Effects Of Poverty And Crime Rates Biology Essay

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Imagine someone walking downtown, going home from buying shoes and this person sees a homeless teenager, asking politely for money, this person declines gruffly. A couple days later this same person hears of a robbery at said persons favorite shoe store, the woman who was working at the store was stabbed as she tried to call the police. A teenager is the suspect and was caught on tape, the same one who was asking for money. This is a reality for many people, not only children, but many adults must turn to a life of crime, just to survive another day. Poverty is not the only reason crimes are committed but it does seem to have some sort of connection. "Today nearly 16 million Americans live in "deep or severe poverty"" (CAPA). In this study, being explored will be whether poverty has a correlation with crime rates, whether the number of police officers affects crime rates and does education affect crime rates.

Poverty is not thought of by many people. In general people like to think out of sight, out of mind. While crime is often thought of and the news portrays crime every day, people are bound to think of crime even on the subconscious level (Why do you lock your car?). Putting these two phenomena's together one is able to get a clear view as to why some people are "criminals" and others are not, and what leads people to become criminals.

There are many reasons that may lead someone to go from a "regular" life to a life of crime. Having the need for money, wanting to fit in with a crowd and if there is no other choice. Now one must consider the possibility that criminals are in fact born and not made. If we exclude all these external factors that are very hard to measure then we end up with results leaning in the direction that less education, more economic inequality and more police officers all lead up to a higher chance of one committing a crime. In a study done in the U.S. there was a direct correlation between the amount of police officers and the crime rate. Also noted was the fact that lack of education had a higher correlation to crime than poverty. To counter that, not poverty so much as inequality of money, has a higher correlation that almost anything else during the study.

A report made by the Canadian Center for Justice Statistics in 2008 showed that crime rates have gone up 3 % but since the Youth Criminal Justice Act was introduced it has stayed relatively level. In 2006 youth being accused with violent offenses accounted for almost 25% of charges. While youth being accused is not rising significantly, youth being charged with violent crimes are on the rise. On the other hand youth being charged with property crime is at its lowest in a decade, down nearly 41 % (this could be because of home security systems). Once again on the flip side youth being charged with drug crimes have gone up an incredible 97% in the last 10 years, while most of the charges are cannabis-related (84%), although the proportion of youth being charged with cocaine-related crimes has doubled in the last 10 years. While 1 in 10 crimes are committed on school property most of those crimes are assault (27%) followed by drug offenses (18%), less than 1% of crimes at school are firearm related, which is a good sign. Lastly crime rate has gone up in every province, except Quebec with the lowest youth being arrested at 3,765 per 100,000.

The effects of poverty and many other areas will be studied at length; with all the variables in place it will be very difficult to make an informed decision without more time, money and resources, but with the information available on the internet the correlation shall become clear.

Methodology

The method that was going to be used for this research paper was a primary source of data given out to the Syl Apps youth center in the form of a survey (see Appendix A for survey and Appendix B for letter head). It would have been random sampling of youth, but it would have also been voluntary, so the results may have been biased towards youth who felt strongly enough to do the survey. The youth who filled it out could have filled it out as a joke, or to get it over with. They are in a penitentiary so they may not be the best source of data. In the end the survey was not handed to the youth because they were protected under the Youth Criminal Justice Act and were not allowed to be made publicized. Since using the survey would not be an option, secondary data came into play, so all the data in this report is from outside sources; therefore their validity cannot be assured. Although the data is from Statistics Canada there is always a margin for error and the numbers may be rounded. Another area of concern for Statistics Canada is the data which is collected and organized in different forms, as in the crime rate per 100,000 people will be the data for one set, and the other data set all gross crimes. So you could not accurately portray the data because they are two different sets even though they look the same. The data which was collected was very good and had many different years and charts related to it, but most of the crime rates were per 100,000 people, while all the police statistics are accurate as to how many police there are. Now to change this I had to take the police officers numbers and divide that by the population which occupies that province. Doing this I was able to more accurately portray what was happening in regards to crime and police officers. Now for the youth, it was much easier to correlate this with the amount of police officers because the raw data found was the real numbers, not per 100,000, but the next challenge was to find the data for all the provinces. Now that was found I had to correlate the different provinces, with the different crimes and then with the amount of police officers. Lastly was the poverty rate and crimes, but even this was not an exact number range, because you never know if the kids who live in poverty are the ones who commit crimes.

Limitations

There were many limitations on the subject chosen not only because of the data needed, but also laws that are in place for the sole reason to protect our youth. The first and most noticeable limitation was the lack of primary data. It was very difficult to collect all the data needed to make good correlations between data pieces. I needed to get several different sources together and compare the two data pieces (let's say youth charged and police activity), then from that data I had to see what their education level was (only an approximation) at the time, and add into that was the poverty at the time. Because I could not get any specifics on any one person being convicted than I could not know if the youth committing the crime were living in poverty or if the 13% of people living in poverty were the ones not committing the crimes. Since it's impossible to tell what goes where all one can do is make assumptions and charts of the trends for that year or collection of years. If the use of not only secondary, outdated data, but also the use of a primary, controlled data (survey) would have been easier to quickly and efficiently identify if there is a direct correlation between a person with lower income and crime. The raw data is not very clear so it is hard to correlate the data.

Results

From the statistical data found in the research period, there are many, many different data sets that have been reviewed and calculated to bring someone the easiest to review and most appealing graph which will show one the correlation between the number of police officers and crime rates in adults. One will review the crime rates in youth and adults, the conviction rate in youth and the poverty rate that has gone up or down in the past year.

In the graph above it shows that there is some sort of correlation between the number of police officers and the amount of crimes being committed. On the right the y Axis is the number of crimes per every 100,000 people in a certain province. On the bottom there is the number of police officers (on average in Canada there are 358 people per officer, see Appendix for data). As one can see there is a spike in the crime rate and little to no police activity in that area. This is The Northwest Territories, there are approximately 180 police officers there, and almost 48,000 crimes4 committed per 100,000 people. Almost half the people, if the data is accurate, have committed a crime in 2007. In Ontario there were around 26,000 police officers in 2007 and only 5,000 crimes committed. This is a clear example of how if there are more police officers, there is less crime. The R2=0.4139, this is not a perfect correlation, but it is still a relatively strong correlation between the fact that if there are more police officers than there should be less crime. This would seem like the likely explanation, that because of the police there is peace and order in our society. There is another explanation; education. With Ontario one of the lowest drop out rates and the North West Territories the highest, maybe there is some sort of connection. Unfortunately there is not enough data available on First nation or North West Territories for the past years to make a proper comparison, but it is thought to be that around 28 % of first nation youth drop out of high school, while only 9.8 % drop out in Ontario. This is some pretty strong evidence in favour of education and police activities. To conclude this part, there is a strong correlation between the amount of police officers and the crime rates in most of Canada, but there is also a strong correlation between the amounts of education and crime rates in Canada.

In 2006/2007 there were 56,463 youth who were charged with offences relating to the criminal code of Canada. As one could deduct from the graph above around 50 % of the charges were withdrawn or dismissed, probably because they were not worth going to court (minor theft) or they were found innocent of the crime they were charged with. But there is that 30 percent of youth who were charged with whatever that crime may be (majority of crimes were assault), that would mean 56,463*0.30= 16,938.9 youth were charged in Ontario. With 2.2 million5 youth in Canada, the amount of youth being charged is only 0.00769909 %, a very small percentile, but this is only the known crimes that were large enough to be brought to the court system, this is not including small drug charges or petty theft. It shows that these are mostly the charges of someone who is mentally unstable, not empoverished. Now with approximatly 12.96 percent of youth living in poverty, it is impossible to tell if there is any correlation between the youth who have commited a small enough crime to go unoticed by the court system, because there are no statistics for these youth. If there were no laws in place it might be possible to find some information pertaning to youth who are in prison, but without that you cannot.

Lastly let us explore the crimes that have been commited in the past 40 or so years in Canada. Like all data sets there is always a peak and in this case it is no different. The peak here was around 1991-1993, this could be because of many external factors, but the most important one is the Quebec referendums. In 1980 and 1995, where Quebec wanted to become its own country. This is known to have caused many outbursts from both sides of the goverment, and many people died, though none directly associated with the referendum. Also during this time there was Canada trying to get on good terms with Quebec. The Meech Lake Accord was one of the meetings followed by the Charlottown Agreement, neither of which Quebec signed. This was all happening during this time period, so this is an explanation of why the crime rate was over 10 % or over 10,000 crimes commited per 100,0007 people at that time. This is only a hypothesis. The data shows a steady increase in crime up to the peak in 1992, but from then on there is a slow decrease in crime. This could be because of the welfare programs and other such things that could help the people who need it most.

Discussion

Now that all the data has been introduced (there is much more raw data), it is time to review what has been discovered in the findings. The question posed at the beginning was whether or not police, education and poverty had any real correlation to crime rates. The first graphical display conveyed that indeed there was a strong correlation between the amount of police officers and crime. Also there was the education factor to consider, because of the lower education in some parts. Higher drop out rates it happened to be in the parts where there was more crime. In the case of crime there is some sort of correlation between either police officers and/or education rates relating to crime. The second graphical display is one of Youth Court Decisions. In 2006/2007 there were 56,463 cases brought to court, half of which were dropped or were withdrawn. Keep in mind these are only the crimes serious enough to make it to court, not your regular teen with drugs or petty theft. Of these 56,463 the majority were withdrawn or dismissed, of the remaining sentences given out most of them were proven guilty and went though some sort of system, whether that be community service or juvenile hall. Now measuring the poverty was very hard, but that will come up later. Lastly the area graph was displayed to show how crime has risen quite a substantial amount, and peaked between 1992 to 1995, around the time the referendum of 1995 was going through parliament. After this point crime has slowly decreased by around 333.33 crimes per year. This could be because of the new laws or old laws being revised, because of programs that make teenagers want to stay in school, especially boys. The biggest possibility is welfare and employment oppertunities have increased since that time period, all of these options could be why crime is on the decline.

Future Work

This project has gone a long way since the start, but it still has a long way it could go if there were more time, resources and if there were no laws in place protecting the people's privacy. The first two options are attainable, but the last is not. It's the nature of the subject of law; law is not black and white, it's a shady gray area. With the time allotted this report has only scratched the surface of something our society thinks itself above; poverty and crime. Sadly this is part of every body's lives. With more resources, it would have been possible to find much more statistical data. With the more data it would have been possible to plot a more accurate graph and see more trends in the data. It may have been possible to see the average age crimes are committed, the demographics where the crimes are committed and maybe even police reports. All of this would help in making it more accurate, but other than being able to give out an anonymous survey it would not be possible to do much else in the way of collecting data. The survey would have given me a small number of people, but it would have been able to more accurately find all the points needed, like Income Vs. Crime, which could not be accurately found using Statistics Canada, because you could never know if the percentile of people committing the crime is the percentile of ones who live in poverty. These are the limitations that occurred during the report, and could have been eased by time and resources, but no matter what you plan there will always be a bump.

Conclusion

Explored above were the potential correlations between the number of police officers and crime, the education level of youth or dropout rates and crime, youth's court and decisions and what has been happening to crime in our beloved country. Having discovered that there was a correlation between police officers and crime rates, but not a particularly strong correlation. Digging further and noticed that not only is there a weak police force in areas of high crime, but a higher dropout rate, and overall lower education. This was not what had been planned, but finding out that all three correlated together made things very interesting. The original question was whether poverty affects crime. Soon it was discovered that it was near impossible to correlate these two data types, one was of the amount of people living in poverty, and the other crime rates. Both gave one good numbers, but one could not define for sure whether or not the percentile or people committing crimes were the same as the percentile of those living in poverty. This was a dead end. Lastly explored was the crime history in Canada, and what was noted was it spike in the early 90's, but since then has slowly gone down. It is not known why, but further research should be done to see what effect caused this change. In conclusion there have been some ups and downs with the research, but what was not found was replaced by something that was not anticipated to begin with. "When one door closes another door opens ;"( Alexander Graham Bell).

Work Cited

Crime Statistics in Canada, 2000. (n.d.). Statistics Canada. Retrieved December 16, 2010, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/85-002-x2001008-eng.pdf

Crime and Justice. (n.d.). Statistics Canada. Retrieved September 15, 2010, from http://www41.statcan.gc.ca/2009/2693/cybac2693_000-eng.htm

Low Income Amoung Youth. (n.d.). Statistics Canada. Retrieved December 16, 2010, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/11f0019m1995082-eng.pdf

Police-Reported Aboriginal Crime. (n.d.). Statistics Canada. Retrieved December 15, 2010, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85f0031x/85f0031x1997001-eng.pdf

Provincial drop-out rates. (n.d.). Statistics Canada: Canada's national statistical agency / Statistique Canada : Organisme statistique national du Canada. Retrieved December 16, 2010, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/81-004-x/2005004/8984-eng.htm

2006., & offence., t. l. (n.d.). The Daily, Friday, May 16, 2008. Youth crime. Statistics Canada: Canada's national statistical agency / Statistique Canada : Organisme statistique national du Canada. Retrieved December 16, 2010, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/080516/dq080516a-eng.htm

Appendix A

Investigating Crime Rates In Teens.

Hello. My name is Russell Horne and I am handing out this survey as a part of my data management course at Iroquois Ridge High School. The following survey will be used for the courses summative. All the answers are anonymous so please answer as honestly as possible. The question I am posing is whether Poverty has a direct correlation to crime rates.

________________________________________

* Required

What is your gender? *

• Male

• Female

How old are you? *

What is your families income level? *

• 0-10,000$

• 10,001$-30,000$

• 30,001$-60,000$

• 60,001$-90,000$

• 90,000$ or more

What is the crime you were charged with? *

• Theft

• Vandalism

• Driving offences

• Arson

• Assault

• Rape

• Homicide

• Other:

Why did you commit this crime?

Did you have any extra curricular activities you participated in? *

If yes, what were they? *

• Sports

• Music

• Clubs

• Other:

Do you plan on going to Post Secondary? College, University, Apprenticeship

• Yes, College

• Yes, University

• Yes, Apprentiship

• Not planning on it

What is the education level of your parents?

• Mother has High School diploma

• Father has High School diploma

• Mother has Post secondary education

• Father has Post secondary education

• Other:

Appendix B

Hi Russell -

Due to legislative confidentiality rules governed ed by the Ministry of Child and Youth Services (MCYS), students in our section program are unable to participate in your study.

You may want to get in touch with MCYS directly and they maybe able to point you in the direction of valuable data as this kind of information has been studied in the past.

Another source of information , specific to Halton, is a report produced called "A Vision for Children in Halton :Report Card 2008" . It speaks to the developmental assets of youth, and presents information according to regions in Halton, which factor in poverty levels. Alan Frost, from Halton Regional Police Services was part of the creation of this report card; I do not know for sure but he may also be able to point you in the direction of some stats that correlate with crime and poverty level.

Best of luck to you.

LORAINE FEDURCO

Principal

CTCC Programs

Halton District School Board

905.844.4110 x 2833

RUSSELL HORNE on December 5, 2010 at 12:15 PM -0500 wrote:

Hello Loraine

My name is Russell Horne and I am a Grade 12 student at Iroquois Ridge High School. For my summative in Data management this year i need to collect data on a subject correlating to another. My subject/ Question is whether Poverty has a direct correlation to crime in teens. I was wondering whether it would be possible if a number of your students could fill out my survey, it is anonymous and no one will know who filed them out, all i need is 50 or so students to fill them out.

Please get back to me ASAP as the surveying is supposed to start soon.

Appendices

All the data collected throughout the research project.

Table 7.11  Youth court, by type of decision, 2006/2007

 

Total decisions

Guilty

Acquitted

Stay

Withdrawn or dismissed

Other decisions

 

number

Total offences

56,463

34,065

727

9,098

12,196

377

TotalCriminal Code offences

46,907

27,581

661

8,008

10,344

313

Criminal Codeoffences (excluding traffic)

45,821

26,695

629

7,968

10,218

311

Crimes against the person

15,126

9,164

369

2,177

3,315

101

Homicide

40

21

0

11

8

0

Attempted murder

23

6

2

6

9

0

Robbery

2,228

1,355

48

184

629

12

Sexual assault

723

459

42

78

139

5

Other sexual offences

442

272

22

45

97

6

Major assault

3,435

2,213

93

458

641

30

Common assault

5,682

3,404

89

945

1,211

33

Uttering threats

2,137

1,218

64

386

461

8

Criminal harassment

135

55

3

20

52

5

Other crimes against the person

281

161

6

44

68

2

Property crimes

21,279

11,793

175

4,540

4,650

121

Theft

7,687

4,078

45

1,852

1,675

37

Break and enter

5,066

3,364

41

712

909

40

Fraud

817

441

6

192

172

6

Mischief

3,878

2,029

41

856

948

4

Possession of stolen goods

3,505

1,701

34

865

871

34

Other property crimes

326

180

8

63

75

0

Administration of justice

4,945

3,164

20

407

1,292

62

OtherCriminal Code offences

4,471

2,574

65

844

961

27

Criminal Codetraffic offences

1,086

886

32

40

126

2

Impaired driving

557

464

20

17

55

1

Other Criminal Codetraffic offences

529

422

12

23

71

1

Other federal statute offences

9,556

6,484

66

1,090

1,852

64

Drug possession

2,430

1,050

8

567

797

8

Drug trafficking

1,305

730

26

203

340

6

Youth Criminal Justice Act

4,795

3,912

29

235

578

41

Residual federal statute offences

1,026

792

3

85

137

9

Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM table 252-0049.

Table 7.13  Police officers, by province and territory, 2004 to 2008

 

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

 

number

Canada

59,800

61,026

62,461

64,134

65,283

Newfoundland and Labrador

766

776

799

838

884

Prince Edward Island

207

213

220

227

231

Nova Scotia

1,615

1,624

1,667

1,758

1,864

New Brunswick

1,302

1,297

1,291

1,326

1,355

Quebec

14,426

14,753

15,099

15,233

15,403

Ontario

23,214

23,420

23,759

24,450

24,945

Manitoba

2,266

2,256

2,313

2,409

2,419

Saskatchewan

2,010

2,011

2,030

2,046

2,124

Alberta

5,123

5,335

5,604

5,703

5,734

British Columbia

7,072

7,445

7,678

8,075

8,134

Yukon

121

120

116

119

117

Northwest Territories

171

173

171

175

178

Nunavut

123

121

122

123

119

Royal Canadian Mounted Police Headquarters and Training Academy

1,384

1,482

1,592

1,652

1,776

Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM table 254-0002.

 

Canada

N.L.

P.E.I.

N.S.

N.B.

Que.

Ont.

Man.

Sask.

Alta.

B.C.

Y.T.

N.W.T.

Nvt.

 

rate per 100,000 population

All offences

7,657.40

7,032.50

6,692.80

8,206.10

6,221.90

5,881.30

5,634.40

11,578.20

14,982.80

10,129.00

11,564.80

23,463.20

47,472.90

31,713.40

Criminal Codeoffences (excluding traffic offences)

6,862.70

6,375.00

5,976.50

7,490.20

5,521.30

5,119.70

5,062.60

10,868.00

13,269.60

9,213.90

10,334.20

21,320.50

43,903.20

29,997.10

Crimes against the person

940.9

951.9

663.7

1,072.50

852.9

744.1

745.3

1,535.70

2,036.10

1,116.60

1,185.20

2,923.60

7,071.30

7,164.20

Homicide

1.8

0.6

0

1.4

1.1

1.2

1.6

5.2

3

2.5

2

6.5

4.7

22.5

Attempted murder

2.4

0.2

0.7

2.7

0.5

3

2.2

3.1

4.1

1.9

2.4

0

4.7

12.9

Assault (Level 1 to 3)1

718.5

813.6

583.6

877.7

698.3

537.9

545.7

1,167.70

1,664.20

886.8

926.3

2,639.70

6,370.10

6,142.10

Sexual assault

65

81.2

52.7

75.2

65.6

56.4

56.5

105.2

121.5

64.3

69.1

193.6

492.5

668.5

Other sexual offences

8.4

7.9

5.8

6.7

21.7

12.4

4.8

8

16.5

6.2

9.9

9.7

25.8

77.1

Robbery

101

29.6

10.8

70.8

30.7

91.6

92.1

202

158

110.3

126.6

48.4

58.6

38.6

Other crimes against the person2

43.7

18.8

10.1

38.1

35

41.6

42.5

44.5

68.8

44.7

49

25.8

114.9

202.5

Property crimes

3,319.70

2,282.80

2,659.70

3,072.30

2,305.20

2,869.00

2,635.40

4,406.50

4,313.70

4,258.90

5,176.60

4,369.30

5,795.40

4,133.30

Break and enter

700.3

717.8

509.3

662.9

511.4

778.7

485.9

1,037.90

1,147.40

726.9

994.3

1,100.40

2,078.00

1,883.50

Motor vehicle theft

443.2

119.7

120.5

200.7

179.1

470.3

271.3

1,236.30

554.3

669.2

619

432.4

703.6

665.3

Theft over $5,000

52.7

14

31

38.1

37.2

59.3

42.2

48

39.8

69.9

72.9

64.5

70.4

51.4

Theft $5,000 and under

1,756.50

1,173.10

1,772.40

1,672.10

1,300.40

1,316.90

1,464.40

1,826.40

2,123.60

2,258.90

3,036.70

2,362.10

2,572.90

1,218.10

Possession of stolen goods

99.4

32.8

45.5

231.1

42.4

39.4

105.6

72.9

128.5

175

118.4

83.9

105.5

96.4

Fraud

267.7

225.4

181.1

267.4

234.7

204.3

266

185.1

320.1

359.1

335.5

325.9

265

218.6

Other Criminal Codeoffences

2,602.20

3,140.40

2,653.20

3,345.30

2,363.20

1,506.60

1,681.90

4,925.80

6,919.80

3,838.40

3,972.40

14,027.60

31,036.40

18,699.60

Criminal Codetraffic offences

400.1

340.1

533.1

350.1

363.6

460.7

253

342.4

1,068.90

580.1

436.8

1,297.20

2,028.80

1,060.70

Impaired driving

241.1

274.4

432.1

273

279

210.5

139.4

252.2

544.8

415.6

332.6

1,119.80

1,801.30

906.4

Other Criminal Codetraffic offences3

159

65.8

101

77.1

84.6

250.3

113.7

90.2

524.1

164.5

104.2

177.5

227.5

154.3

Federal statute offences

394.6

317.4

183.2

365.9

337

300.9

318.8

367.8

644.4

335

793.8

845.5

1,540.90

655.7

Drugs4

305.3

169.3

142.1

268.3

249.7

264.4

242.3

207.8

286

261.7

653.7

674.4

1,069.50

514.3

Other federal statute offences

89.3

148.1

41.1

97.6

87.4

36.6

76.5

160

358.4

73.3

140.2

171

471.4

141.4

Note:A revision of populations for 2004/2006 was applied to this table in 2007. Crime rates may have been affected, and caution should be used when comparing data to any previous version of this table.

1. Level 1, or common, assault includes pushing, slapping, punching and face-to-face threats; Level 2 assault is defined as assault with a weapon or causing bodily harm; Level 3, or aggravated, assault is defined as assault that wounds, maims, disfigures or endangers the life of the victim.

2. Includes unlawfully causing bodily harm, discharging firearms with intent, abductions, assaults against police officers, assaults against other peace or public officers and other assaults.

3. Includes dangerous operation of a motor vehicle, boat, vessel or aircraft; dangerous operation of a motor vehicle, boat, vessel or aircraft causing bodily harm or death; driving a motor vehicle while prohibited; and failure to stop or remain.

4. Includes possession, trafficking, importation and production.

Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM table 252-0013.

Table 7.10  Youth court, sentenced cases, by outcome, 2006/2007

 

Total guilty cases

Custody

Conditional sentence

Deferred custody and supervision

Intensive support and supervision

Probation

Attendance at non-residential program

Fine

Community service

Reprimand

Other sentences

 

number

Total offences

34,065

5,640

27

1,080

347

19,953

213

1,860

8,120

724

11,671

Total Criminal Code offences

27,581

4,535

21

890

289

17,030

152

1,136

6,400

552

9,741

Criminal Code offences (excluding traffic)

26,695

4,448

21

871

280

16,652

150

792

6,254

550

9,129

Crimes against the person

9,164

1,591

13

422

144

6,249

43

102

1,969

102

3,642

Homicide

21

15

0

1

0

7

0

0

1

0

8

Attempted murder

6

5

0

0

0

5

0

0

1

0

3

Robbery

1,355

500

1

113

38

990

6

3

323

6

738

Sexual assault

459

55

1

35

14

360

0

1

59

1

145

Other sexual offences

272

30

0

17

9

213

0

0

32

0

63

Major assault1

2,213

429

3

117

49

1,543

18

30

514

10

922

Common assault2

3,404

341

7

89

21

2,136

12

50

741

59

1,337

Uttering threats

1,218

164

0

34

11

832

6

12

232

26

331

Criminal harassment

55

7

0

4

0

38

0

4

17

0

27

Other crimes against the person

161

45

1

12

2

125

1

2

49

0

68

Property crimes

11,793

1,607

2

292

90

7,454

65

370

3,243

198

3,859

Theft

4,078

423

1

73

31

2,371

40

191

1,145

103

1,423

Break and enter

3,364

635

0

112

32

2,461

10

34

975

12

903

Fraud

441

58

0

12

3

270

2

16

98

9

157

Mischief

2,029

159

1

40

5

1,169

9

59

553

42

819

Possession of stolen goods

1,701

306

0

53

13

1,053

4

63

422

30

497

Other property crimes

180

26

0

2

6

130

0

7

50

2

60

Administration of justice

3,164

849

2

61

15

1,371

24

226

505

193

683

OtherCriminal Code offences

2,574

401

4

96

31

1,578

18

94

537

57

945

Criminal Codetraffic offences

886

87

0

19

9

378

2

344

146

2

612

Impaired driving

464

1

0

1

0

118

0

304

65

1

413

Other Criminal Codetraffic offences

422

86

0

18

9

260

2

40

81

1

199

Other federal statutes

6,484

1,105

6

190

58

2,923

61

724

1,720

172

1,930

Drug possession

1,050

17

4

0

1

477

9

161

299

39

628

Drug trafficking

730

102

2

31

4

543

3

32

241

3

436

Table 7.1  Crimes, by type of offence and by province and territory, 2007

 

Canada

N.L.

P.E.I.

N.S.

N.B.

Que.

Ont.

Man.

Sask.

Alta.

B.C.

Y.T.

N.W.T.

Nvt.

 

rate per 100,000 population

All offences

7,657.40

7,032.50

6,692.80

8,206.10

6,221.90

5,881.30

5,634.40

11,578.20

14,982.80

10,129.00

11,564.80

23,463.20

47,472.90

31,713.40

Criminal Codeoffences (excluding traffic offences)

6,862.70

6,375.00

5,976.50

7,490.20

5,521.30

5,119.70

5,062.60

10,868.00

13,269.60

9,213.90

10,334.20

21,320.50

43,903.20

29,997.10

Crimes against the person

940.9

951.9

663.7

1,072.50

852.9

744.1

745.3

1,535.70

2,036.10

1,116.60

1,185.20

2,923.60

7,071.30

7,164.20

Homicide

1.8

0.6

0

1.4

1.1

1.2

1.6

5.2

3

2.5

2

6.5

4.7

22.5

Attempted murder

2.4

0.2

0.7

2.7

0.5

3

2.2

3.1

4.1

1.9

2.4

0

4.7

12.9

Assault (Level 1 to 3)1

718.5

813.6

583.6

877.7

698.3

537.9

545.7

1,167.70

1,664.20

886.8

926.3

2,639.70

6,370.10

6,142.10

Sexual assault

65

81.2

52.7

75.2

65.6

56.4

56.5

105.2

121.5

64.3

69.1

193.6

492.5

668.5

Other sexual offences

8.4

7.9

5.8

6.7

21.7

12.4

4.8

8

16.5

6.2

9.9

9.7

25.8

77.1

Robbery

101

29.6

10.8

70.8

30.7

91.6

92.1

202

158

110.3

126.6

48.4

58.6

38.6

Other crimes against the person2

43.7

18.8

10.1

38.1

35

41.6

42.5

44.5

68.8

44.7

49

25.8

114.9

202.5

Property crimes

3,319.70

2,282.80

2,659.70

3,072.30

2,305.20

2,869.00

2,635.40

4,406.50

4,313.70

4,258.90

5,176.60

4,369.30

5,795.40

4,133.30

Break and enter

700.3

717.8

509.3

662.9

511.4

778.7

485.9

1,037.90

1,147.40

726.9

994.3

1,100.40

2,078.00

1,883.50

Motor vehicle theft

443.2

119.7

120.5

200.7

179.1

470.3

271.3

1,236.30

554.3

669.2

619

432.4

703.6

665.3

Theft over $5,000

52.7

14

31

38.1

37.2

59.3

42.2

48

39.8

69.9

72.9

64.5

70.4

51.4

Theft $5,000 and under

1,756.50

1,173.10

1,772.40

1,672.10

1,300.40

1,316.90

1,464.40

1,826.40

2,123.60

2,258.90

3,036.70

2,362.10

2,572.90

1,218.10

Possession of stolen goods

99.4

32.8

45.5

231.1

42.4

39.4

105.6

72.9

128.5

175

118.4

83.9

105.5

96.4

Fraud

267.7

225.4

181.1

267.4

234.7

204.3

266

185.1

320.1

359.1

335.5

325.9

265

218.6

Other Criminal Codeoffences

2,602.20

3,140.40

2,653.20

3,345.30

2,363.20

1,506.60

1,681.90

4,925.80

6,919.80

3,838.40

3,972.40

14,027.60

31,036.40

18,699.60

Criminal Codetraffic offences

400.1

340.1

533.1

350.1

363.6

460.7

253

342.4

1,068.90

580.1

436.8

1,297.20

2,028.80

1,060.70

Impaired driving

241.1

274.4

432.1

273

279

210.5

139.4

252.2

544.8

415.6

332.6

1,119.80

1,801.30

906.4

Other Criminal Codetraffic offences3

159

65.8

101

77.1

84.6

250.3

113.7

90.2

524.1

164.5

104.2

177.5

227.5

154.3

Federal statute offences

394.6

317.4

183.2

365.9

337

300.9

318.8

367.8

644.4

335

793.8

845.5

1,540.90

655.7

Drugs4

305.3

169.3

142.1

268.3

249.7

264.4

242.3

207.8

286

261.7

653.7

674.4

1,069.50

514.3

Other federal statute offences

89.3

148.1

41.1

97.6

87.4

36.6

76.5

160

358.4

73.3

140.2

171

471.4

141.4

Note:A revision of populations for 2004/2006 was applied to this table in 2007. Crime rates may have been affected, and caution should be used when comparing data to any previous version of this table.

1. Level 1, or common, assault includes pushing, slapping, punching and face-to-face threats; Level 2 assault is defined as assault with a weapon or causing bodily harm; Level 3, or aggravated, assault is defined as assault that wounds, maims, disfigures or endangers the life of the victim.

2. Includes unlawfully causing bodily harm, discharging firearms with intent, abductions, assaults against police officers, assaults against other peace or public officers and other assaults.

3. Includes dangerous operation of a motor vehicle, boat, vessel or aircraft; dangerous operation of a motor vehicle, boat, vessel or aircraft causing bodily harm or death; driving a motor vehicle while prohibited; and failure to stop or remain.

4. Includes possession, trafficking, importation and production.

Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM table 252-0013.

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