21a

2.93±0.73b

Yellowness (b*)

16.98±0.18

13.68±0.36

14.73±1.16

15.20±1.51

14.44±0.58

Means in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05).

supplementation and storage time. CAT activity was quite stable during refrigerated storage and in different ionic concentrations of salt. However, GSH-Px activity decreased significantly over storage days. Conversely, during the 12-day period, TBARS values increased in all treatments but it was higher in control groups treated with 3.0% NaCl stored at 4°C and it was lower in SY-II supplemented breast chicken meats.

Ionic strength elevation decreased GSH-Px activity in chicken breast meat in all groups but this decrease was higher in control group while it was lower in SY supplemented chicken breast meat over storage of 12 days at 4°C. The interaction between the type of salt and its ionic strength was significant for GSH-Px. The degree of GSH-Px activity decrease along with ionic strength increase was greater with NaCl. Nevertheless, the net GSH-Px activity was higher with of NaCl in all SS supplemented chicken breast meat (3.0% concentration). Salt concentration had significant effect on GSH-Px activity, and TBARS values in all chicken breast meats studied (Table 3.2 & 3.6). TBARS values, when evaluated with the combinations of salt ionic strength and days of storage at 4°C revealed that differences between control, different Se sources, Se levels, different NaCl concentrations and days if storage at 4°C were significant in chicken breast meat. TBARS value showed negative correlation with CAT, T-SOD activities and TAC in each group.

Table 3.2. Effects of different Se sources and NaCl treated chicken breast meats on GSH-Px activity over 12 days of storage at 4 °C

Days

Conc of NaCl

Control

SS

SY-I

SY-II

MS

0

Control

2.59±0.05c

2.99±0.08a

2.84±0.07b

2.91±0.08ab

2.95±0.07a

3

0

2.45±0.09e

2.86±0.04a

2.73±0.05bcd

2.83±0.02ab

2.80±0.01abc

1.5%

2.38±0.04ef

2.83±0.08ab

2.68±0.18d

2.80±0.09abc

2.75±0.11bcd

3.0%

2.29±0.06f

2.75±0.07bcd

2.65±0.07d

2.72±0.07cd

2.68±0.09d

6

0

2.39±0.06gh

2.80±0.04a

2.65±0.05bcd

2.74±0.08ab

2.73±0.05ab

1.5%

2.29±0.09h

2.72±0.17ab

2.57±0.14cde

2.68±0.13abc

2.59±0.04cde

3.0%

2.09±0.10i

2.52±0.13def

2.41±0.08fgh

2.47±0.11efg

2.44±0.09fg

9

0

2.29±0.08ef

2.70±0.04a

2.59±0.06ab

2.67±0.07a

2.60±0.08ab

1.5%

2.14±0.13g

2.60±0.09ab

2.41±0.17de

2.54±0.09bc

2.42±0.05cd

3.0%

1.94±0.14h

2.43±0.06cd

2.28±0.05f

2.36±0.11def

2.29±0.06ef

12

0

2.19±0.11fg

2.63±0.04a

2.54±0.03bc

2.62±0.04ab

2.53±0.08bc

1.5%

2.12±0.09g

2.55±0.05abc

2.35±0.04d

2.48±0.11c

2.39±0.6d

3.0%

1.89±0.06h

2.37±0.07d

2.23±0.11ef

2.31±0.04de

2.21±0.08f

Means in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05).

3.4. Discussion

3.4.1. Meat Quality

In our present study, the pH value was increased at 24 h in the SY Supplemented meat muscles. Dietary supplementation with 0.3 mg/kg SY increased the pH value at 45 min and 24 h [29]. In contrast, the pH values were not affected in turkey or broilers by Se source or levels [19,30]. The high pH increased the oxidative stability of meat.

Drip loss at 48 h was lower in SY-I group of meat samples which were partly similar with the previous results that Se deficiency could reduce the pH values and increase drip loss of meat [31]. The ability of muscle proteins to attract water and hold it within the cells is very important for meat quality. Both pH and lipid peroxides contents in the muscle are related to drip loss. Low pH decreases the water binding ability of muscle proteins as well as reduces the negative electrostatic repulsion between filaments, and thus diminishes the space between them and causes shrinkage of myofibrils which would increase the juice loss of the meat [32]. This

Table 3.3. Effects of different Se sources and NaCl treated chicken breast meats on CAT activity over 12 days of storage at 4 °C

Days

Conc of NaCl

Control

SS

SY-I

SY-II

MS

0

Control

3.73±0.07d

3.93±0.04c

4.09±0.07b

4.27±0.05a

3.90±0.03c

3

0

3.74±0.06fg

3.91±0.02de

4.08±0.01bc

4.26±0.07a

3.88±0.04de

1.5%

3.64±0.14gh

3.84±0.07ef

3.99±0.04cd

4.18±0.14ab

3.83±0.14ef

3.0%

3.62±0.17i

3.80±0.12ef

3.93±0.04de

4.12±0.13b

3.81±0.09ef

6

0

3.72±0.14ef

3.88±0.07cd

4.05±0.08b

4.24±0.06a

3.83±0.07de

1.5%

3.63±0.07fg

3.81±0.08de

3.94±0.04c

4.16±0.07ab

3.75±0.09e

3.0%

3.58±0.14g

3.74±0.08e

3.91±0.05cd

4.09±0.08b

3.72±0.10ef

9

0

3.72±0.04f

3.84±0.09cde

4.03±0.05b

4.23±0.12a

3.80±0.10def

1.5%

3.60±0.11gh

3.75±0.12ef

3.92±0.09c

4.14±0.06ab

3.72±0.07f

3.0%

3.55±0.06h

3.72±0.15f

3.87±0.06cd

4.07±0.09b

3.70±0.06fg

12

0

3.71±0.10ef

3.81±0.08def

4.00±0.08bc

4.21±0.08a

3.82±0.08def

1.5%

3.55±0.07gh

3.72±0.10ef

3.92±0.08cd

4.09±0.07ab

3.68±0.14fg

3.0%

3.54±.09s

3.69±0.22f

3.84±0.09de

4.05±0.12bc

3.67±0.06fg

Means in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05).

information is applicable to the poultry meat industry. In many parts of the world, the processed carcass is chilled in an ice-water bath, (hypotonic medium). The meat usually absorbs the water from this hypotonic medium because the cytoplasmic compartment of the muscle cell is hypertonic to the bath. Therefore, the muscle cells rupture if the amount of water absorbed exceeds the WHC of the cells [33]. The present data also showed that SY-I group significantly decreased the CL of breast muscles and MS group significantly decreased the shear force of thigh muscles. These results indicated that SY improved the meat sensory score by enhancing the juiciness and tenderness.

There are many meat quality characteristics that attract consumer attention. Among these, appearance such as meat color has a major impact on the initial decision of the customer to purchase or reject the product. The data indicated that SY-II and MS groups decreased the lightness of breast muscles compared with the control group. The MS group increased the redness of breast muscles. The Se supplementation did not influence meat color in thigh muscles. Meat color is usually related to the muscle pH or its myoglobin content and the change of its redness is directly related to the oxidation of oxymyoglobin to metmyoglobin [26,35]. Our results indicated that the addition of 0.3mg/kg mixed Se to diet changed the redness of breast as compared with the supplementation 0.3 mg/kg organic Se.

3.4.2. Antioxidant Enzymes and Different Concentration of Sodium Chloride

Muscle fibres can be classified into different metabolic types: oxidative (red) or glycolytic (white) which is based on their chemical composition and enzymes activities [35]. The oxidative muscles have more mitochondria and higher myoglobin content than the glycolytic muscles. The oxidative muscles mainly use fatty acids as a source of energy and have low activities of ATPase and phosphorylase, while the glycolytic muscles use mainly glycogen and have higher activities of the both enzymes. Generally, it is considered that oxidative muscles have higher AEA than glycolytic muscles [36,37,38]. The antioxidants may also prevent damages induced by LO. The antioxidant enzymes include GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and CAT. The principal form of Se-dependent enzyme is GSH-Px. This was also found in the present study, the chicken breast muscles (glycolytic) that had been fed diets supplemented with Se showed the higher GSH-Px activity. The maximum GSH-Px activity was in SS (Table 3.2) at 0 day of storage without any NaCl treatment. However, CAT, T-SOD activities and TAC were higher in chicken breast meats supplemented with SY at 0 day of storage without any NaCl treatment (Table 3.4-3.5). Similar results were found in our previous study in breast meat of chickens supplemented with different sources of Se after 42 days of feeding [39,40,41]. Our results were different from studies that higher CAT activity in chicken thigh muscle showed higher catalase activity than breast muscle [42]. The difference in results of CAT activity might be due to change of type muscles. In our study, we only study breast chicken muscles while they studied both. The other possible reason is supplementation of Se sources in feeding. Mostly, in poultry industry, they used SS as a source of Se while in our study we observed maximum CAT activity in SY supplemented chicken breast meats though SS supplementation also increased the CAT activity but it is lower than SY but higher than control.

In other animal species, it was hypothesized that, cattle and camel have higher myoglobin content than chicken breast meat, so, there are more metmyoglobin and H2O2 formed through oxidation of oxymyoglobin, ultimately resulting in more H2O2 activated metmyoglobin (ferrylmyoglobin radicals), thus accelerating lipid oxidation. The higher activity of the antioxidant enzymes could lead to a significant decrease in LO during meat storage. Such was the case in our study and also in previous studies. [39,40,41].

Table 3.4. Effects of different Se sources and NaCl treated chicken breast meats on T-SOD activity over 12 days of storage at 4 °C

Days

Conc of NaCl

Control

SS

SY-I

SY-II

MS

0

Control

32.82±0.91e

36.50±0.63d

45.09±2.05b

46.36±0.99a

41.19±0.72c

3

0

31.99±2.52ef

35.54±1.61d

44.49±3.18a

45.41±1.67a

40.94±2.13bc

1.5%

31.52±2.14ef

35.18±2.56d

43.94±1.76a

44.41±2.87a

40.82±1.43bc

3.0%

30.86±1.14f

34.35±3.06de

42.54±2.54abc

43.76±3.15ab

39.77±2.40c

6

0

31.06±1.29d

34.22±2.50c

44.38±2.74a

44.83±1.73a

40.70±0.73b

1.5%

30.98±1.46d

34.95±3.91c

42.62±1.38ab

43.89±2.21a

40.27±2.60b

3.0%

30.33±1.53d

34.08±1.75c

42.26±1.81ab

42.79±1.36ab

40.14±2.25b

9

0

30.42±0.64f

33.85±3.45e

44.25±1.70a

44.43±2.69a

40.16±0.90bcd

1.5%

29.85±2.91f

33.29±2.89e

41.49±0.48abcd

43.05±3.04ab

40.05±0.78cd

3.0%

29.40±0.70f

33.19±1.72e

41.24±1.85bcd

42.56±3.10abc

39.41±3.52d

12

0

29.44±1.79e

33.67±1.94d

43.95±3.50a

43.44±1.83a

39.86±0.78bc

1.5%

28.07±2.70e

32.91±1.48d

40.71±0.76bc

42.24±1.21ab

39.55±1.46bc

3.0%

27.71±2.33e

32.36±3.38d

40.51±1.33bc

41.84±2.00ab

38.76±2.92c

Means in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05).

3.4.3. Antioxidant enzymes stability in refrigerated meat

Endogenous antioxidant enzymes, especially CAT and SOD with GSH-Px, could potentially delay the oxidation in meat. A few previous studies have indicated the stability of CAT in refrigerated chicken [38,39], beef semimembranosus and pork boston butt muscles [42]. The stability of CAT in refrigerated turkey varied with the type of muscle [43]. The results of present study has confirmed the CAT and T-SOD stability in refrigerated chicken breast meat over 12 days of storage in all treatments (Se supplemented and NaCl treated). Our results are similar with the previous studies who found the stability of CAT during frozen storage in pork, beef and chicken muscles [37,39,42,44].

Our results showed that GSH-Px activity was decreased in all chicken breast muscles (Se supplemented and NaCl treated) during refrigerated storage at 4 °C for 12 days. Our results were different from those in fish, several beef muscles and beef psoas major and LD and pork LD muscles, which indicated stability of GSH-Px. However, our results were in agreement with those on turkey and in chickens [45,38,46,43, 39].

Table 3.5. Effects of different Se sources and NaCl treated chicken breast meats on TAC over 12 days of storage at 4 °C

Days

Conc of NaCl

Control

SS

SY-I

SY-II

MS

0

Control

0.31±0.01d

0.33±0.00bc

0.37±0.03a

0.37±0.02a

0.35±0.01ab

3

0

0.29±0.02fg

0.32±0.02de

0.36±0.00abc

0.39±0.01a

0.36±0.02abc

1.5%

0.27±0.03gh

0.31±0.02ef

0.34±0.01bcd

0.37±0.00ab

0.35±0.01bcd

3.0%

0.25±0.02h

0.31±0.03ef

0.33±0.01cde

0.35±0.04bcd

0.36±0.01abc

6

0

0.27±0.04cd

0.32±0.01ab

0.34±0.02ab

0.35±0.03a

0.35±0.04a

1.5%

0.25±0.03d

0.30±0.01bc

0.33±0.01ab

0.34±0.02ab

0.32±0.01ab

3.0%

0.23±0.03d

0.28±0.03cd

0.32±0.05ab

0.32±0.04ab

0.31±0.03abc

9

0

0.26±0.05cde

0.31±0.01ab

0.34±0.02a

0.35±0.00a

0.34±0.01a

1.5%

0.24±0.03de

0.31±0.02ab

0.34±0.01a

0.33±0.03ab

0.29±0.06bc

3.0%

0.22±0.01f

0.26±0.04cde

0.32±0.02ab

0.31±0.04ab

0.28±0.03bcd

12

0

0.24±0.03fgh

0.31±0.01bcd

0.34±0.01ab

0.35±0.01a

0.32±0.03abc

1.5%

0.22±0.04gh

0.29±0.00cde

0.32±0.01abc

0.32±0.03abc

0.28±0.03cdef

3.0%

0.21±0.01h

0.25±0.06efg

0.30±0.03bcd

0.28±0.03cde

0.26±0.02def

Means in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05)

The TAC reflects the total antioxidant capacity of the body. Low TAC could be an indicator of oxidative stress or higher susceptibility to oxidative damage. It mainly measures the chain-breaking antioxidants including ascorbate, bilirubin, urate, and thiols (in the aqueous phase) and α-tocopherol, carotenoids, and flavonoids (in the lipid phase) that have low molecular weight (excluding the antioxidant enzymes and metal-binding proteins). The results of present study showed that Se supplementation increased the TAC in chicken breast meat and TAC was also stable over 12 days of storage at 4°C [39,40,41]. Our results are similar with the previous studies [39].

3.4.4. Effect of salt and ionic strength

Previous assays showed that ionic strength has an effect on the antioxidant enzyme activities and there is no effect of salt type [47]. To decrease the risk of hypertension, sodium level in meat products should be reduced [48,49]. One simple method is to replace NaCl with other types of chloride salts. The other way is to reduce the NaCl ionic strengths and use of other antioxidants in combination with NaCl. In our present study, we found GSH-Px activity reduced with different NaCl concentrations over 12 days of storage at 4 °C in chicken breast meats supplemented with different Se sources (Table 3.2). The change was lower in SY supplement chicken breast meats treated with 1.5% NaCl. The CAT, T-SOD and TAC remained stable (Table 3.3-3.5). Lower GSH-Px and similar catalase activities in the NaCl-treated pork muscles was also reported [47].

Table 3.6. Effects of different Se sources and NaCl treated chicken breast meats on TBARS contents over 12 days of storage at 4 °C

Days

Conc of NaCl

Control

SS

SY-I

SY-II

MS

0

Control

0.41±0.02a

0.32±0.02b

0.28±0.00c

0.26±0.01d

0.30±0.00b

3

0

0.78±0.01b

0.54±0.01ef

0.37±0.01gh

0.32±0.01h

0.45±0.00fg

1.5%

1.00±0.25a

0.74±0.07bc

0.59±0.03de

0.53±0.03ef

0.70±0.00bc

3.0%

1.07±0.01a

0.78±0.02b

0.65±0.05cd

0.59±0.02de

0.75±0.03b

6

0

1.00±0.02gh

0.85±0.00i

0.71±0.11k

0.58±0.02l

0.78±0.04j

1.5%

1.41±0.01c

1.25±0.02e

1.02±0.00g

0.96±0.02h

1.18±0.04f

3.0%

1.67±0.02a

1.52±0.04b

1.30±0.00d

1.23±0.03ef

1.48±0.05b

9

0

1.34±0.03f

1.04±0.05h

0.75±0.05j

0.72±0.02j

0.95±0.03i

1.5%

2.00±0.02b

1.60±0.01d

1.39±0.01f

1.26±0.05g

1.49±0.13e

3.0%

2.08±0.07a

1.67±0.04c

1.50±0.06e

1.34±0.01f

1.53±0.09e

12

0

1.50±0.03fg

1.30±0.01h

1.00±0.05j

0.99±0.06j

1.16±0.04i

1.5%

2.16±0.05a

1.75±0.08bc

1.48±0.08g

1.31±0.05h

1.58±0.08ef

3.0%

2.21±0.09a

1.80±0.12b

1.69±0.10cd

1.42±0.11g

1.65±0.05de

Means in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05).

Little has been known about how antioxidant enzymes and TAC may be affected by different types of salt and their ionic strength. It has been reported that no inactivation of GSH-Px, CAT, and T-SOD was found by NaCl in ground pork muscle during frozen storage [37]. However, they observed a decrease in the activity of these enzymes when NaCl was added to the muscle extract used in the enzyme assays; hence, they suggested that the enzymes could be inhibited in salted pork. Another study reported that the effect of the different NaCl percentages used in the manufacturing processes of dry cured loins on the GSH-Px activity and the TBARS values and they found no statistically significant interaction of salt concentration and meat quality on both GSH-Px activity and TBARS. Samples with 2% of NaCl presented higher enzyme activity than samples manufactured with 3% of salt [50]. In this study, chicken GSH-Px activity decreased in higher ionic strength. In the current study, GSH-Px activities of meat samples decreased significantly over storage days. However, salt concentration had no consistent effect on CAT, T-SOD activities and TAC in chicken breast meats. TBARS values for all raw meats from different treatments are shown in (Table 3.6).

Table 3.7. ANOVA Values of NaCl treated Antioxidant Enzymes of effect of different Se sources on breast meat during 12 days of storage at 4° C

GSH-Px

CAT

T-SOD

TAC

MDA

Se sources (S)

<0.00

<0.00

<0.00

<0.00

<0.00

Days (D)

<0.00

<0.00

<0.00

<0.00

<0.00

NaCl concentrations (NC)

<0.00

<0.00

<0.00

<0.00

<0.00

Interaction SXD

NS*

NS*

NS*

<0.00

<0.00

Interaction SXNC

NS*

NS*

NS*

NS*

<0.00

Interaction DXNC

<0.00

<0.00

NS*

<0.00

<0.00

Interaction SXDX NC

NS*

NS*

NS*

NS*

<0.00

NS* Nonsignificant

In the present study, it was found that SY and MS supplementations showed lower (p< 0.05) TBARS values than SS-supplemented and in control groups at 0 day and during the 12 days of storage at 4°C.

Furthermore, when it was treated with different concentration of salt, the chicken breast meats treated with 3.0% NaCl showed high TBARS values. However, the TBARS values of SY enriched chicken breast meats were significantly lower than those of SS supplemented and Se without supplemented chicken breast meats over 12 days of storage at 4°C. Similar findings were reported in other studies [44,51,52]. TBARS level was increased with the increase of salt concentration. This result might be due the fusion of the intracellular compounds and the destruction of the cell membrane and cell structure by NaCl. The other possible reason might be this NaCl displace iron ions from the binding sites that also increased the rate of LO. However, in other study they found that amounts of TBARS in raw chicken breast and thigh muscles were not changed during a 7-d storage period [53].

In conclusion, chicken breast muscle enriched with SY had higher values of CAT, T-SOD activities and TAC. They were stable during 12 days of storage after even treating with different concentrations of NaCl. The SS supplemented chicken breast meat samples had higher GSH-Px activity but it decreased with the increase of storage days and concentration of NaCl. SY supplemented chicken breast meats treated with 1.5% has lower lipid oxidation as compared to 3.0% NaCl. SY enriched chicken breast meat treated with different concentrations of NaCl had lower LO than without Se supplemented and SS supplemented chicken breast meats.

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