0115 966 7955 Today's Opening Times 10:30 - 17:00 (BST)

Effect of Increasing Concentration of Cobalt Ion Irradiation

Published: Last Edited:

Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF INCREASING CONCENTRATION OF COBALT ION IRRADIATION AS MUTATION INDUCER TOWARDS THE GROWTH OF ZEA MAYS

Benjamin V. Cunanan

ABSTRACT

To understand the effect of irradiance in the growth of plant, four setups in corn (Zea mays) were used. The varying doses of exposure to radiation included control or zero treatment for comparison, and the remaining included treatment with 10, 30, and 50 kilo rad (krad). The setup aims to provide an evidence that irradiance induces mutation. Higher irradiance results to lower growth rate of the plant because the energy released by the radiation causes protein disruption and the physiological processes in plants is greatly affected due to this. The set up was conducted in a small lot at the back of the Institute of Biological Sciences where four hills were made for each setup. It ran for 55 days and the results gathered is a concrete evidence to support the hypothesis.

INTRODUCTION

Mutation is the change in the genetic constitution but not by recombination technique. Radiation on the other hand is one good example of the technique which induces mutation. (Emrani, Razavi, & Rahimi, 2013) Irradiation, the exposure to radiation as X rays or alpha rays or in our case the cobalt ion, led to the formation of new varieties. Mutants are subjected under study in search for beneficial production of good progenies in the future. (Hayashi, et al., 2007) But we must take note that the concentration and the kind of mutagen used can induce not just beneficial mutants but also harmful ones. (Sangsiri, Sorajjapinun, & Srinives, 2005)

The experiment was conducted in a small lot at the back of the Institute of Biological Science where fours hills were made and in each hill the varying doses of irradiation (0, 10, 30, 50 krad) was placed. Growth of the corn was observed from March 18, 2015 up to May 11, 2015 and was recorded.

The experiment aims to describe irradiation as a source of mutation and explain that the induced mutation by irradiation towards corn germination and growth is linear to its varying dosages.2 Consequently, the experiment also aims to explain that the physiological processes in the plant was affected by the radiation which causes the differences between the growth between setups. (Hameed, Shah, Atta, Haq, & Sayed, 2008)

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The plot used was first weeded through the use of sickle to remove any unnecessary plant that are not needed in the experiment. And by using shovel, it was also tilled to inactivate the weed seed bank and soil borne pathogens in the soil. Forty corn seeds were then picked to be used in the experiment. Ten seeds were used in each setups. The first ten seeds were not subjected to any treatment for this will be the point of comparison. The second batch of 10 seeds was irradiated and was subjected to 10 krad. The third batch of seeds was subjected to 30 krad and the fourth batch was subjected under 50 krad. Each seed in each set up was planted by using a trowel with an equidistant of 5 cm per hill. The four setups were under the same atmospheric condition, wind velocity and irrigation thus the only difference between them was the dosage of irradiance. (Emrani, Razavi, & Rahimi, 2013)

Every Monday, Wednesday and Friday, the height of the ten corn seedlings in each setup was measured using a meter stick, and was averaged. The average height in centimeters was then recorded.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The obtained average heights of the corn seedling for the four setups were summarized in Table 1. For the first eight days, no measurements were obtained since the seeds were still germinating and there were no evident seedlings above the ground. Seedlings were observed starting from the tenth day. It can be seen that the heights of the seedlings varied depending on its exposure to radiation. Comparing to the control setup, as the radiation on the setup increased, the observed height decreased, except for the last set up. For a better comparison, a line graph consisting of the data of the four setups was made and was shown in Figure 1.

Number of Days

Control (average height in cm)

10 krad (average height in cm)

30 krad (average height in cm)

50 krad

(average height in cm)

1

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

6

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

-

-

10

13.6

12.8

8.0

19.0

13

21.6

19.9

10.7

10.0

15

24.9

22.7

11.2

0

17

       

20

32.0

35.7

15.5

0

22

39.9

41.7

19.2

0

24

48.8

49.9

24.9

7.5

27

66.7

65.8

33.6

0

29

72.8

71.3

41.8

0

31

81.1

78.6

44.9

0

34

95.2

88.6

55.9

0

36

95.7

88.7

53.6

0

38

99.9

92.8

55.9

0

41

104.3

94.9

57.4

0

43

108.9

95.6

60.4

0

45

       

48

114.2

100.2

67.3

0

50

115.1

100.5

67.8

0

52

116.3

101.1

68.2

0

55

117.8

110.2

74.1

0

Table 1. Average height in centimeters of the four setups of corn seedlings

Figure 1. Average height in centimeters of the four setups of corn seedlings

In Figure 1, the x-axis ranges the days the corn plant was grown, the y-axis ranges the height achieved by the corn and the points denote the average height of the seedling on the day. The orange line pertains to the growth of the corn in the control setup; the yellow line pertains to the height of the corn which was subjected to 10 krad; the green line to the height of the corn which was subjected to 30 krad; and the maroon line pertains to the height of the corn which was subjected to 50 krad.

The orange line showed the highest height on the four setups. In the yellow line, compared to the orange line, a slight decrease in height was observed. In the green line, compared to the orange line, a relative decrease in the height was observed. Lastly, in the maroon line, compared to the orange line, showed a significant decrease in the height. It can also be seen that no height was accounted.

Subjecting the seeds to different dosages of irradiation, affects the growth rate of the seedlings. An increase in the dosage of irradiation decreased the growth rate of the seedlings. A slower growth rate leads to a smaller height of the plant. This can explain the growth of the seedlings in the fourth setup. A delay in the emergence of the plant was observed and also, the seedlings have come to stopped growing and then die.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Four setups of corn seedlings were used, each has different dosage of irradiation. The average height of the seedlings were obtained and were analysed. It was observed that as the dosage of irradiation increased, the growth rate of the seedlings decreased. A slower growth rate lead to a smaller height of the plant.

The differences in the results of different dosage of radiation indicates that the level and intensity of applied radiation affects the shoot elongation due to mutation which causes differentiation in cell division and intracellular metabolism. (Hameed, Shah, Atta, Haq, & Sayed, 2008)

The data gathered therefore suggested that the corn may be subjected up to 30 krad for it to observe growth. The dosage above this results to mutants which cannot fully utilized growth because physiological processes are much inhibited. (Peykarestan, Seify, Fadaei, & Hatim, 2012)

LITERATURE CITED

Emrani, A., Razavi, A., & Rahimi, M. F. (2013). Assessment ofGamma Ray Irradiaion Effects on Germination andSome Morphological Characters in Tow Corn Cultivars. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Science, 1235-1244.

Hameed, A., Shah, T. M., Atta, B. M., Haq, M. A., & Sayed, H. (2008). Gamma Irradiationn Effects on Seed Germination and Growth, Protein Content, Peroxidase and Protease Activity, Lipid Peroxidation in Desi and Kabuli Chickpea. 1033-1041.

Hayashi, Y., Takehisa, H., Kazama, Y., Ichida, H., Ryuto, H., Fukunishi, N., & Abe, T. (2007). Effects of Ion Beam Irradiation on Mutation Induction in Rice. 237-239.

Peykarestan, B., Seify, M., Fadaei, M. S., & Hatim, M. (2012). UV Irradiation Effects on Seed Germination and Growth, Protein Content, Peroxidase and Protease Acivity in Portulaca grandiflora and Portulaca oleracea. World Applied Sciences Journal, 802-808.

Sangsiri, C., Sorajjapinun, W., & Srinives, P. (2005). Gamma Radiation Induced Mutations in Mungbean. Science Asia, 251-255.


To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Request Removal

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to request removal:


More from UK Essays

We can help with your essay
Find out more
Build Time: 0.0022 Seconds