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The growth of world population in the last decade has been significant especially in developing countries. Population and economical development also will increase the demand of high quality wood as raw material for structural uses and furniture. However the production capacity of natural forest and industrial forest plantation will not be sustainable in the long term to fulfill market demand, may not even as well. Forest supply capacity and productivity to produce high quality timbers in Malaysia are always instead to decrease for some reason as follows reducing forest area for agricultural plantation, industrial forest plantation, open mining, infrastructure development, increasing on environment awareness of the public, illegal logging, and forest fire. The over cutting of forest caused a serious damage to landscape, biodiversity, environment, moreover can contribute to the global warming and regional diplomatic relationship.
Wood quality continue to decrease caused by as result of shorter rotation exploitation and changes in species from slow growing species into the fast growing species but, requirement on the quality of wood product continue to raise. In this case, this problem can be solved by efficiency in wood utilizations, use the alternative woody materials, introducing the new wood raw materials (lesser known species) from logging and agricultural wastes. As their poor performance, the improving of their properties is required to meet the commercial using standard by intervention of technology. It can be accomplished by identified the commercial needs correlated with properties of the wood. It has been affecting many researchers to find new inventions of wood utilization. The demand for timber will continue increase, leading to concerns of a timber shortage by the end of the 21st century. In the future, increasing quantities of timber will be sourced from managed forests and there will be an associated reduction in timber quality in some cases (Hill, 2006). In Malaysia, FRIM and MPOB have done a lot of research to find alternative and improve the effectiveness of the products for getting high quality products to consumers.
One such promising alternative is utilization of oil palm trunk. Currently, there are 4.17 million hectare planted oil palms in Malaysia (MPOB, 2006). In addition, over 3.5 million hectare of replanting area will be available for the next 10 year in 2006 (Kim, 2007), and each year 15 million3 of oil palm trunk during replanting (MPOB, 2007). From total amount 110 - 120 stem per hectare with average diameter reached 50 cm by the length 10 - 12 meter and 1/3 or 30% wood from the most outer part can be utilized as raw material for light structural, the total potential oil palm trunk sawn timber can reached 78 m3/year (Bakar et. al., 2005). Based on the information, it's gained a big potential number of oil palm stem as residual replanting. At the end of its economic life for 25 - 30 years, the mature plants are felled and replaced with new crop, and has greater potential trunk production compared to natural forest.
The biomass trunk of oil palm wood has not been optimally utilized because of several weakness points in their properties, that are have very low properties in strength (class III - V), durability (class V), dimensional stability, and very bad properties in machining behavior (Bakar et. al., 1998). Considering those problems, as well as the nature of the oil palm wood that is very porous, the quality improvement by mean of modified impregnation with aphobic impregnant is a strategic solution (Bakar et. al., 1999). There were many research conducted to utilize the oil palm trunk and to enhance the quality of oil palm wood. The latest study revealed that treatment with low molecular weight Phenol Formaldehyde (PF) resin through a modified impregnation method as we known as "compreg", can significantly improve the properties of oil palm wood and solve practically all four its weak points concurrently (Bakar et al., 2000; 2005). Wood treated by low molecular weight PF resin can improve the strength of oil palm wood due to the thermosetting characteristic of PF resin.
Nevertheless treated oil palm wood by low molecular weight PF resin can improve the weakness point as explained previously, but there is not enough if the product is not environmentally friendly in use. Formaldehyde emission from treated oil palm wood becomes a new problem due to human health effects. Roffael (1993) mentioned that in certain concentration, formaldehyde have a narcotic effect on the central nervous system and give a local irritation on the mucous membrane, and an oral ingestion of 10 to 15 ml of a 35% solution is nevertheless enough to kill a man. Roffael (1993) also mentioned that formaldehyde is a carcinogenic chemical substance which is appreciable cancer causing potential and can breakdown the human body particularly on blood and liver.
Seeing that explained above and there are a small number of studied about formaldehyde emission from treated oil palm wood, this research intent on collect information and data about formaldehyde emission, and trying to discover some easy way to reduce the formaldehyde emission.
The modified impregnation method consist of four steps; Drying, impregnation process by low molecular weight PF resin, re-drying by oven or by microwave, and the last is hot pressing. Each step have some variables which are affected to the final product quality and production cost. Therefore for reached high quality product based on consumer needs and production cost, an optimum combination within each variable are very important to observed. There has been a little studied conducted on quality improvement of oil palm wood by indicating best result in term of physical, mechanical characteristics and reduction of formaldehyde emission.
General objective of this study is to investigate the bend curve behavior of treated OPW for aesthetic (for furniture) design application.
The specific objectives of this study are to:
To determine the effect of curve time radius (3 different radius) on the bend-curve characteristics of OPW.
To determine the effect of thickness on hot pressing compression level (33%) on the bend-curved characteristic of OPW.
To determine the effect of the moisture content before bending press and steaming treatment on the bend-curve characteristic of OPW by optimizing oven and microwave re-drying combination.
Acceptable bending condition.
History of oil palm
The oil palm is a tropical palm tree. There are two species of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis Jacq the better known one is the one originating from Guinea, Africa and was first illustrated by Nicholaas Jacquin in 1763. Palm was introduced to Malaysia and then the British colony of Malaya in 1910 by Scotsman William Sime and English banker Henry Darby. The first plantations were mostly established and operated by British plantation owners, such as Sime Darby. The large plantation companies remained listed in London until the Malaysian government engineered their "Malaysianisation" throughout the 1960s and 1970s.
In 2007, Golden Hope Berhad, Kumpulan Guthrie Berhad and Sime Darby merged to form Malaysia's biggest publicly traded oil palm company with landbank exceeding 633,000 hectares. Its plantations are spread across Malaysia and Indonesian islands of Sumatera, Kalimantan and Sulawesi. Oil palm planting is Sime Darby largest revenue generator. In 2009, about 70% of the conglomerate's profits comes from the harvest and sale of palm oil. As an integrated palm oil entity, Sime Darby produce specialty fats, oleochemicals and biodiesel for export.
Federal Land Development Authority (Felda) is the world's biggest oil palm planter with planted area close to 900,000 hectares in Malaysia and Indonesia. Felda was formed on July 1956, when the Land Development Act came into force with the main aim of eradicating poverty. Settlers were each allocated 10 acres of land (about 4 hectares) planted either with oil palm or rubber, and given 20 years to pay off the debt for the land.
After Malaysia achieved independence in 1957, the government focused on value adding of rubber planting, boosting exports, and alleviating poverty through land schemes. In the 1960s and 1970s, the government encouraged planting of other crops, to cushion the economy when world prices of tin and rubber plunged. Rubber estates gave way to oil palm plantations. In 1961, Felda's first oil palm settlement opened, with 3.75 kmÂ² of land. As of 2000, 6,855.2 kmÂ² (approximately 76%) of the land under Felda's programmes were devoted to oil palms
Botanical description of oil palm
According to the integrated taxonomy information system, the oil palm taxonomy is presented below:
Kingdom : Plantae
Sub-Kingdom : Tracheobionta
Division : Angiospermae
Class : Monocotyledone
Sub-Class : Arecidae
Order : Arecales
Family : Arecaceae
Genus : Elaeis
Species : Elaeis guineensis Jacq.
Oil palm is a large feather palm that have solitary columnar stem with short internodes. It is unarmed except for short spines on the leaf base and within the fruit bunch. Husin et al. stated that in high forest, oil palm might reach a height of 30 m, but elsewhere the reach not more than 15 to 18 m. It is believed that many palms may be 200 years old or more, but concerning fruit production, the economic life span of oil palm is between 25 and 30 years. So, after which the oil palm should be replanted. At the replanting age, the oil palm has a height that ranges between 7 and 13 m and diameter of about 45 to 65 cm, measured at 1.5 m above
ground level. The oil palm fruit is a drupe, the outer pulp of which provides the palm oil for commerce. Within the pulp or mesocarp lies a hard-shelled nut containing the palm kernel, later to provide two further commercial products, i.e. palm kernel oil (rather similar in composition to coconut oil), the residual livestock food and palm kernel cake.
The rate of extension of the stem is very variable and depends on both environmental and hereditary factors. Under normal plantation condition, the average increase in height will be from 0.3 to 0.6 m per year, width of the stem varies from 20 to 75 cm, erect, heavy, and trunks ringed. The stem functions as a supporting, vascular and storage organ. The number of leaves produces annually by a plantation palm increases to between thirty and forty at 5 to 6 years of age. Thereafter the production declines to a level of twenty to twenty-five per annum. Naibaho stated that the oil palm fruit grows in large bunch with the weight of 20 to 70 kg and each fruit bunch is containing 500-4000 individual fruits. The fruit bunch may reach 50 cm in length and 35 cm in breadth. The bunch consists of outer and inner fruit, the latter somewhat flattened and less pigmented; a few so-called parthenocarpic fruit that have developed even through fertilization has not taken place; some small-undeveloped non-oil-bearing 'infertile fruit'; and the bunch and spikelet stalks and spines. The climate features of the main areas of highest bunch production summarized as follows:
Rainfall of 2000 mm or more distributed evenly through the year, i.e. no very marked dry seasons,
A mean maximum temperature of about 29 âˆ’ 30 â-¦C and a mean minimum temperature of about 22 âˆ’ 24 â-¦C - sunshine amounting to about 5 hours per day in all months of the year and rising to 7 hours per day in some months, or solar radiation of around 350 cal per cm2 per day.
Oil palm status in Malaysia
About 4.3 million hectares of land in Malaysia in under oil palm cultivation producing, a growth of 3.4% compared to 2006 (MPOB,2007) and it is expected to increase each year to fulfill the demand of palm oil. So, each year millions of trees will be felled down for replanting activities, which leave million of cubic meter biomass from oil palm tree.
Economic life span of oil palm tree between 25 to 30 years. After that, most of the oil palm tree will be cut down for replanting again. Due to this fact, Malaysia have been facing a serious environmental problems concerning to the solid bio-waste handling of oil palm industry, particularly the oil palm trunk after replanting activity. Starting 2010, it is predicted that more than 20 millions cubic meter biomass from oil palm trunk available annually (MPOB, 2007)
Oil palm wood characters
As a monocotyledonous species, oil palm does not have cambium, secondary growth, growth rings, ray cells, sapwood and heartwood or branches and knots. The growth and increase in diameter of the stem result from the overall cell division and cell enlargement in the parenchymatous ground tissue, together with the enlargement of the fibers of the vascular bundles. Looking at a cross sectional view of the oil palm trunk, Killmann and Choon (1985) distinguished three main parts, namely cortex, peripheral region and central zone.
The stem functions as a supporting, vascular and storage organ. A wide central cylinder is separated from a very narrow cortex through which the leaf traces pass. The cylinder has a wide peripheral zone of congested vascular bundles with fibrous phloem sheaths, and the intervening parenchyma cells are sclerotic. Thus this zone provides the main mechanical support of the stem. The vascular bundles are much less congested in the central zone (Hartley, 1984). The central zone consists of larger and widely scattered vascular bundles embedded in the thin walled parenchymatous tissue. Each vascular bundle consists of a fibrous sheath, phloem cells, xylem, and parenchyma cells and surrounded by spherical, druses-like silica bodies. The xylem is always sheathed with parenchyma cells and usually consists of one or two wide vessels (Lim and Gan, 2005).
The proportions of vascular bundle per square unit increase slightly over stem height in the core of the oil palm stem but decrease at the periphery. According to Tomlinson (1961), the structures of the vascular bundles vary considerably over the stem height. This observation can be supported by the evidence that while the bundles in the core area of oil palm at 3 m level in their majority are narrow, elongated strands, the core area at 11 m level seems to be congested with thicker, helically running vascular bundles (Hartley, 1984). This behavior may account for the increase in density in the core region. This growth pattern may partly be due to the young age of the palms because by growing taller the vascular bundles may elongate and their pattern over a stem area may show more parallel strands (Killmann and Lim, 1986).
Figure 2.0: The distribution of parenchyma and vascular bundles in the outer and inner part of the trunk. Source: Bakar et al., 2007
Oil palm Wood Properties
Physical and mechanical properties of OPW are highly diverse from the outer to the centre of the stem. Wood from outer part is much stronger than that from the centre. This is because of the different density between the outer part and inner part. The reason is because the vascular bundle dominated the outer zone trunk while the inner zone trunk is dominated by parenchyma tissues.
As a solid wood material, OPW has 4 weak points: (1) very low in strength, (2) very low in durability, (3) very low in dimensional stability and (4) very bad machining behavior (Bakar,2008;2008).
184.108.40.206 Physical Properties of Oil PalmWood
220.127.116.11.1 Moisture Content
Killmann and Choon stated that initial moisture content of the oil palm wood varies between 100 and 500%. Lim and Khoo further stated that a gradual increase in moisture content is indicated along the trunk height and towards the central region, with the outer and lower zone having far lower values than the other two zones. Whilst, Bakar et al. stated that based on depth of the trunk, the highest moisture content was reached at the central of trunk and a gradual decrease to the outer part of trunk. These values were between 258% and 575%. An increasing in the number of vascular bundles was caused of a decreasing in percentage of parenchyma cells which have high capacity in water absorption. Bakar et al. further stated that based on the trunk height factor; there was a tendency that the moisture content was decreased from the bottom to the top of the oil palm tree. They predicted that it was influence by the effect of earth gravity, where the water distribution to the higher part of the trunk requires higher caviler pressure. Bakar et al. again stated that the variant analysis was showed that both the trunk height and depth were significant at the level of 0.01 to the value of moisture content.
The shrinkage value of oil palm wood was varies between 25% and 74%. Based on the trunk depth, the highest value of shrinkage was reached at the central part and a gradually decrease to the outer part. Whilst, based on the trunk height, from the bottom part to the height of 2.75 m, this value was lower compare to the other parts. According to their findings, there was a tendency that a gradual increase in shrinkage value is indicated along the trunk height, except at the height of 2.75 m. Regarding this phenomenon, Prayitno further mentioned his opinion that it was an anomaly for the oil palm trunk at 2.75 m height.
Due to its monocotyledonous nature, there is a great variation of density values at different parts of the oil palm stem. Density values range from 200 to 600 kg/m3 with an average density of 370 kg/m3 and according to the experiment result from Bakar et al. who conducted the investigation based on variety of Tenera, the density was varies between 110 and 400 kg/m3. Lim and Khoo further stated that the density of oil palm trunk decreases linearly with the trunk height and towards the centre of the trunk. This is reflected in the clear distinction observed in hardness and weight between the outer and inner portions and the butt and higher regions of the trunk. The outer region throughout the trunk shows density values over twice those of the inner regions. These variations are due to several factors. Across the trunk the density is influenced largely by the number of vascular bundles per square unit which decreases towards the center. However, variations in density along trunk height are due to the vascular bundles being younger at the top and of the palm. Although higher in number per square centimeter, the bundle here are smaller in size and the cell walls are thinner. Higher density values in the peripheral zone are also due to the following reasons:
Presence of radially extended fibrous sheaths,
Lesser number of vessels and general absence of extended protoxylem in the outer vascular bundles.
Progressively thicker walls of the ground parenchyma cells from the inner to the outer zones
Presence of better developed secondary walls in the fibres.
Sadikin stated that the oil palm trunk can be use as wood construction until 2/3 from the
outer part across the trunk and the other 1/3 part can be used for making house tools. In addition, Sadikin suggested that the utilization of oil palm trunk for construction purposes was better to use 1/3 from outer part of the trunk, based on the following reasons:
The specific gravity of oil palm trunk at peripheral zone was extremely different with the central and inner zone,
The shrinkage values of oil palm trunk at both central and inner zones was far higher values that peripheral zone,
Regarding the density value, Bakar et al. stated that based on the trunk depth, the density was a gradual decrease from the outer part to the inner part across the trunk, but based on the trunk height, the relation between height and density was not clear, although the density value at the bottom part was relatively lower compare to the other parts. Further, based on the average density values, Bakar et al. defined the classification of strength class of the oil palm trunk that strength class III for peripheral zone, strength class IV for central zone and strength class V for inner zone.
Figure 2.1- Relative diameter change of oil palm's vascular bundles and trunk along the height of the trunk. Source: Bakar et al., 2007
18.104.22.168.4 Fibre Dimensions
Oil palm wood fibres show a slight increase in length from the butt end to a height of 3 to 5 meters before decreasing continuously towards the top. Longer fibres at the butt are probably due to more matured fibrous tissue in this region. Oil palm fibre length increases from periphery to the inner part. Mean fibre length range from 1.76 mm at periphery to 2.37 mm at the inner part. This is due to the nature of the palm growth where the overall increase in trunk diameter is due to enlargement of the fibrous bundle sheath, particularly those accompanying the vascular bundles in the central region. Lim and Khoo stated that fibre diameter decreases along trunk height because broader fibres are to be found in the larger vascular bundles nearer the base of the palm trunk and vice versa.
22.214.171.124 Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Wood
Killmann and Choon have investigated the mechanical properties of oil palm trunk (30 years old) and compared to the other species, such as coconut wood and rubberwood. Mechanical properties of oil palm trunk reflect the density variation observed in the trunk both in radial as well as in the vertical direction. Bending strength values are obtained from the peripheral lower portion of the trunk and the central core of the top portion of the trunk gives the lowest strength. Bending strength of oil palm trunk is comparable to coconut wood, but lower compared to rubberwood. Variation of the compression strength parallel to grain also follows the same trend as the bending strength. The compression strength value is comparable to rubberwood at similar density value. The hardness value of oil palm trunk is lower than rubberwood as well as coconut wood. The mechanical properties of oil palm wood based on Tenera variety investigations were meanwhile greatly advanced by Bakar et al. They came to the conclusion that all properties tested including MOE, MOR, compressive strength, cleavage strength, shear strength, hardness and toughness were decreased from the outer to the center and from the bottom to top of the trunk, where the influence of trunk depth factor was higher than the trunk height. Based on the mechanical properties, the most outer part of the oil palm trunk which is comparable to the Sengon wood (Paraserianthes falcataria) and belongs to the strength class III to V were considered could be used for light housing constructions and furniture. Bakar et al. stated that the average MOE values at various positions shown that those values are indicated a gradual decrease in MOE along the trunk height and depth. The MOE value range varies between 2908 kg/cm2 and 36289 kg/cm2. Variation of the MOR also follows the same trend as the MOE. The mean values of MOR at peripheral, central and inner zones were about 295.41 kg/cm2, 129.04 kg/cm2 and 66.91 kg/cm2, respectively. Statistical analysis of MOE value showed that the differences in trunk depth effect significantly at the level of 0.01 and the trunk height only influence significantly at the level of 0.05. It means that in order to produce the homogenous lumber, the trunk depth position should be taken into attention, especially in determining the sawing pattern before lumbering process.
Utilization of oil palm wood
Due to its low quality, OPW and other parts of oil palm biomass are still underutilized. According to Bakar (2000) only OPW from one third of the trunk radius (outer region of the trunk) possesses the potential to be used as solid wood. Even so, its inherent imperfections such as the strength, durability, dimensional stability and machining characteristics must first be solved using a comprehensive treatment.
Malaysia have the potential to produce OPW from its current immerse oil palm plantation, it has been known that from each hectare of oil palm plantation there are about 120-130 matured trees each with a volume of 1.5m3. This means that there is about 180-195m3 of oil palm log that can be generated from replanting of each hectare. In fact, the oil palm industry produces more than 15 million cubic meters of OPT each year during replanting (Kamaruddin et al., 2007). To produce the outer lumber and maximize the outer lumber recovery, Bakar (2000) developed a new sawing pattern (Figure 2.2) for OPT called "Polygon Sawing", which able to achieve a recovery as high as 30% (Bakar et al., 2006). If this sawing pattern is used, about 54-58 m3 actual OPW (the outer lumber) can be produced from each replanting hectare.
To realize the utilization of OPW as solid wood, the quality of OPW needed to be enhanced. Several studies have been made to improve the OPW quality. The latest study by Bakar (2000) revealed that the properties of OPW can be improved significantly after being treated with low molecular weight PF resin through a modified compreg method, also known as "ComPress" method, it was revealed that all four weak points of OPW can be simultaneously resolved on this treatment (Bakar et al., 2005).
Figure 2.2: Modified sawing pattern 'Polygon sawing' (Source: Bakar et al., 2007)
The "ComPress" method also known as "modified compreg" method was developed by bakar (2000) on adopting the conventional compreg method. Its consists of four main process: (1) drying, (2) impregnation, (3) re-drying and (4) bend hot pressing.
According to Bakar et al., (2000), "ComPress" method using phenol formaldehyde (PF) is considered as one effective method to treat OPW comprehensively. This method improved the mentioned four weakness of OPW by filling the cell lumen of OPW through stages of impregnation of PF resin that act as an adhesive binding the vascular bundles and parenchyma tissues together (Bakar et al., 2001;2003). PF resin penetrates more into the wood cells if low molecular weight PF is used, as it has smaller molecules.
Low molecular weight Phenol Formaldehyde (PF) resin
Phenol formaldehyde (PF) polymers are the oldest class of synthetic polymers, having been developed at the beginning of the 20th century (Detlefsen, 2002). These resins are widely used in both laminations and composites because of their outstanding durability, which derives from their good adhesion to wood, the high strength of the polymer, and the excellent stability of the adhesive. In most durability testing, PF adhesives exhibit high wood failure and resist delamination (Frihart, 2005).
In general, PF adhesives can meet the bonding needs for most wood applications if cost and heat curing times are not an issue. For all these adhesives, phenol is reacted with formaldehyde or a formaldehyde precursor under the proper conditions to produce a resin that can undergo further polymerization during the setting process. For most wood adhesive applications, the resole resins are used because they provide a soluble adhesive that has good wood wetting properties and the cure is delayed until activated by heat allowing product assembly time (Frihart, 2005). Based on the results of Langwid et al. (1968) and Bryant (1966) they concluded that phenolic resin tends to increase bending and compression properties, but reduce tension strength, toughness and dynamic properties.
Impregnation method with resin into the wood structure can increase the durability, strength and dimensional stability (Suminar, 1990; Rowell, 1987, 1999). But, impregnation with high molecular weight PF does not produce better improvement the quality of oil palm wood due to the phenol resin cannot penetrate into the wood structure. Resin penetration can be improved by using compreg technique (pressure or vacuum-press) or using low molecular weight PF resin (Bakar et al., 2001).
Materials and methodology
Oil palm wood (from the outer part)
Chainsaw, band saw, table saw, circular saw and radial arm saw.
Planer and Sanding machine
Impregnation cylinder with vacuum and compressor
Desiccator (specify humid condition)
Bend-Curved Hot press machine
Universal Testing Machine
Low molecular weight PF with solid content 15%
3.3 Sample preparation
Oil palm trunk used in this study is more than 25 years old. Sample was taken from the outer part of the trunk using polygon sawing pattern. Afterwards, sample dipped in borax solution to protect from fungi, termites and other insects. Put the sample into drying-kiln with soft schedule until 15% moisture content has been reached. Then, samples were cut with variable initial thickness which were (1.5 x 12 x 100cm), (2.25 x 12 x 100cm) and (3 x 12 x 100cm). 33 piece of sample needed to accomplish this study and label the specimens and coding each treatment.
Figure 3.1: Sawing Pattern of Oil Palm Log
Weigh and record the initial weight for all the labeled specimens. Lastly, final weight of the specimens will be calculated by the formula below:
MC = Moisture Content (%)
Wi = Initial weight of specimen
Wf = Final weight of specimen
3.4.1. Compreg method
Production scheme of treated oil palm wood using lmw-PF 15%
Oil palm wood specimens
Size: (4 x 11 x 100) cm
Soft schedule kiln drying
Temp: 60 0C; Time: 1 month
Impregnation with lmw-PF 15%*
Vacuum for 15 minutes
Pressure for 30 minutes on 120 psi.
By oven: Temp. 60 0C; Time: 24 hours, or
By microwave: high power for 6-12 minutes
Temp: 150 0C; Time: 30 minutes; max. 85 bar (SP-1)
Pressing level: 50%; press cycle*
Oven: 100ËšC, 48 hrs
Conditioning and Properties test
Research methodology was guiding and conducting all activities during the experimental works, both in the field and laboratory, on the basis of the research methods or procedures which were referring to the standard of analysis. It was also describing and explaining each research activities based on the standard testing and requirement, such as American Standard Testing Method (ASTM) and German Standard (DIN). Starting from the determination of sampling area, tree selection, tree measurement, trunk processing such as felling, lumbering, transporting, drying and specimen manufacturing, etc., oil palm wood reinforcement and finally the experimental data analysis.
Research Frame of Oil Palm Wood
Oil Palm Wood
Straight treated OPW
Bend-curve untreated OPW
Bend-curve treated OPW
Optimum condition based on previous study
High MC (>100%)
Steaming 1 hours, 100â-¦C
Thickness variable (3)
MC before microwave drying (3)
Properties test and analysis
Analytical data drawn through observation method in entire surface and calculate curve corners (bend angle fixation) with make comparison between variable initial thicknesses of sample size. Also, determine the type of defect, physical, and mechanical properties of treated OPW after pressing through description analysis and comparison between bend-curved treated-OPW at different manufacturing condition and straight treated-OPW will be made. Experimental design observation and description are shown below.
Bend angle Fixation
27 pieces treated OPW
B1, B2, B3-variable mc in oven-microwave re-drying
This study is to obtain higher acceptable curve press cycle schedule depend on 3 different thickness and an optimal final drying period of oil palm wood through physical and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the press cycle schedule, additional drying can reduce formaldehyde emission significantly. Hence the treated oil palm wood could be use as alternative material which is environmentally friendly to use, for high performance structural and furniture purposes.