Effect Of The Antimicrobials Biology Essay

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Plasma membrane: the plasma membrane has a lipid layer/ bilayer. It is used in the bacterias cell to transport the nutrients, in addition to this; they transport the waste across the membrane.

Ribosomes: Ribosomes creates proteins. Also, they have smaller Ribosome than human beings, the size of it is size is about 70s.

Flagella: Flagella's are long and has a thick tail in the back of the bacteria. They're used to support bacteria to move around.

DNA: This is the multifaceted chemical which carries the genetic information of the cell. DNA is in chromosomes, and these are found in the nucleoid of the bacteria cells.

Cytoplasm: Cytoplasm is liquids that flow through inside the bacteria. The function of growth of bacteria's cell takes place; and this is where the replication and metabolism are carried out.

Pili: These are little hairs - they are a good description of capsules. It has narrow protein tubes, which allows the bacteria to attach other cells.

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Cell wall: Cell wall is the outer layer of the cell; it has a strong mucus layer which is made out of Peptidoglycan. The strong mucus layer covers and supports, protects the cell not to get out of shape.

Description of the main characteristics:

Size: Different types of bacteria cells have their own size, all of them are small single cells, and it is very difficult to be seen under the microscopes as they are only about a centimetre. The size, length of Bacteria is around the average 0f 0.5 -5 cm.

Shape: different types of Bacteria's come in different shape, but, there are three types of shapes, Spherical (Cocci), Rod-shaped (bacilli) and Spiral.

Reproduction: Bacteria cells are reproduced asexually; this is because they provide their DNA to another bacteria cell, when they survive. In addition to this, there is a process where majority of the Prokaryotes reproduce asexually. During the procedure, the single DNA molecule duplicates and the cell is divided into two similar cells.

Nutrition: Bacteria's can be feed in two different ways:

- Autotrophs = they produce their own food by using an external energy source. This could be absorbed by getting the source of energy from prototrophs or by chemotrophs.

- Heterotrophs = these are the bacteria's that respond quickly to the ready supply. This indicates that these bacteria's are not capable of producing their own food, so they get the ready supplied ones.

RNA/DNA Viruses

Viruses are very tiny micro-organism that we cannot see. There is about one hundredth of the size of the bacterium and could be completed by using microscopes.

These viruses are not cells; they cannot produce food not eat, respire, move or grow. But, they've got a protein coat which contains a lot of characteristic and permits the virus to work effectively together. Also, Viruses do not obtain any nucleus.

Below indicates an image of virus.

Lipid bilayer

Reserves transcriptase

Capsid

Structure and function of viruses:

Capsid: This is a protein coat, which guards and defends the nucleic acid in the virus.

Reserve transcriptase: Reserve transcriptions are enzyme.

RNA: These are viruses that do not have DNA,

Description of the main characteristics:

Shapes: Viruses originate in different shapes; the most common shapes are Helical and polythedral viruses. But, they have similar structure.

Size: The size of viruses are very tiny, they are about 10-300nm,

Reproduction: A virus is not able to reproduce by themselves; this is because of the absences inside of the virus that is used for growth and reproducing

Viruses usage of life cycles Lytic and Lysogenic. Lytic are the viruses attached to the bacteria. And, Lysogenic is when the virus binds with the bacteria (host) and inserts the virus DNA into the host or bacteria.

Nutrition: There is no nutrient aspect for viruses.

Fungi

Fungi are eukaryotic cells, because fungi contain nucleus inside the cells.

Below indicates an image of Fungi:

Cell membrane http://muirbiology.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/fungal-cell.jpg

Cell Wall

Mitochondria

Nucleus

Cytoplasm

Vacuole

Structure and function of fungi:

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Membrane: This is a very thin tissue which covers the cells and gathers togerthern the cytoplasm together.

Cell wall: Cell walls are the outer layer of the cells this protects the cell itself and supports the structure of the cells.

Nucleus: The Nucleus is placed in the centre of the cell and it controls the cellular activity as well as containing the genetic information.

Lipid granola: lipid granule function is to replace fat in a cell. It clenches fatty acids, and produces energy.

Bud scar: this is where the egg of the fungi are realised.

Vacuole: Vacuole are surrounded by a single membrane it's the largest cell in the yeast cell. It also, absorbs lipids and protein.

Mitochondria: this produces energy using oxygen and glucose.

Description of the main characteristics:

Shape: The shapes of fungi are very different, there are three main shapes which most fungi's are formed: unicellular-yeast, Filamentous-mould and macroscopic - mushrooms.

Reproduction: Fungi are usually reproduced by surroundings the cell, they can either reproduce sexually and from spores.

Size: The sizes of Fungi are bigger than bacteria, the size of a fungi is about 3-5 µm.

Nutrition: Fungi are know chemo-organ and heterosphic. They use chemical energy to make their own food.

Parasite

Below indicates an image of parasite:

Head/hookerstapeworm 2

Suckers

Neck

Body segment

Parasite lives inside the animals/mammals (human body0, they usually live in the intestine of both the animals and human beings.

Parasites are pathogenic, this is because they are able harm to others, and sometimes this could lead to illnese.

Structure and function of parasite:

Head: The head of tapeworm contains the hookers and suckers.

Hooks: the hookers allow the tapeworm to attach the stomach and intestines.

Suckers: the two tubes on the head of tapeworm; it is used to suck the nutrient and food from the intestines.

Neck: they have short neck and it's positioned behind the head. The new segment occurs.

Body segment: The proglottids are the procreative construction.

Description of the main characteristics:

Shape: they are all in different shapes, but some of them have long body.

Size: they also come in different sizes; they are very tiny and long.

Reproduction: they are able to reproduce asexually inside the body; they have both genders which contains all of the sex cells for reproductive organs.

Nutrients: they are not able to produce their own food. They live in intestines , so they are able to eat some nutrients,

Task 3 (M1)

Micro-organisms:

1. Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Human immunodeficiency is a disease that only occurs in living cells it cannot reproduce or grow by itself so it has to be infected into a living cell only in order to replicate whereas outside it would not perform the same function. Moreover, the HIV virus is contagious as well as exogenous infection thus it can be occasionally be transmitted by the fluids in the body or coming in contact with infected blood. A common way which HIV is spread is by sexual contact with infected blood. However, it can also be transmitted non-sexually into the blood by needles; this can be the case where the doctor forgets to change the needle after an injection. Nonetheless, HIV can also be transmitted by a mother to her child; this can be because the mother got HIV during pregnancy then she transferred it to her baby. Furthermore, HIV can enter the body from several ways for instance it be spread by the blood stream or blood vessels.

2. Candida albicans (causing candidiasis)

The candida albican disease is a fungus caused by yeast and it lives inside the human cell. This disease may have different effects on the body of every individual because it can affect the throat, intestines as well as the heart valves. This disease has a source of infection that it can only happen when there is a mutation in the environments. Therefore, your body would not be capable to fight the disease itself if your immune system is weak. Candida albicans can be transmitted by several methods such as sexual contact or passed on from a mother her child.

3. Klebsiella pneumonia

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Klebsiella pneumonia is a disease caused by bacteria; this can be transmitted from and individual to another individual not only by living on living cells but dead objects/surfaces as well. So this disease can be transferred directly or indirectly. Furthermore, the infection can enter the body by many ways such as the mouth and cause the following diseases such as diabetes, chest infection, sore throat and many more.

4. Malaria

Malaria is a disease that is caused by an infection with red blood cells and protozoa. This infection is simply transmitted from an individual to another individual by mosquitos. Hence when a mosquito bites a person it will carry all its materials and transmit them to another person when he bites them. In addition, once the endogenous disease enters the body it can be transported around the body by the blood stream and severely damage the cells by bursting them. This is a common disease which occurs mainly in dry hot areas like Africa.

Task 4 (D4)

The investigation of urinary infections of different antimicrobial and antibiotics that have E.coli and S.albs

The experiment that was carry out by us is to examine the affections of antimicrobial and antibiotics by finding out which of these two works better that kills the two bacteria E.colli and S.ablus. The method of our investigation at first label around our side of the plates (1.a & b) then use a micropipette to add 0.1ml (100ul) of E.coli to the surface or top of the agar plate. You would do the same process again using S.albus labelling (1.b) then use a fresh disposal sterile plastic by spreading on the surface of each plate to spread the inoculum.

After that you would need to label the place where you wanted your sterile filter disc to be placed at.The experiment the antimicrobial was came out that; there was bleach that had most effect on both E.coli and S.albs bacteria which it had 20mm inhabitation zone on E.coli and 30 mm on S.albus.

The antibiotic came out that the most effective antibiotic ring was Spectinomycin zone of inhibition 20mm in E.coli and in S.albus 18mm; however, the least effective antibiotics was Chloramphenicol as it had 10mm inhibit zone on S.albus and 9mm on E.coli. Over all, the antibiotic that will be used to destroy the Klebsiella "gram-" in a care home is Spectinomycin as it killed E.coli bacteria; the Antimicrobial that will be used to destroy klebsiella is bleach as it killed E.coli.

We are scientist that is investigating by working in groups with other scientists from the infection control team (ICT) in London. I was given a part to do investigate the outbreak of the urinary infections in care home. The urinary infection is a well common that is inside our bodies as they are more in women compared to men and it would be unusual if a man develops urinary infection as it can become a disease. As It disturbs the urinary system in the bladder, kidney ureters and urethra therefore, I will be investigating to find out which antibiotics is valuable to stop the outbreak of Klebsiella in care home; as antibiotics is used to kill the infection.

In this experiment , I will find out which antibacterial inhibitors as I will be using three Bleach, washing liquid and disinfectant by finding out which one of these are valuable in killing S.albus and E.coli bacteria. By this it gives me to do examine, which of these antibacterial kills the bacteria; when my investigating is finished I had add little of inhibitors to help me by getting an accurate result which I then can see which of the antimicrobial is more effective with S.albus or E.coli.

I wore a lab coat my goggles and gloves

I cleaned the table using a spear alcohol

I get four plates I have to write the number, my name and the bacteria we were using S.albus or E.coli also course code.

I took the micropipette to get the culture and add 0.1ml (100ul ) of E.coli culture to the surface of the agar plate which I have label 1.a and do the same process using the S.albus and label it 1.b

I took two clean and sterilise plastic spreader for all of my four plates to spread the inoculum over the surface of them.

I then had to label the place where you want your sterile filter disc to be placed at

I then sterilise the forceps with a blue Bunsen flame, to get a sterile filter paper disc and stock them into the antimicrobial inhibitors.

I was done then I had raise the disc and hold it for 5 seconds so that touches the surfaces to drain the excess liquid, then I had to careful place to the position.

I had to do the same process with plate 1.b in S.albus plate

I had to repeat the same procedure for two other antimicrobial inhibitors when its all done I would have three discs on each of the plates.

I then I had to tape up the plates with the parafilm

I had to give two small holes in the parafilm by using the forceps

I was then had given my plate to be placed at the temperature 37 degree and wait for 48 hours.

I had to do same thing for the two antibiotic rings

I had to write the number, my name and the bacteria we were using S.albus or E.coli also course code etc.

I had to repeat the process using the method from step two and three

I had to put the temperature in around 37 degree Celsius for 48 hours.

As you can see in this graph, the antimicrobial have been similar level balanced but more affective on the bleach (mm)

As you can see the Antibiotics have been more effective on E.coli than S.albus, (mm)

In my conclusion, I found out in my investigation that it can't be as accurate as its harder to find get better result; in my class everyone has got different result which is confusing where it should everyone get same result as everyone did same experiment. Over all, my hypothesis was that antimicrobial that had more affective; I found out that by treating the Klebsiella Pneumoniae infection you have to use antibiotics that is Chloramphenicol or on the other hand, you can use antimicrobial that is bleach by this shows that my one my experiment must be wrong. However, these two are the main that gives the best result by stopping and treating the infections.

Sources:

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_meaning_of_70S_ribosomes_in_prokaryotes

http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Flagella

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel_pre_2011/genes/dnarev1.shtml