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Before getting to know how the effect of resveratrol on anti-aging is we need to know what the cause of aging problem is. Aging is the process where bodies start to deteriorate which means metabolic processes start to slow down. There are four reason causes aging to occur on the cellular level. DNA carries genetic information for our physical characteristics and helps define each cell's function. Outside the nucleus in the cellular fluid are mitochondria where the organelles in the body cells that generate energy to work on the cell's activities. If everything works well, the DNA in each cell will well protected and can be copied correctly when the cell divides. The cell will well repair too. Mitochondria generate energy effectively thus all the systems in our body operate efficiently (Miranda A. Farage, 2010).
The aging is a very complex process. Aging was caused by genetic factors and also external influences like smoking, environmental conditions and other. Biological action of free radicals, especially to oxygen species like OH, peroxyl, ozone and other oxidizing species that cause oxidative stress leads to aging problem. The oxidative stress initiated by UV-light: formation, scavenging of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species, leads to skin aging (Nikola Getoff, 2007). One of the reasons that caused aging is DNA damaging assaults. Cells lose their ability to replicate DNA in every new cell. DNA "mistakes" accumulate and allow little pieces of DNA to become active and print them out to create a type of "DNA debris" that eventually stops a cell from functioning. This build up of "debris" is connected to aging, and death of individual cells. Besides that, aging occurs through the destruction of body cells that free radicals initiate. Free radicals are becoming common invaders of our bodies due to increasing concentration in the atmosphere through vehicle and aircraft emissions, seas and rivers through industrial pollution problems. Free radicals are also created by excessive radiation like the harmful UV content of sunlight that is no longer effectively filtered by an adequate ozone layer. Every cell in our body also gets bombarded by things like an unhealthy diet and smoking that caused DNA damage. This DNA damage is the first mechanism of cellular aging to occur (Starr & McMillan, 2010).
While the second reason causes aging is a class of compounds that known as genetic regulators. It can contribute to age-related cellular deterioration and control the dynamic balance between damage and repair, whether a cell lives or dies. As we aged the activity of these genetic regulators promoting cell renewal and energy production declines, the genetic regulators promoting cell death become more active. When natural defenses and self-repair functions decline, cell damage increases and leads to age-related cellular deterioration.
The third cause of cellular aging is declining cellular energy production. Mitochondria were responsible in all the cellular functions. As time passed, mitochondrial efficiency decreases, leading to a decline in energy production which then affects cell function. This one of the reason leads to age-related cellular deterioration (Miranda A. Farage, 2010). The fourth causes of cellular aging is known as Advanced Glycation End Products, or known as AGE proteins. AGEs are the end-products of glycation reactions, in which a sugar molecule bonds to either a protein or lipid molecule without an enzyme to control the reaction. A similar reaction, known as glycosylation, uses an enzyme to control the reaction, targeting specific receptor sites on cells. Advanced glycation end products raises blood and tissue levels and increases nerve damage. It will cause aging problem (John O'Brien, 1998).
Resveratrol activates a cell's survival defense enzyme, which repair their broken DNA. Resveratrol can enhance the blood flow and reduces the damage that caused by UV radiation, thus making the skin wrinkle free. Resveratrol able to help in anti- aging since the antioxidants in resveratrol boost the body's metabolism result of the muscles using up oxygen more efficiently, this is able to increase our energy and stamina. Resveratrol has demonstrated effects that mimic those of caloric restriction, the best-documented anti-aging strategy. It helps us to limit our caloric intake. Caloric restriction (CR) is restricting calorie intake while maintaining good nutritional status and produces greater longevity and living in healthy life. In humans, consuming a low-calorie diet provides greater longevity like lower insulin levels, reduced body temperatures, and with less chromosomal damage that typically accompanies aging. Caloric restriction producing changes in gene expression those are associated with long life and a slowing of the aging process. Meanwhile, reduced caloric intake means reduced production of free radicals and reduced rate of energy metabolism. Resveratrol also reduces the formation of those AGE proteins that can gradually clog up your cells (Ronald R. Watson, 2009).
Resveratrol appears to work as a powerful antioxidant helping quench free radical damage in the body, but also has a unique mechanism of action that may prove to have significant life extension properties. Antioxidants slow down cell damages. Resveratrol can activate a gene known as sirtuin 1, SIRT1. SIRT-1 able to suppress the p53 enzyme system that will helps to inhibit tumor growth and trigger cell death which is apoptosis. When suppressing p53 activity,
SIRT-1 will prevent premature aging and apoptosis that is induced when cellular DNA is damaged or stressed. This giving cells a chance to repair the damage cell. Thus, SIRT1 is known as the rescue gene. Resveratrol and caloric restriction are believed to be the two primary methods of activating the gene and unleashing its extraordinary anti-aging properties. SIRT1 is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase that modulates the activities of proteins that are in pathways downstream of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. SIRT1 catalyzes a reaction where hydrolysis of NAD+ is coupled to the deacetylation of acetylated lysines in target proteins. These target proteins include histones, transcription factors and transcription factor co-regulators. When the SIRT1 gene is activated, it produces proteins that protect cells from DNA damage cause by aging. The gene is a defense mechanism, activated by low calorie consumption that gives cells protection during periods of time when they need it. Without the sirtuin, the cell would have died and lead to aging problem.High SIRT1 levels appear to be the key slowing the aging process and living a healthier life and calorie restriction and resveratrol are the two primary SIRT1 activators (Knutson & Leeuwenburgh, 2008).