Effect Of Lectins From Plant Foods And Juices Biology Essay

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Lectins are defined as a protein compounds that widely occur in plant. The lectins serve many different biological functions to plant such as resist bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens during growth process (Raman, 2012). In the other words, lectins act as defense mechanism to plant. The high levels of the lectins are exists in seeds follow by roots, stems and leaves. The lectin often contains multiple binding sites that enable the lectin to interconnect with cells and causing agglutination (Peter, 2009). Excess levels of lectins will be harmful for certain peoples that can promote physiological reactions (Laura, 1991).

Blood Group Antigens

Based on ABO blood group system, human red blood cells are divided into four major groups which are A, B, AB and O depending on the presence of inheritable blood group antigens (Raman, 2012). The ABO blood antigens are comprised of oligosaccharides component and the antigens are express by epithelial, endothelia and erythrocytes (Raman, 2012). The ABO blood group antigens have various shapes depend on blood type.

Relationship Between Plant Lectins and ABO Blood Group Antigens

Some of the plant lectins will show different reaction of agglutination depend on ABO blood group antigens. The agglutination wills occur when the lectins are interacting with the specific blood group antigen. Furthermore, the lectins from ingested food are able to be bind to small intestine part which is known as absorptive macrovilli. The surface of lining part of digestive system also attach with blood group antigens (Raman, 2012). Besides that, most of 95% of dietary lectins will be destroyed during digestion but remaining 1 to 5% is absorbed into blood stream (__). It may be trigger the destruction of red blood cells.

4. Problem Statement :

Many research were conducted to identify more dietary lectins and in order to decrease the digestive distress and food allergies cases (Laura, 1991). First discovery of agglutinins is by Herrmann Stillmark in1888. The research is based on the toxic effect on blood of castor bean extracts and the agglutination of red cells is resulted (Krispin, 2012). Meanwhile, on 1908, Karl Landsteiner also notices small amount of lectins give the agglutination reaction with rabbit erythrocytes. Therefore, this study will be done to identify the effects of plant lectins to specific blood group antigens with special focus on plant foods and juices.

5. Objectives :

General objective:

To ascertain the plant lectin effects to human blood group antigens.

Specific objectives:

To evaluate the reactions of agglutination titer between some foods and fruits with human blood group antigens.

To describe the plant lectin reaction with blood group antigens that occurs at mucosal surface of the gut in human.

6. Methodology :

Methods

Preparation and extraction of plant foods and juices

Preparation of materials

Collect the plant foods and fruits.

Thoroughly wash the plant foods and fruits.

Rinse with distilled water for 2 times.

Fruits extraction

Fruits extract is prepare by mortar and pestle and squeezed.

Centrifuge at 10,000 g for 10 minutes.

Get clear extract of the fruits.

Plant foods extraction

Ground the material into powder.

Then, extract using phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4).

Filter the mixture using gauze into test tube.

Centrifuge the tube at 10,000rpm for 3 to 5 minutes.

Separate and store the supernatant.

Blood collection from healthy volunteers

8 healthy volunteer will choose from different blood groups (each blood groups consist of 2 volunteers).

Get the consent from the volunteers.

The blood samples from healthy individual will collect by expert nursing student.

The blood is collect into acid-citrate dextrose (ACD) tube.

The blood samples will store at 4oC.

*This research will conducted base on ethical guideline suggested by UiTM.

Identify the lectins reaction with human blood group antigens

Label the test tube as A, B, AB, O and Control.

Add 1 or 2 drops of extraction material into each test tube.

Then, add 1 or 2 drops of blood sample according to label of specific blood group except for control. Add 10% saline suspension to control tube.

Agglutination of red blood cells within 2 minutes at room temperature will be observed.

7. Budget :

1) Equipment

Centrifuge ……………………………………………… available in lab

4oC refrigerator ………………………………………… available in lab

pH meter ………………………………………………. available in lab

Mortar and pestle

2) Consumables

Glove …………………………………………………… 2 boxes

Pasteur pipette ………………………………………….. 2 boxes

Acid-citrate dextrose tubes …………………………….. 10 unit

Phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4)

Plant foods materials (bitter guard, betel, cashew, brinjal)

Fruits materials (papaya, sapota, black grapes, green grapes, muskmelon and strawberry)

Blood group reagents (Anti-A, Anti-B, Anti-AB and Anti-D)

Blood samples (Blood group A, B, AB and O)

Centrifuge tubes

Distilled water

10% saline solution

Test tubes

Gauze

Beaker

Syringe

Alcohol swabs