Effects Of Industrial Effluents On Bhiwandi Lake Biology Essay

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Bhiwandi lake is situated in south of Thane district, India, the midst of housing area. It is a very old lake which has been existing since many years. The lake is comparatively small is size and covers a small area of land. During summers some part of lake dries but in rainy season the lake is replenished with water. The population around the lake started increasing due to increasing in housing slums and industrialization. This increasing population is causing a great amount of environmental hazard as they are polluting the lake by carrying out various activities like indiscriminate discharge of untreated waste water, indiscriminate disposal of garbage and solid wastes, unmindful disposal of animal carcasses, dead bodies, etc and excessive exploitation of natural resource like sand, rock by quarrying.

Methodology:

In my primary research I will carry out a survey of the lake to understand the sources causing pollution in the lake and analyze water samples of the effluents given out from the industries and also analyze water samples of the lake where the effluents are finally disposed. The analysis will provide information on the levels of parameters that will be tested so as to also provide information on any deviation from the normal permissible levels of these pollutants in the lake and thus their effects on water ecosystem. As part of the secondary research I will make use of resources like books, internet and data from any other reliable resource.

Introduction:

Distribution of lakes in Mumbai:

For Mumbai's population of 18 million people, water is the most precious commodity. The metropolis cannot take its first step in the morning and end the day without it. The water supply for Mumbai which comes from six lakes within Mumbai's precincts has grown over the last 130 years. These six lakes are being Tansa, Modak, Bhatsa, Vaitarna, Tulsi, Upper Vaitarna and Powai. The system is supported by reservoirs, storages, pipes and taps till they reach the citizens. The city in fact, is inundated with creeks and bays. The water distribution system in Bombay is about 100 years old. Water is brought into the city from the lakes after treatment, and stored in 23 service reservoirs. Since two of the major sources, Tansa and Lower Vaitarna, are at a higher level than the city, not much power is required to pump the water. The service reservoirs are mainly situated on hills. Some of them are located at Malabar Hill, Worli Hill, Raoli, Pali Hill, Malad, Powai and Bhandup. Timings of water supply to different parts of the city vary between 2 and 5 hours.

http://theory.tifr.res.in/bombay/amenities/water/

http://www.dancewithshadows.com/society/mumbai-lakes.asp

About Bhiwandi lake:

Bhiwandi lake is located in a city called Bhiwandi which 15 - 20 km away from Thane district. This lake is approximately 1 - 1.5 km long in height and 1.5 km in breath. It has depth of approximately 8 feet and during monsoons may attain a depth of approximately 12 - 15 feet. The lake is devoid of any plant life except for occasional grass growing around the lake. A few fresh water species of fishes are observed which are commercially sold in the local market. The population around the lake is causing an environmental hazard as they are polluting lake by various activities like indiscriminate discharge of waste water, indiscriminate disposal of garbage and solid wastes, unmindful disposal of animal carcasses, dead bodies, etc; excessive exploitation of natural resource like sand and rock by quarrying.

Analysis of water:-

Aim - To calculate the total dissolved oxygen of the Bhiwandi Lake by winkler's method and by DO sensors

Introduction:

The Dissolved oxygen test measures the current oxygen levels in the water. If the required amount of DO is present in the lake then only there will be balance in the aquatic ecosystem of plants and animals, hence DO plays a vital role in maintaining the aquatic system. Waste water containing organic pollutants depletes the dissolved oxygen and may lead to death of marine organisms. Water with DO<1ppm is dead.

Hypothesis:

To check the levels of dissolved oxygen in the water body so as to understand the aquatic life that can be supported by the lake. Since industrial effluents are discharged into the lake, my assumption is that the levels of DO will be less than the minimum levels required to support aquatic life i.e. less than 3 mg/L. Also since several organic wastes are disposed into the lakes, aerobic degradation of these wastes will result in decrease in Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels.

Variables:

Dependent variables: Amount of oxygen dissolved in water.

Independent variables: Temperature (co)

Control variables: Area of lake, season, and time of the day. These variables were used as control variable because, the samples were collected during the month of November and I did not carry any seasonal comparison of these samples.

Method:

The reading was taken using DO sensor.

Table: Showing the DO levels of Bhiwandi Lake measured for 60 seconds with the help of a DO sensor

Time (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

Time (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

Tine (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

1

12.8

21

12.9

41

12.5

2

12.8

22

12.9

42

12.5

3

12.8

23

12.9

43

11.6

4

12.8

24

12.3

44

11.2

5

12.8

25

12.3

45

10.5

6

12.6

26

11.8

46

10.9

7

12.4

27

11.8

47

11.4

8

12.8

28

12.8

48

12.7

9

12.8

29

12.8

49

12.9

10

12.8

30

12.9

50

12.9

11

12.8

31

12.0

51

12.1

12

12.8

32

12.1

52

12.2

13

12.9

33

11.2

53

12.6

14

11.8

34

10.9

54

12.4

15

12.8

35

10.3

55

11.9

16

12.8

36

11.6

56

12.1

17

12.8

37

10.2

57

11.3

18

12.8

38

11.0

58

10.7

19

12.8

39

10.1

59

10.8

20

12.8

40

12.2

60

10.5

Graph showing the level of DO in boring water:

Table: Showing the DO levels of teated industrial affluent measured for 60 seconds with the help of a DO sensor:

Time (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

Time (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

Tine (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

1

5.1

21

12.8

41

12.8

2

6.7

22

12.8

42

12.8

3

10.5

23

12.8

43

12.8

4

12.8

24

12.8

44

12.8

5

12.8

25

12.8

45

12.8

6

12.6

26

12.8

46

12.8

7

12.8

27

12.8

47

12.8

8

12.8

28

12.8

48

12.8

9

12.8

29

12.8

49

12.8

10

12.8

30

12.8

50

12.8

11

12.8

31

12.8

51

12.8

12

12.8

32

12.8

52

12.8

13

12.8

33

12.8

53

12.8

14

12.8

34

12.8

54

12.8

15

12.8

35

12.8

55

12.8

16

12.8

36

12.8

56

12.8

17

12.8

37

12.8

57

12.8

18

12.8

38

12.8

58

12.8

19

12.8

39

12.8

59

12.8

20

12.8

40

12.8

60

12.8

Graph showing the levels of DO in treated industrial affluent

Table: Showing the DO levels of industrial affluent measured for 60 seconds with the help of a DO sensor:

Time (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

Time (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

Tine (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

1

12.8

21

5.1

41

4.3

2

12.9

22

6.2

42

4.0

3

11.5

23

6.0

43

4.0

4

10.7

24

6.2

44

3.9

5

9.9

25

6.3

45

4.2

6

11.4

26

6.7

46

4.3

7

9.6

27

6.2

47

7.1

8

8.9

28

5.3

48

5.7

9

8.2

29

5.5

49

5.5

10

7.8

30

6.1

50

4.4

11

9.5

31

6.2

51

4.2

12

8.3

32

5.7

52

4.4

13

7.6

33

5.4

53

4.1

14

7.0

34

5.1

54

4.0

15

6.2

35

4.7

55

4.5

16

5.8

36

5.0

56

4.1

is17

5.7

37

4.8

57

4.1

18

5.4

38

4.9

58

4.0

19

5.1

39

4.4

59

3.8

20

6.2

40

4.5

60

4.0

Table showing the level of DO in dyeing water of industry.

Table: Showing the DO levels of Bhiwandi measured for 60 seconds with the help of a DO sensor:

Time (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

Time (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

Tine (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

1

10.5

21

12.8

41

12.8

2

12.8

22

12.8

42

12.8

3

12.8

23

12.8

43

12.8

4

12.8

24

12.8

44

12.8

5

12.8

25

12.8

45

12.8

6

12.8

26

12.8

46

12.8

7

12.8

27

12.8

47

12.8

8

12.8

28

12.8

48

12.8

9

12.8

29

12.8

49

12.8

10

12.8

30

12.8

50

12.8

11

12.8

31

12.8

51

12.8

12

12.8

32

12.8

52

12.8

13

12.8

33

12.8

53

12.8

14

12.8

34

12.8

54

12.8

15

12.8

35

12.8

55

12.8

16

12.8

36

12.8

56

12.8

17

12.8

37

12.8

57

12.8

18

12.8

38

12.8

58

12.8

19

12.8

39

12.8

59

12.8

20

12.8

40

12.8

60

12.8

Graph showing the levels of DO in Bhiwandi Lake

Processed Data:

Samples

DO level

Boring water

12.09061833

Industrial effluent

12.73060278

Dyeing water

6.31508719

Bhiwandi water

12.94484102

Discussion:

The minimum levels of Dissolved Oxygen required to support in any aquatic ecosystem is 3-4 mg/L. Dissolved Oxygen levels falling beyond the minimum levels is a cause of concern because as the levels deplete, the capacity of the water body to support life also decreases and as a result the water body completely loses its vital biodiversity. Organic wastes added to water bodies to play a role in depleting the Dissolved Oxygen levels. Since these wastes are broken down in the process of aerobic degradation, the large population of micro-organisms utilizes the dissolved oxygen to carry out the process. If the rate of utilization of dissolved oxygen is higher than the regeneration capacity, the water bodies gradually lose their dissolved oxygen content.

Since the Bhiwandi Lake, is surrounded by various industries, the industrial effluents would hamper the level of Dissolved Oxygen. However, after testing the water sample from industry and the sample of lake water, this was not the case. From the analysis it can be seen that the level of dissolved oxygen was12.09061833 mg/L, 6.31508719mg/L, 12.73060278mg/L and of water sample collected from industry i.e. boring water, dyed water and industrial effluent respectively and 12.94484102 mg/L of lake water sample. These readings, therefore do not supported my hypothesis which states that the DO levels will be lower due to untreated industrial effluents.

The levels of dissolved oxygen are much higher and this may be due to dilution of the lake water by the rains and effluents from the industries being aerated before discharging. This analysis thus contradicts my hypothesis that the industrial is untreated which would result in the decreased levels of dissolved oxygen.

Evaluation:

Limitation: The temperature may affect the DO levels as in lower temperature; the DO content of water will be higher. Whereas in higher temperature; the DO content will be lower. Suggestion: To overcome the above limitation, seasonal collection of water should be done.

Limitation: There may be an error caused if the glassware used might not be washed properly as they might have caused some reactions giving inappropriate readings. Suggestion: Glassware should be rinsed well with distilled water prior to the experiment to avoid errors in the DO levels.

Limitation: The DO levels may alter if there is bubbling while collecting the sample, as agitation will cause increase in the DO levels and the readings will differ from the original DO content. Suggestion: The sample should be collected carefully without causing agitation and bubbling of the water to avoid errors in the DO content.

Conclusion:

The minimum permissible dissolved oxygen to support life in an ecosystem is 3mg/L, whereas my results have shown a result of 12.09061833ppm, 12.73060278ppm, 6.31508719ppm, 12.94484102ppm respectively which totally contradiction my assumption that the levels of DO will be less than the minimum levels required to support aquatic life i.e. less than 3 mg/L. Thus, the 4 samples have DO levels much above the minimum permissible levels and therefore can support life.

Estimation of pH

Aim: To check the pH (acidity and alkalinity) of water

Introduction:     pH measures the acidity or alkalinity of water, expressed in terms of its concentration of hydrogen ions. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is considered to be neutral. Substances with pH of less than 7 are acidic and substances with pH greater than 7 are basic. The pH of water resolves the solubility (amount that can be dissolved in the water) and biological availability (amount that can be utilized by aquatic life) of chemical constituents such as nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) and heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium, etc.)

Variables:

Dependent variable: pH of water.

Independent variable:

Controlled variable: Quantity of water taken (in ml), area of lake, season, and time of the day.

Explanation:

Method:

The reading was taken using pH sensor.

Hypothesis:

To check the levels of pH in the water body so as to understand whether the lake is more acidic or alkaline. Due to domestic use of lake for washing etc. soap make water alkaline

Data collection:

Samples

pH level

Boring water

7.753752097

Industrial effluent

7.654236653

Dyeing water

10.50070962

Bhiwandi water

7.308572633

Time in sec

pH level

0

7.588418

2

7.588418

4

7.57878

6

7.573961

8

7.559503

10

7.559503

12

7.540187

14

7.540187

16

7.535368

18

7.530548

20

7.530548

22

7.525729

24

7.52091

26

7.506452

28

7.506452

30

7.496774

32

7.487136

34

7.482317

36

7.487136

38

7.482317

40

7.477497

42

7.467859

44

7.46304

46

7.453362

48

7.448543

50

7.453362

52

7.448543

54

7.453362

56

7.438904

58

7.443723

60

7.443723Fig: Table and Graph showing the pH levels of Bhiwandi lake estimated during post monsoons using a pH sensor.

\

Table and graph showing the level of pH of dyeing water estimated during post monsoon using a pH sensor.

0

10.077183

2

10.101299

4

10.115768

6

10.110945

8

10.120591

10

10.135061

12

10.139884

14

10.144707

16

10.159177

18

10.144707

20

10.159177

22

10.164

24

10.164

26

10.173646

28

10.173646

30

10.173646

32

10.178469

34

10.168823

36

10.173646

38

10.183292

40

10.168823

42

10.188115

44

10.183292

46

10.178469

48

10.192939

50

10.188115

52

10.183292

54

10.188115

56

10.202585

58

10.188115

60

10.197762

Table and graph showing pH level of industrial effluent from industry water estimated during post monsoon using a pH sensor.

0

7.4196274

2

7.4244466

4

7.4292658

6

7.4244466

8

7.4244466

10

7.4196274

12

7.4196274

14

7.409989

16

7.4292658

18

7.4196274

20

7.4196274

22

7.400311

24

7.4196274

26

7.409989

28

7.4051303

30

7.4051303

32

7.4051303

34

7.409989

36

7.3906726

38

7.400311

40

7.400311

42

7.409989

44

7.3954918

46

7.400311

48

7.400311

50

7.3954918

52

7.3858534

54

7.3858534

56

7.3858534

58

7.3858534

60

7.3954918

Table and graph showing pH level of industrial effluent from Bhiwandi lake estimated during post monsoon using a pH sensor.

0

7.106102

2

7.1109212

4

7.0964636

6

7.0916444

8

7.0916444

10

7.0771867

12

7.0771867

14

7.0723675

16

7.0723675

18

7.0771867

20

7.0675088

22

7.0675088

24

7.0675088

26

7.0675088

28

7.0675088

30

7.0578704

32

7.0482319

34

7.0626896

36

7.0530512

38

7.0626896

40

7.0675088

42

7.0771867

44

7.0820059

46

7.0626896

48

7.0723675

50

7.0626896

52

7.0626896

54

7.0675088

56

7.0675088

58

7.0723675

60

7.0675088

Discussion:

The minimum levels of pH required to support aquatic life in Bhiwandi Lake is 6.5-8.5. pH levels falling beyond the minimum levels or increasing above maximum levels would be a cause of concern. If pH level is lesser than minimum level than the water will be highly acidic and if the pH is higher than maximum level than the water will be highly alkaline due to which aquatic life will not be able to survive resulting in death. Pollution due to industrial effluent can lead to higher algal and plant growth, due to which pH levels may increase. Although these small changes in pH are not likely to have a direct impact on aquatic life, they greatly influence the availability and solubility of all chemical forms in the lake and may aggravate nutrient problems. For example, a change in pH may increase the solubility of phosphorus, making it more available for plant growth and resulting in a greater long-term demand for dissolved oxygen. Since the Bhiwandi Lake, is surrounded by various industries, the industrial effluents would hamper the level of Dissolved Oxygen. However, after testing the water sample from industry and the sample of lake water, this was not the case. From the analysis it can be seen that the level of pH was 7.753752097mg/L, 10.50070962 mg/L, 7.654236653 mg/L of water sample collected from industry i.e. boring water, dyed water and industrial effluent respectively and 7.308572633 mg/L of lake water sample.

The levels of pH are almost neutral and this may be due to dilution of the lake water by the rains and aerated effluents from the industries are treated before discharging. This analysis thus contradicts my hypothesis that the industrial is untreated which would result adversely in pH readings.

Evaluation:

Limitation: The readings taken by the sensor are shown to be constant. This may be due to lesser sensitivity of sensor. Suggestion: to overcome my doubt about my doubt about sensitivity of sensor. I should have carried out a chemical analysis of estimation of pH.

Limitation: There may be an error caused if the glassware used were not washed properly as they might have caused some reactions giving inappropriate readings. Suggestion: Glassware should be rinsed well with distilled water prior to the experiment to avoid errors in the pH levels.

Conclusion:

The minimum permissible pH to support life in an ecosystem is in range of 6-8pH, whereas my results have shown a result of 7.753752097mg/L, 10.50070962 mg/L, 7.654236653 mg/L, 7.308572633 mg/L respectively which totally contradicts my assumption that the water samples will be either highly acidic or highly alkaline. Thus, the 4 samples have pH levels between permissible levels and therefore can support life.

Total dissolved solids (TDS)

Aim: To calculate the weight of solid particles in lake water.

Introduction: Total dissolved solids (TDS) clinch inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water of the lake. The prime elements are usually the calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate and, particularly in groundwater, nitrate. The effect of presence of dissolved solids in water is that it changes the taste of the water. The palatability of drinking water has been rated, by panels of tasters, according to TDS level as follows: excellent, less than 300 mg/L; good, between 300 and 600 mg/L; fair, between 600 and 900 mg/L; poor, between 900 and 1200 mg/L; and unacceptable, greater than 1200 mg/L.(37) Water with extremely low TDS concentrations may also be unacceptable because of its flat, insipid taste.

Variables:

Dependent variable: Total dissolved solids

Independent variable: Crucible

Control variable: Quantity of water taken (in ml), area of lake, season, and time of the day

Hypothesis:

The initial was to check the solid particles present in the water so as to understand how much solid is present in the water. My assumption is that the solids which are present in the water may be hazardous as there are many industries surrounding lake which are affecting the lake.

Method:

Take the crucible and measure the dry weight of it.

Take 25ml of lake water in the pre - weighed crucible and heat the water till the water completely evaporates.

After evaporation keep the crucible in the desiccators for one day till it completely cools down.

After it cools down, measure the weight of that crucible and subtract that weight from initial weight of crucible.

Data Collection:

Sample1:

Sample 2:

Sample 3:

Sample 4:

Initial weight of the crucible (A) = 53.330Gms

Weight of the crucible + dissolved solids (B) = 53.36462 Gms

Final weight = B - A

Final weight=53.365 - 53.330 = 0.035 gms

Initial weight of the crucible (A) = 59.930Gms

Weight of the crucible + dissolved solids (B) = 60.03984 Gms

Final weight = B - A

Final weight=60.03984 - 59.930 = 0.11gms

Initial weight of the crucible (A) = 59.860Gms

Weight of the crucible + dissolved solids (B) = 59.89240Gms

Final weight = B - A

Final weight=59.89240 - 59.860 = 0.0324 gms

Initial weight of the crucible (A) = 63.600Gms

Weight of the crucible + dissolved solids (B) = 63.66591Gms

Final weight = B - A

Final weight=63.66591 - 63.600 = 0.06591 gms

Discussion:

The minimum level of TDS allowed by permissible standards is 2100 gms. If the TDS levels are exceeded then the major problem will arise for the people as there will be lot of harmful chemicals present in the water due to which water will be highly impure. TDS is the also one of the main component to calculate the purity if water. Through this method we can conclude that the water can be drunk or not.

Since Bhiwandi Lake is surrounded by many industries, the amount of industrial effluent will be high due to which many unwanted substance are mixed with water and the required minerals are washed away which leads to low amount of TDS. But the amount of TDS shouldn't be too low because if the TDS is very low then the water will not be suitable because of its flat, insipid taste.

Evaluation:

Limitations: Collecting of water samples will be a problem as I have collect samples from various places such as from industries and lakes. Therefore since less number of water samples is collected, my evaluation may be difficult due to time constraints. Suggestion:

Limitation: The bottle might not be rinsed properly before collecting water sample. Suggestion: This limitation could be eradicated as the bottle can be washed thrice before the pouring of water so that evaluation is easier.

Limitations: The Crucible might not be washed properly before heating the water. Suggestion: this limitation could be eradicated as the crucible can be washed thrice before heating the water sample.

Conclusion:

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):

Aim: To subtract the amount of dissolved oxygen present in the lake on day 5 and on day 1.

Introduction: Biochemical oxygen demand or BOD is a chemical procedure for determining the uptake rate of dissolved oxygen by the biological organisms in a body of water. It is not a precise quantitative test, although it is widely used as an indication of the quality of water. Sources like industrial wastes, antibiotics in pharmaceutical or medical wastes, sanitizers in food processing or commercial cleaning facilities, chlorination disinfection used following conventional sewage treatment.

Requirements: DO bottles, beakers, DO sensor.

Variables:

Dependent variable: Amount of dissolved oxygen present in the water

Independent variable: Temperature

Controlled variable: Light

Hypothesis:

The initial stage was to check the amount of DO present in the water on first and the amount of DO present in the water on fifth day. Since the DO bottles were kept in the dark place my assumption is that the DO levels will reduce as there is no passage of air and the bottles are kept in the dark place due to which there will be no sunlight provided to the water sample.

Procedure:

Take the sample in beaker and measure the DO through DO sensors.

Keep the sample of water in DO bottles and keep it in the dark place for five days.

After five days measure the amount of DO of the water through DO sensors.

Subtract the DO of fifth day from the DO of first day.

Data collection:

DO levels on first day: 12.8 mg/L (A1)

DO levels on fifth day: (A2)

BOD: A2 - A1

Estimation of hardness from the Bhiwandi Lake

Aim: To estimate the hardness of the given water sample by EDTA - Eriochrome Black T method

Introduction:

Hardness in water is that characteristic which prevents the formation of lather or foam when such hard water is mixed with soap. It is caused by the presence of certain ions of calcium and magnesium dissolved in water which form a scum when reacted with any detergent or soap. Hard waters are undesirable to use because they lead to greater soap consumption, sealing of boilers, causing erosion and incrustations (deposition of fine material of minerals on the surface) of pipes and industries and carrying potable water.

Hardness is calculated in terms of Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and is expressed in ppm (parts per million) or mg/L. In general under normal range of pH, water with hardness is up to 75 ppm is considered soft and that above 75 ppm, crossing 200 ppm is considered hard. Underground water is considered generally harder than surface water as they have more opportunity to come in contact with minerals. The hardness exceeds 800 ppm, requiring treatment. For the water to be used in boilers and for efficient cloth washing in laundries, the water must be soft i.e. around 75 ppm. The prescribed hardness limit for public supply ranges from 75 - 115 ppm.

Requirements:

Chemicals:

0.01M EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid)

Alkaline buffer (pH 10)

Eriochrome Black T indicator

Water samples

Glassware:

Burette - 1

Burette stand - 1

Pipette - 10 ml - 2

Conical flask - 250 ml - 2

Beaker - 100 ml - 2

Variables:

Dependent variable: Hardness of water.

Independent variable: Temperature.

Controlled variable: Quantity of water taken and area of lake.

Hypothesis:.

My initial stage was to check the hardness of water. The hardness exceeds 800 ppm, requiring treatment. But, since untreated water is being discharged from various industries which are near to the lake which leads to increase in the hardness of water. Hence, my assumption is that the hardness will be higher.

Procedure:

Take 10 ml of water sample in a conical flask.

Add 1 ml of alkaline (pH 10) buffer.

Add a pinch of Eriochrome Back T indicator to the sample.

Titrate the solution with 0.01M EDTA solution till the color changes from wine red to blue.

Record the burrete readings and calculate the hardness in mg / L.

Data collection:

Sample 1:

Boring water

Sample 2:

Dyed water

Sample 3:

Industrial effluent

Sample 4:

Lake water

Burette reading= 3.4 ml.

By Winkler's method

DO= BR x 0.01 x 100 x 1000 x 10

10

= 3.4 x 0.01 x 100 x 1000 x 10

10

= 3400 ppm

Burette reading= 1 ml (with dilution 1:10)

By Winkler's method

DO= BR x 0.01 x 100 x 1000 x 10

10

= 1 x 0.01 x 100 x 1000 x 10

10

= 1000 ppm

Note: Due to dark brown color of the original sample, change in color after addition of indicator and titration was not noticed. Therefore, sample diluted.

Burette reading= 13.6ml (without dilution)

By Winkler's method

DO= BR x 0.01 x 100 x 1000

10

= 13.6 x 0.01 x 100 x 1000

10

= 1360 ppm

Burette reading= 3.2 ( with dilution) ml.

By Winkler's method

DO= BR x 0.01 x 100 x 1000 x 10

10

= 3.2 x 0.01 x 100 x 1000 x 10

10

= 3200 ppm

Discussion:

The minimum level of hardness allowed by standard permissible is 800 ppm. But the level of hardness which I tested come out to be 3400 ppm, 1000 ppm, 1360 ppm, 3200 ppm of boring water, dyeing water, industrial effluent and Bhiwandi lake water respectively and its very high which needs to be treated before supplying to the public for different purposes like drinking, bathing, washing etc. Increase in the hardness of water will lead to wastage as the water present in the water will not be useful for drinking and also for washing purposes as the water will not form lather.

The levels of hardness are much higher and this may be due to aerated chemical effluents from the industries which are untreated before discharging. This analysis thus contradicts my hypothesis that the industrial is untreated which would result in the decreased levels of dissolved oxygen.

Evaluation:

Limitation: There may be an error while taking the burette reading. Suggestion: Care should be taken while taking the reading and adding the burette solution drop wise to avoid error and addition of extra reagent.

Limitation: There may be an error caused if the glassware used were not washed properly as they may have caused some reactions giving inappropriate readings. Suggestion: Glassware should be rinsed well with distilled water prior to the experiment to avoid errors in the hardness levels

Conclusion:

The minimum level of hardness allowed by standard permissible is 800 ppm, whereas my results have shown a result of 3400 ppm, 1000 ppm, 1360 ppm, 3200 ppm of boring water, dyeing water, industrial effluent and Bhiwandi lake water respectively. Thus, the 4 samples have much above the permissible level and therefore cannot support life.

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