Effects Of Artificially Generated Negative Ions Biology Essay

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This paper presents artificially generation of negative ions. If subjects are exposed to negative ions finds a valuable adjunct to other established methods of treatment in a number of disease states. The proposed system uses a technique of steady state DC corona ionization for generation of negative ions is eco-friendly, more effective over wide range and have low cost than existing system. To observe biological significance chicken, eggs were submitted to air ionization during the inhalation period. The first experiment is to detect the effects of negative air ionization on the incubation of eggs. Here eggs were submitted to moderate air ionization day and night (in continuous application), during all the incubation period (21 days). In the second experiment the eggs were ionized with negative air ions in the second half of the incubation, after the chicken development was finished i.e. organ genesis period. If properly harnessed, controlled and utilized, ionized air may lead to favorable effects on the health of human being by reducing the rectal temperature & increase the immune system.

Different experiments are carried out by scientist for generation of negative ions. These systems have some drawbacks like costs, effective working range & generation of pollutants e.g. Ozone at ground level. The proposed worked aimed towards designing eco-friendly system with low cost and effective over wide range.

KEYWORDS

Negative Ions, Positive Ions, Ion Generator

INTRODUCTION

Air ions are created when enough energy acts upon a molecule of air and on electron are ejected from the nucleus. The displaced electron attaches to a nearby stable molecule which then becomes a negative ion. Negative air ion has average electric mobility of 1.2 cm 2v-1s-1 and is more stable than other ions.

At any given time, a healthy ratio of positive to negative ion is 1.2 which makes the atmosphere pleasant. However this ratio is not same at all places. Knowledge of atmospheric ions is important not only to understand the electrical state of atmosphere but also to analyze its effect on various natural phenomena such as thunderstorm, lightning and rainfall. Although nature produces negative ions the environments in which most of us live do not afford a higher than average level of these ions. However, frequent exposure to electrical equipment in operation (which produces positive ions) has been reported to cause a feeling of fatigue or even illness in some people [1]. In area where electrical equipment is present, positive ions are generated in amounts significantly higher than are found naturally for those who feel the effect of these ions a negative ion generator might be a practical remedy for neutralizing their exposure.

Objective of our study is to develop an eco friendly ion generator and observe its effect on incubation of chicken eggs. The chicken eggs are selected for the experiments with some advantages in a practice as the incubation period is short, size is small and relatively cheap, and the chicken embryological development is known.

GENERATION OF NEGATIVE IONS

Naturally

Breaking down of naturally occurring radium in the earth crust which is converted into radon gas. This natural radiation causes oxygen negative ions to form. Lighting produces trillions of negative ions, which makes the environment refreshing.

In waterfalls the force or energy of the falling or splashing water causes splitting of neutral particles of air freeing electrons which attach to other air molecules causing a negative charges. The evaporation of water can produce moderate amount of negative ions in the air; the small positive charges are left behind in the water [2].

Artificially

Being so beneficial, these negative ions must be generated artificially. Scientific researchers have proved that negative ions can be generated by different ways such as

1. Alpha ionization.

2. AC corona ionization.

3. Steady state DC corona ionization [3].

In first method we get positive and negative ions simultaneously and this method is costly. In second method we get positive and negative ions alternately during period of one cycle. In third method by applying steady state DC voltage we can generate either positive or negative ions continuously.So, to generate negative ions continuously it is decided to use third method which is steady state DC corona ionization. These negative oxygen ions are called super oxides.

There are many systems available those which generate negative ions artificially. Two of them are

1. "The Elanra ionizers" by Bionic Products (Australia) [4]-

This company produces indoor air ionizers which is small in size, portable and plugged into any ordinary electrical socket.

2. "ELAT" (Electrification Local de la Atmosphere Terrestrial SA) System in Mexico [5].

This technology utilizes an electrical antenna that is suspended on a central tower about 100 feet high and peripheral posts about 25 to 30 feet high. These posts along with the central tower are erected on a plot of lane approximately 900 by 900 ft.fed by a DC power supply of 10000 Volts; the thin steel wire antenna releases ions to modify the number of water condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. This result in small temperature changes over the area of influence which is about 30 mile radius from the antenna.

This system has been successful in enhancing rainfall in this region.

Problems related to above two systems are:

1. Elanra system has small range.

2. Elat System has following drawbacks:

The system uses 100KV, at such high voltage by products like ozone (O3) and Nitrogen oxides (Nox) are produced; such high voltage generation and utilization require elaborate safety provisions.

This system is immovable and required large area safety provision, it has very high capital requirement.

The atmosphere contains both positive as well as negative ions at the same time. At any given time, a healthy ratio of positive to negative ions is 1.2. This ratio makes the atmosphere pleasant. However, this ratio is not the same at all places. Following Table 1.1 shows the variance of the ratio of positive to negative ions.

Positive Small ions

Place

Negative Small Ions

Ratio of +Ve to -Ve ions

Outdoor

1200

Country region

1000

1.2

500

City

300

1.66

Indoor

1000

Country region private houses

800

1.25

150

City

50

3.0

Table 1.1

As observed, indoor enclosed places have fewer ions and the ratio of positive to negative ions is greater than 1.2 this makes the surroundings dull and induces headache and fatigue.

ION GENERATION SYSTEM

Taking into consideration the drawbacks of above mentioned systems we have developed a new system which is environment friendly and economical.

Figure 1.1: Negative ion generation system

Concentration of O3, NO, NO2 and NOx generated at different discharge voltage during one hour electric discharge is given in following Table 1.2 [6].

Discharge voltage (kV)

Ozone (ppb)

NO (ppb)

NO2(ppb)

NOx (ppb)

7, 10, 15 and16

ND

ND

ND

ND

17

64.5

9.2

107

116

20

163

10.6

114

125

25

358

9.9

124

134

30

504

13.1

137

150

ND: Not Detected

Table 1.2

System Details:

1000 Voltage can be generated by two techniques:

1. Voltage multiplier:

It requires many diode & capacitors of high ratings and also its output current is low. [7]

2. Step-up Transformer, rectifier and filter.

Power supply mainly consists if two parts one is transformer and other is rectifier & filter, the volt is increased up to 1000 V with the help of step up transformer. The safety considerations are taken into account while selecting the diodes of bridge rectifiers such single diode with very high PIV is not available in the market, hence, two diodes in series in each arm of the bridge rectifier is used. Again due to high voltage requirements seven capacitors in series each capacitors in series each capacitor having capacitance of 0.1 µf & volt rating of 2KV. Thus effective capacitance of 0.01 µf across each capacitor, 10 MW resistance is connected to provide discharge path. [8]. Base of the transmitter is made out of revolving which gives 3600 freedom of rotation. Upon this base we have fitted a PVC pipe. Its length is 102 cm while its diameter is 20 cm. This pipe is held on retarding bearing & this provides its vertical rotational freedom of 900. Inside this pipe a mesh of naked conducting wires is fitted. The ends of these wires are purposely kept straight out to get more air ions. The output from the capacitor is fed to this mesh. A high electric field is created at the mesh. A blower pumps air through the mesh. As the air passes through the mesh, the high intensity electric field causes the oxygen molecules to ionize & they are released into the air.

ION GENERATOR

Ions can be generated by applying a high- voltage to sharp emitter points or grids to produce a strong electric field this field will interact with electrons of adjacent gas molecules, and will produce ions of the same polarity as the applied voltage. [2]

Ion generator has two parts one is air supply unit and other is negative air ion Transmitter.

1. NAI transmitter is nothing but the mechanical arrangement consisting of tubular pipes containing meshes made up of necked conducting wires supplied with high voltage power supply .Air supply unit is just a blower fan is used for blowing air through high voltage electric field product by meshes it generates high density Negative Air Ions.

2. These generated ions are allowed to spare into atmosphere to react with pollutant to mitigate them.

Figure 1.3: Schematic of Ion Generator

ASSESSMENT:

The eggs were submitted to moderate air ionization in continuous application (day & night) during the incubation period (21 days) from 13th day to 20th days.

Two batches of hen eggs were incubated

1. Witness batch consisting of 25 non-ionized eggs.

2. A batch of 25 eggs exposed to lionization for whole incubation period.

3. A batch of 25 eggs exposed to lionization from for 13th to 20th day of incubation (organ genesis period).

No. eggs

Normally hatched

eggs

Abnormally hatched eggs

Non hatched knocked eggs

Witness

(non - ionized)

25

13

4

8

11

6

8

11

5

9

12

2

11

10

4

9

12

3

10

Continuously

ionized(21 days)

25

8

3

14

7

4

14

7

4

14

9

4

12

8

4

13

7

5

13

Ionized in the

Days 13 to 20

Of incubation

25

17

0

7

19

1

5

17

1

7

22

0

3

20

0

5

18

1

6

Table 1.3

Analysis of the effects of NAI on the incubated eggs is as shown in table 1.3.

In the first experiment batch of eggs with embryos, when exposed to continuous ionization, unfavorable phenomena occurred. At the end of 21 days incubation period, a smaller percentage of normally hatched eggs than the witness batch were identified. This phenomenon mentions support the idea of phased action of air ions.

In the second experiment batch of eggs with embryos, when exposed to ionization from 13 to 20th day of incubation. The highest percentage of normally hatched eggs was noted.

Hence conclusion is that ionization with doses of NAI of eggs seems to be favorable in the second part of incubation (period of consolidation of the organs).

Utility System

1. Negative air ionizers can be used to reduce particulates, airborne microbes odour and volatile organic compounds in indoor air.

2. It can be used in green house for enhancement of growth of plants.

3. It enhances human resistance to disease.

4. for controlling static charge in high technology industry.

CONCLUSION

Prototype system designed is working fine and tested by carrying the experiment on eggs for different situation shows that the effects of negative ions shows significant improvement in hatched eggs if it continuously exposed for 21 day.

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