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Effect of Formic Acid Supplementation on Brioler Chickens

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Published: Wed, 06 Jun 2018

Effect of Formic Acid supplementation on some biochemical parameters of broiler chickens

Murad K. Al-Fadhli*, Nora Q. Abbas *, Mustafa J. Jalil*

* Ministry of Science and Technology, Animal and Fish Research Center

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of the organic furmaric acid to the drinking water on some biochemical parameters of broiler chickens aged between 21 and 42 days. Organic formic acid was added to the drinking water in the following concentration (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) represented the treatment group (T1, T2 and T3) respectively. In the control group (T4), the drinking water was free of formic acids. Blood samples were collected at 21 and 42 days of age. At 21 days of age, data indicated that the first treatment group (T1) showed a significant increase (P‰¤0.05) in serum total protein and albumin and significant decrease (P‰¤0.05) in each of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and serum glucose. The second treatment group (T2) was also showed a significant increase (P‰¤0.05) in serum total protein and albumin, in addition to serum cholesterol but it showed significant decrease (P‰¤0.05) in both serum triglycerides and serum glucose. Whereas the third treatment group (T3) was showed a significant increase (P‰¤0.05) in each of serum total protein, albumin, cholesterol, and serum triglycerides, but it was showed non-significant differences (P‰¥0.05) in serum glucose concentration. The result of the blood samples that was collected at 42 days of age indicated a presence of a significant decrease (P‰¤0.05) in serum total protein level, non-significant differences (P‰¥0.05) in both of albumin and cholesterol level, but it was showed a significant increase (P‰¤0.05) in both serum triglycerides and glucose levels in the first treatment group (T1). The second treatment group (T2) was showed a significant increase (P‰¤0.05) in each of serum total protein, triglycerides and serum glucose levels, but it was showed non-significant differences (P‰¥0.05) in serum albumin level and non-significant decrease (P‰¥0.05) in serum glucose levels. The result from the third treatment group (T3) indicated non-significant differences (P‰¥0.05) in each of serum total protein, albumin, cholesterol levels, and non-significant decrease in serum glucose levels. Indicated results showing the importance of adding organic formic acid to the drinking water in the improvement of some physiological traits of broiler chickens.

Key words: organic acids, formic acid, physiological traits, broiler chickens.

Introduction:

Broiler chicken meat is considered one of the most important sources of animal protein and the poultry production rate was 25% of the total global production of meat (1). Broiler chicken meat is characterized by their high nutritional value as it is rich in the essential elements in addition to its easy digestion (2). Poultry production has consistently in recent years to find the ways to improve the growth rates in order to obtain the highest conversion efficiency of food as well as reduction of the negative effects of the diseases that lead to heavy economic losses. One of the most important ways to control the negative effect of the diseases was the introduction of the antibiotics in the poultry production (3). However, use of these antibiotics on a large scale has led to the development of the bacterial resistance to antibiotics. In addition to that, use of antibiotics lead to cumulative harmful effect on poultry meat as it alters the bacterial environment and leading to weakening performance of poultry production (4). Therefore, the research tries to find an alternative to antibiotics to control the negative effect of the diseases and among these alternatives to antibiotics was the use of organic acids and the addition of probiotic to poultry feeds (5). Organic acids are weak acids that are commonly found in fruit juices and fermented foods and that are added to foods as preservative agents (6). Organic acids have been used for decades in feed preservation, for protecting feed from microbial and fungal destruction or to increase the preservation effect of fermented feed. Organic acids have increasingly and successfully been supplemented in feed in broiler production. The way of action of organic acids seems to be related to a reduction of pH in the upper intestinal tract, interfering with the growth of undesirable bacteria and modifying the intestinal flora (7). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of the organic formic acid to the drinking water on some physiological traits of broiler chickens.

Materials and Methods:

This study was conducted in the chicken field of the poultry section in the Center of Animal Resources and Fisheries Agricultural Research Directorate Ministry of Science and Technology, which included the field and laboratory study to examine the effect of adding formic acid in the drinking water on the productive performance of broiler chickens. 84 mixed sexes broiler chickens (Rose Type), one-day old, were used for the experiment. These broiler chickens were distributed randomly inside a closed room into four groups as the following:

  • First group (Treatment 1): The Drinking water treated with 0.1 % formic acid.
  • Second group (Treatment 2): The Drinking water treated with 0.2 % formic acid.
  • Third group (Treatment 3): The Drinking water treated with 0.3 % formic acid.
  • Fourth group (Control group): Free of formic acid.

Each group was further sub-divided into three replicates of 7 birds per replicate. A photo period of 24 hours day was maintained since the start of the experiment and until the end of the sixth week by using electric lamps. The ingredient and the chemical composition of the diets presented in Table 1. They were analyzed using N.R.C (1994) procedure. Feed and water were provided ad libitum during the experiment.

Table 1: The ingredient and the chemical composition of the diets

Ingredients

Percentage composition

Yellow corn

43

wheat

12

Barley

9

Soybean meal

20

Animal protein concentrate

12

Oil

3

Limestone

0.7

Salt

0.3

Total

100%

Calculated levels

Crude protein (%)

21.14

ME (Kcal/kg)

3032

Protein-energy ratios

143

Lysine (%)

0.82

Methionine + Cystine (%)

0.73

Crude fiber (%)

2.16

Blood samples were collected at 21 and 42 days of age from the wing vein and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 minutes by using Hettich centrifuge to separate the serum samples and the obtained sera were aspirated into sterile vials and kept in deep freezer (-20°C) for the later analysis of the serum biochemical parameters that include the serum total protein, albumin, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose and these analysis was estimated by using the Vegasys chemical analyzer device (AMS Co., Italy).

Statistical analysis was performed with statistical program Statistacal Analysis System (SAS) (2001). Means were compared by the Duncan’s multiple range test at the level of 5% probability (1955).

Results and Discussion:

The results illustrated in Table (2) indicate the serum biochemical analysis of the broiler chickens at 21 days of age. These data showed a significant increase (P‰¤0.05) in the concentration of serum total protein and albumin in the treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3) in compartment with the control group (T4). Serum cholesterol concentration was significantly increased (P‰¤0.05) in the treatment groups (T2 and T3) while it was significantly decreased (P‰¤0.05) in the treatment group (T1) in compartment with control group (T4). Serum triglycerides concentration showed a significant decrease (P‰¤0.05) in the treatment groups (T1 and T2), while it was significantly increased (P‰¤0.05) in the treatment group (T3) in compartment with control group (T4). Serum glucose concentration was also significantly decreased (P‰¤0.05) in the treatment groups (T1 and T2), but it was non- significantly increased (P‰¥0.05) in the treatment group (T3) in compartment with control group (T4).

Table (2): Serum biochemical analysis of the broiler chickens at 21 days of age.

Treatments

Total Protein g/dl

Albumin

Cholesterol

triglycerides

Glucose

T1 (0.1%)

3.84

+

0.31 a

1.566

+

0.98 b

134

+

c 2.34

111.66

+

c 2.73

235.33

+

b 3.52

T2 (0.2%)

3.86

+

0.31 a

1.813

+

0.01 a

154.33

+

6.64 b

114.66

+

9.20 c

293.33

+

7.05 b

T3 (0.3%)

3.64

+

0.12 b

1.7933

+

0.06 a

169.33

+

7.68 a

140.33

+

a 8.55

370.0

+

10.26 a

T4 control

2.97

+

0.24 c

1.506

+

0.17 c

150

+

10.11 b

120

+

b 5.53

361.66

+

a 3.69

The data in Table (3) showed the serum biochemical analysis of the broiler chickens at 42 days of age. These results showed a significant decrease (P‰¤0.05) in serum total protein concentration of the treatment group (T1) and significant increase (P‰¤0.05) in the treatment group (T2) but there were non-significant differences (P‰¥0.05) in the treatment group (T3) in compartment with the treatment group (T4). Serum albumin concentration showed non-significant differences (P‰¥0.05) between the treatment groups (T1, T2, and T3) and control group (T4). There were also non-significant differences (P‰¥0.05) in serum cholesterol concentration between the treatment group (T1 and T3) while it was significantly increased (P‰¤0.05) in the treatment group (T2) in compartment with the control group (T4). Serum triglycerides concentration was significantly decreased (P‰¤0.05) in the treatment group (T3), while it was significantly increased (P‰¤0.05) in the treatment groups (T1 and T2) in compartment with the control group (T4). Serum glucose concentration showed a significant increase (P‰¤0.05) in the treatment group (T1) and non-significant decrease (P‰¥0.05) in the treatment groups (T2 and T3) in compartment with the control group (T4).

Table (2): Serum biochemical analysis of the broiler chickens at 42 days of age.

Treatments

Total Protein g/dl

Albumin

Cholesterol

triglycerides

Glucose

T1 (0.1%)

3.686

+

0.19 c

1.803

+

0.12

157.66

+

5.17 b

129.33

+

7.83 a

356.33

+

a 4.35

T2 (0.2%)

3.883

+

0.13 a

1.793

+

0.72

170.66

+

a 8.78

123.33

+

9.24 a

289.33

+

c 4.17

T3 (0.3%)

3.840

+

0.10 b

1.836

+

0.04

157.66

+

b 4.97

114.33

+

4.80 c

259.33

+

5.81 c

T4 control

3.846

+

0.15 b

1.77

+

0.14

149.33

+

8.74 b

121.33

+

b 7.03

3055.33

+

2.60 b

In this experiment, the addition of formic acid to the diet resulted in reducing the mortality rate and this result was agreeing with previous results indicated a decrease in the proportion of the mortality rate when using a probiotics containing organic acids in the diets of broiler chickens (8). In this study, the addition of formic acid to the diet resulted in significant decrease in the total cholesterol. The results obtained from the present study are in agreement with the results obtained by (El-Kerawy 1996) (9). The significant reduction in serum cholesterol could be attributed to the probiotic secretion of organic acid that stimulate the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus to reduces the cholesterol in the blood by deconjugating bile salts in the intestine, thereby preventing them from acting as precursors in cholesterol synthesis (Abdulrahim et al., 1996) (10). In the present study, the addition of formic acid to diets was significantly decreased the serum triglycerides concentration and this decline may be due to secretion of the inuline and the inulin in turn has an inhibitor effect on the triglycerides synthesis processes (11). This experiment was showed a significant age-related difference either in the levels of the serum total protein, albumin and serum glucose. These age-related changes have also been observed in broilers chickens reported by (Sribhen C. et al, 2003) (12). The effect of organic acid supplementation on protein metabolism may be related to improvement of intestinal amino-acids absorption in acidic conditions that consequently enhances protein synthesis (13). This study concluded that the use of organic formic acid had a role in the improvement of some physiological traits in broiler chickens.

References:   

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  9. EI-Kerawy DMA. Acidified feed for growing rabbits. Egypt J Rabbit Sci. 1996: 6: 143-156.
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