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*C.K. DESHMUKH and S.K. Bhagat

* Department of Zoology Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati - 444604

E-mail -1june91ckd.october@gmail.com

*Corresponding Address:


The flowers of Butea monosperma are used for curing infertility in local tribes. However the validity has not been scientifically proven therefore the present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of methanolic flower extract of B .monosperma on male albino rat, Rattus rattus (Wistar). The extract of 100, 200 and 300 mg/ kg body weight were administered for 15 days and sacrificed. The weight of reproductive and vital organs found significantly increased ( p<0.001) at 100 and 300 mg doses/kg body weight but testes’ weight also found significantly increased ( p<0.001) at 200 mg/kg body weight. Testosterone increased significantly (p<0.001) for all doses even in recovery period (p<0.05). At 300 mg /kg body weight the sperm count increased significantly (p<0.001). 300mg/kg body weight dose is found highly significant (p<0.001) for reproductive and vital organs, sperm count and testosterone except liver. Therefore the present observations concluded that extract of B. Monosperma is able to improve reproductive function in male albino rat.

KEYWORDS: Butea monosperma , testosterones , sperm count ,infertility.


Infertility is one of the problems of human society. In the last few years, there is a marked decrease in the quality of semen (Carlsen, et al., 1992).According to the World Health Organisation 10-15 % of young couples are faced with infertility and in which 50% is due to male factor (Kaiser,1988, Henkel and Bodekar, 2005 and Wani et al., 2011). About 25-40% young people is below the standard index in semen parameters (Andersens, et al., 2000) and it is one of the major causes of divorces, disharmony, as a result the physical and the mental health disturbed (Badami, et al., 2000, Kandeel, et al., 2001). Allopathic remedies are proved to be best but have adverse side effects (Kulkarni and Reddy, 1998).

Medicinal plants and nutrients are used in improving the sexual health (Ashok Kumar and Arora, 2013). A large number of aphrodisiac plants are used throughout the world for their fertility properties (Bhatia, et al., 2010).

India is well known for its richest biodiversity. It is evident that the various parts of the plants are used in Siddha, Unani, and Ayurvedic medicines for the treatment of various diseases of human beings. The active principle found in medicinal plants are alkaloids, glucosides , flavonoids, saponins , butrin and other complex compounds. These compounds may be found in root, stem, bark, leaf, fruit, and flower and seed (Nath and Khatri, 2010). Butea monosperma (family - Fabaceae) is popularly known as flame of the forest or bastard teak, grown widely in many parts of India (Tondon et al.,1969). B. monosperma is used in the treatment of diabetes, leprosy, gout skin disease, eye disease, piles. It has laxative anthelmentic and antistress properties (Kasture, et al., 1999; Burli et al., 2007). Flowers are reported to possess astringent, diuretic, depurative, aphrodisiac and tonic properties (Jadhe, et al., 2009). In local tribes these flowers are used to cure and improve the sexual health as an aphrodisiac (Nadkarni, 2002) .Not much work is done with respect to prove its validity scientifically therefore, the present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of methanolic flower extract of B.monosperma on male albino rat, Rattus rattus (Wistar).


Collection of Plant material

The flowers of B. monosperma were collected in the month of March in the year 2012 from Pohara jungle near to Amravati,Maharashtra and authenticated by department of Botany, Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati.

Preparation of plant extract

The fresh flowers were shade dried, finely powdered in mixer and sieved. Later 500 gm powdered material was soxhlet extracted with methanol for 20 hours in reduced pressure in rotary evaporator to obtain reddish orange powder (yield 25%). The dried extract was dissolved in distilled water and used for experimental work (Kehkashan and Siddiqui,2011). The preliminary photochemical screening is done (Thimmaiah 2004).

A total of 30 albino rat, Rattus rattus (Wistar), weighing 220-225 gm were used for the study and were brought from‘Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research’, Borgaon (Meghe) Wardha (M.S.). The rats were kept in animal house of Pharmacy College of Vidyabharti, Amravati. The experiments were conducted according to “INSA-Ethical guidelines for use of animals for scientific research after permission from ethical committee (registration number [1504/po/a/11/CPCSE]. The rats were regularly fed on standard pellet diet provided by Trimurti feeds, Nagpur and water was given ad libitum. The remaining food and waste matter was removed from the cages on the next day and proper care was taken to avoid any infection. After acclimatization for fore night only healthy rats were used for the experiments.

Experimental Design

The rats were divided into five groups, containing six rats/ group. The first group is treated as control and given orally distilled water 15ml/kg body weight .The pilot study was done for determining the doses. The doses of 100, 200, 300 mg/ kg body weight orally were given to the second to fourth group respectively for 15 days and were sacrificed after 15days. Fifth group has also received 300 mg dose/ kg body weight up to 15 day and after 15 days it is treated as recovery group for further 15days and later sacrificed.

The control and experimental groups of male rats were evaluated for their body weight then sacrificed and testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, kidney, adrenal, vas deference were carefully removed and weighted accurately ( Amini and Khamkar, 2005). The cardiac blood is used and serum was analysed for testosterone level by using Chemiluminescence Analyser and Autoplex –A processor for CLIA (Tietz,, 1995 and Uotila et al., 1981).

Sperm count

The sperm count was carried out by using Haemocytometer (Mukherjee and Kanai, 1988). The epididymis was removed and minced in 2 ml. of 0.9% saline. This sample was used for the sperm count. The spermatozoa with head and tail counted (Taylor et al, 1985; WHO, 1999).

Statistical analysis

The data are expressed as mean +SE. Statistical analysis was done by student’s t-test (Mahajan 1997).


Effect on sexual and vital organ weight

Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of flower of Butea monosperma revealed the presence of flavanoids (aurones and chalcones) butrin, butin, and steroids (Jhade et al., 2009, Sharma and Deshwal, 2011 ). The oral dose of the flower extract of B. monosperma for 15 days to male rat was resulted in significant increase in the body weight, vital organs weight and reproductive organs weight (table no.1). Same findings were reported when administration of aqueous seed extract of Moringa oleifera and Hibiscus canabinus (Zade et al., 2013) aqueous extract of root of Anacyclus pyrethrum (Shahraki et al., 2013). In present study, highly significant increased (p< 0.001) in weight at the dose 300 mg /kg body weight in testes, seminal vesicle, prostate, penis, vase difference as well as sperm count, kidney and adrenal gland except liver was found when compared with control animal. Even in 15 days of recovery periods highly significant (p<0 .001) increased in weight of these organs except seminal vesicles and vase difference. Throughout the treatment weight of kidney is found to be increased significantly (p<0.001) but on other hand liver is remained unaffected except in recovery period. After administration of ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot significantly increased, weight of body, organ weight ,weight of testes, seminal vesicle and sperm count in treated groups were reported (Rewatkar et al, 2010).

Many plant components viz. steroid, saponins have increased fertility potentiating properties and also responsible for increasing testosterone level (Drewes, 2003; Shukla and Khanuja, 2004 and Gauthaman and Adaikan, 2008). Testosterone level of serum is significantly increased (p<0.001) at the dose of 100,200,300mg/ kg body weight and also at recovery period (p<0.05) when orally administered the aqueous extract of B. monosperma to R. rattus (table no.2). Steroids in plants are one of the reasons of increase sexual and vital organ weight (Thakur and Dixit, 2006). When70% ethanolic extract of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of Garcinia kola and aqueous extract of Piper guineese at both doses 122.5 and 245 mg/kg body weight were given to rat there was significant increased in weight of testes and level of testosterone (Mabongue, 2004 and Ralebona, 2012). Sperm count is significantly increased (p<0.001) at 300mg/kg body weight( table no.2)in present observations and this may be presence of flavonoids in the flower of B. monosperma (Ratnasooriya and Jayakodi, 2006).Sperm motility has been considered as one of the most important predictors of fertility (Check et al.,1990 and Liu et al.,1991). After given dose of extract of Ionidium suffruticosm there was significant increase (p<0.001) in sperm count (Senthil Kumar and Vijayumar, 2012). Testosterone supplementation has previously been shown to improve sexual function (Aversa and Fabbri, 2001, Grahl et al., 2007) while working on hexane extract of Mondia whitei (Watcho et al., 2005) and combination of Zanthoxylum leprieurri and P. guineense (Kapoma et al., 2012) and aqueous extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes at 500mg/kg showed increased testosterone level on the reproductive organ of male rats (Ratnasooriya and Jayakodi, 2006). This study also augmented with the earlier workers views.


Thus, the present observations conclude that metahnolic extract of Butea monosperma at 300mg dose is highly significant (p<0.001) for reproductive and vital organs, sperm count and testosterone except liver and it does not create the toxicity. Thus, we can say that the flower of Butea monosperma can improve reproductive function in male albino rat, Rattus rattus (Wistar).


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Table no.2 - Effect of methanol extract of flower of Butea monosperma on male albino rat , Rattus rattus( Wistar) on testosterone level and sperm count

Treatment Groups


Mg/kg B. weight



Sperm count

(No. of sperm/rat/106)

Group I Control


1.39+ 0.005


Group II


2.27 + 0.01 ***

44.12 + 1.842 NS

Group II


2.43+ 0.01 ***

46.58 + 1.878 *

Group IV


3.11+ 0.10***

51.78 + 1.977 ***

Group V


1.44+ 0.02*

45.74 + 2.633 NS

Values in Mean +- S.E.(Standard error ),n=6,*p<0.05,**p<0.01,***p<0.001,

when compared to control, ns-non significant.