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A comparative study on the methods (Flat bed, Polythene bag and Containers) varieties (V1, DD and M5), eye buds (Single, double and three eye budded cuttings) and application of growth regulators viz., In dole butyric acid (IBA 200 ppm) 2,4- Dichloro phenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D 25 ppm) was conducted on mulberry cuttings under open condition. The results revealed that, cuttings treated with IBA 200ppm showed highest rooting percentage (57.66%), number of roots (4.22) and length of longest root (3.07 cm). Among shoot parameters number of sprouts per cutting (0.96) and number of leaves per cutting (2.68) was recorded in the same treatment (IBA 200 ppm) compared to 2, 4-D 25 ppm. Among mulberry genotypes M5 showed significant results on root and shoot behaviour over V1 and DD. Similarly Flat bed method and three eye bud cuttings responded positively and more effective with respect to root and shoot behaviour of mulberry cuttings at 90 day after planting.
Key words: Mulberry cuttings, Growth regulators, Mulberry genotypes, Methods of planting.
The demand of silk is increasing rapidly and is influencing the need of development in the Sericulture industry. Progress of Sericulture industry is restricted due to non availability of suitable land and scarcity of leaf production especially during dry season, in spite of adopting improved package of practices i.e., recommended doses of fertilizer, manure, irrigation and pest control measures. Hence alternative strategies may be adopted to increase leaf production in mulberry per unit area. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a plant cultivated for its leaves, required as source for food for silkworm, Bombyx mori L. In India, mulberry is propagated through cuttings. Success of vegetative crops like mulberry depends mainly on the rooting ability and consequently the percentage of survival. In South-East Asian countries, mulberry is propagated through stem cutting, whereas in the temperate countries like China, Japan and Russia it is propagated by various types of grafts and layers . Propagation through stem cutting is the easiest, cheapest and quickest method compared to grafting. Hence sprouting and rooting abilities has been identified as an important parameter in mulberry breeding. During the process of evolution and selection, genotypes with high rooting (>70%survival) and medium rooting (survival %>50 <70) with other desirable characters are selected for further screening. Where as poor rooting (<50%survival) is a major drawback with some of the genotypes, which are otherwise superiors for successful utilization in the field . Beneficial effects of plant growth regulators like IBA and 2, 4 - D on rooting and establishment of mulberry has been reported by . In view of this, the present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of growth regulators on rooting and shooting behavior of some mulberry genotypes with different nodes and modes of planting.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The present investigation was carried out at Department of Sericulture, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru during 2004 (May-July). Land was prepared 15-20 days prior to planting to accommodate three different varieties viz., V1, DD and M5 with triple, double and single nodded cuttings. These cuttings were planted in three methods namely flatbed, Polythene bag and Containers (cups) by tried with IBA (200 ppm), 2, 4-D (25 ppm) growth regulators. All the treatments viz., varieties, hormones, nodes and methods of planting were randomized in the field and each treatment was replicated twice. Cuttings were selected from one year old shoots with 3 to 5 live buds selected for the treatments. These were treated for 24 hr with two hormones at 200 and 25 ppm concentration by dip solution method. In case of control the cuttings were dipped in distilled water. An observation was recorded at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after planting. Similarly statistical data was analysed using four factorial CRD by .
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Growth regulators and their concentrations had a varying effect on root and shoot parameter. The mean value of 5 observations recorded on the use of growth regulators with different method of application, by using different varieties and different eyebuded cuttings are presented in Table 1. From the table it can be observed that the treatment IBA (200 PPM) had substantial effect on rooting percentage (57.66%), number of roots per cutting (4.22), length of longest root (3.07cm), number of sprouts per cutting (0.96) and number of leaves per cutting (2.68). Among the different varieties used, M5 recorded highest rooting percentage (54.82%), number of roots per cutting (4.31), length of longest root (2.99cm), number of sprouts per cutting (0.99) and number of leaves per cutting (2.83). Similarly the different methods tried flat bed respond positively and more effectively with respect to rooting percentage (61.16%), number of roots per cutting (5.60), length of longest root (3.41cm), number of sprouts per cutting (0.95) and number of leaves per cutting (3.02). Whereas in different eye buds used three eye bud cutting showed highest rooting percentage of (70.05%), number of roots per cutting (4.75), length of longest root (3.46cm), number of sprouts per cutting (1.10) and number of leaves per cutting (2.78) respectively. Irrespective of growth stages, these differences may be due to genomic differences in rooting and differences in endogenous stimulators and inhibitors . Similarly, . Observed that the ability of cutting to root varied not only from one species to another but also among varieties in the same species. However, among the methods, root and shoot behaviors were higher in flat bed method compare to polythene bag and containers at 90 DAP. Raised bed planting recorded significantly high recovery percentage and hence recommended for raising mulberry cuttings . Among the differential eye buds, three eye budded cuttings responded positively and more effectively with respect to rooting and shoot behavior. In most of species, cuttings of medium length (15cm) showed higher percentage of rooting, number of leaves . The growth regulators enhanced rooting particularly with the treatment of IBA (200 ppm), which recorded the highest root and shoot parameters compare to 2, 4-D (25 ppm) over control. These differences arise probably due to increase in the cell division caused by increase in the level of endogenous cytokine, resulting in induction of more number of root primordial. Similarly . Opined that the application of growth regulators causes greater metabolic activity and mobilization of sugars and nitrogenous substances from stem and leaves helping in the initiation of root primordial in cuttings. The current observation confirms the earlier findings of . While studying the propagation of ornamental trees, through stem cuttings found that an increase in the concentration of IBA (6000 ppm) induced better root and shoot growth. From the above study it can be concluded that M5 mulberry cutting with three eye bud treated with IBA (200 ppm) in flat bed method showed positive results on rooting and shooting behavior of mulberry.