Dye Is A Visible Pollution Biology Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Dye is a visible pollution. Even a slight coloration of water sources could make them unacceptable to consumers though it may not be toxic to the same degree. The source of such pollution lies in the rapid increase in the use of synthetic dyes. More than 10,000 chemically different dyes are being manufactured. The release of dyes into waters by industries is undesirable and causes serious environmental problems. It contains various organic compounds and toxic substances which are hazardous and harmful to aquatic organisms. Most of the textile, paper and coating industry use dyes to color their products. In Malaysia, dyes and pigments is commonly used in batik printing industry. Other than that, the growth of textile and apparel industry is expanding during second Malaysia plan (1971-1975). The discharged of wastewater from these industry can pollute the water source with dyes.

There are several methods of removal of dyes from waste water. Some of them are, by floatation, precipitation, oxidation, filtration, coagulation, ozonation, supported liquid membrane and also biological process. Meanwhile, a new and more environmental friendly method, the biosorption process is proven to be a promising process to remove dyes from effluent. This process is similar to adsorbent process which it is cost-effective, easy to operate, simply designed and insensitivity to toxic substances. Recently, there has been considerable interest in the use of microbial biomass including algae, bacteria, fungi, and agricultural by-products or residues as adsorbents to remove dyes from aqueous solution by adsorption, often called biosorption.

In this study, Rhizopus Oligosporus is used as biosorbent for removal Methylene Blue dyes. Rhizopus Oligosporus comes from food processing-derived (production of tempeh). Tempeh is famous food in Malaysia and Indonesia. Methylene Blue (MB), known as strong adsorptions into solid, will be used as the biosorbate. MB is an important basic dye commonly used for printing cotton and tannin, and dyeing leather. Even though it is not strongly hazardous, MB can cause harmful effects to human and other living organisms. Too much exposed of MB can cause eye burns and causes irritation to the skin.

The objectives of this study were to study the effect of biosorbent dosage and the pH of dye solution on the percentage dye.

2.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT

The interpretation of dyes into environment by different industries has been aesthetically unwanted and too much of it will finally cause serious environmental effect, aquatic or non-aquatic. This is due to its properties which are mostly toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. Dyes are causing pollution to the environment, for example, dyes adsorb and reflect sunlight from entering water and thus interfere the aquatic ecosystem. Dyes when release can have sensitive and or chronic effects. It is obviously, therefore, investigating the removal of dyes is significant environmental, technical, and commercially important.

Today activated carbon is commonly used for biosorption in several treatment plants. But the producing costs for activated carbon is very high, there is a need of an alternative material is more cost efficient. Rhizopus oligosporus is a fungus of the family Mucoraceae that is a generally used starter culture for the home production of tempeh. The spores produce fluffy, white mycelia, binding the beans together to create an edible "cake" of partly fermented soybeans. In production of tempeh, Rhizopus oligopsporus comes out as food-derived which makes this material are extremely low in cost. It is also safe because it comes from food and does not harmful.

OBJECTIVES

To study the effect of biosorbent dosage on the percentage dye removal.

To study the effect of varied pH of dye solution on the percentage dye removal.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Rational of the Research

Pollution caused by dyes had affected the society with serious environmental effect and health problems to human body. For that reason, removal of dyes from aqueous solutions is essential. Problems caused by the unused of food processing-derived, Rhizopus oligoporous can be solved by making use of the biomass as a biosorbent to remove dyes. Nowadays, activated carbon is commonly used for adsorption in many treatment plants. Moreover, producing costs for activated carbon is very high; therefore an alternative material is needed to make the cost more efficient. Biosorption process is an important alternative method to replace conventional method, which is high cost and more complicated compared to biosorption.

Current Research

Kumari and Abraham, 2006

A study made by Kumari and Abraham (2006) on the biosorption performance of nonviable biomass of four fungi such as R. nigricans, R. arrhizus, A. niger and A. japonica) and one yeast which is S. cerevisiae treating five different reactive dyes. These organisms are all produced as byproducts in fermentation industries and other studies show that they are good biosorbents of heavy metals and radioactive compounds. The result of Kumari and Abraham's study shows that most of these organisms also are good biosorbents of reactive dyes. Only A. japonica shows relatively low values for the five dyes tested which is around 4-20% adsorption. Aspergillus niger adsorbed between 58-68%. S. cerevisiae and R. nigricans were the most excellent adsorbents (55-91%) and was for some dyes similar to the values given by adsorption with activated carbon. These two organisms were then studied further. The pH of the dye solutions was around 5.9-6.1, but there was also an experiment done at pH 10. The adsorption was most efficient at pH 6 while at pH 10, S. cerevisiae cannot absorb any dye at all. Moreover, R. nigricans only could adsorb less significant amounts of reactive green and reactive blue.

Khalaf, 2008

A study made by Khalaf (2008) focused on textile wastewater treatment by non-viable biomass of Aspergillus niger and the alga Spirogyra. The dye solution contained the commercial Synazol reactive dye, a mixture solution with one red and one yellow dye. The biosorption experiments were performed at different initial pH between 1 to 8, different temperature (15-45 °C) and different biomass loading which is 4 to 12g/L. The A.niger and Spirogyra biomass was inactivated by either gamma radiation or autoclaving. Autoclaving resulted in the highest biosorption values. According to Fu and Viraraghavan (2000 and 2002), autoclaved of A. niger had higher biosorption capacity compared to living biomass. The surface characteristics of the biomass are changed in a way that recovers the dye biosorption capacity. A possible explanation to that is that the autoclaving disrupts the biomass structure and then exposes the adsorption sites even more. The result of the study showed that the highest biosorption values were obtained at pH 3 and the lowest values occurred around pH 6 to 8. The optimal temperature and biomass loading for the biosorption was found to be at 30 °C respectively at 8 g/L.

Advantages and Important of the Research

Normally, dyes are complicated to biodegrade (Fu and Viraraghavan, 2000). Application of biological processes to treat colored wastewater is yet to be fully established. Among other treatment technologies, adsorption is rapidly gaining significant method of treating wastewater. Activated carbon is the most efficient and always used as adsorbent (El-Guendi, 1991). However, its high cost has prevented its application, so it is essential to look for other alternative low-cost adsorbent which can be replace activated carbon.

Comparing to the other available technologies such as precipitation, ion exchange, reverse-osmosis and adsorption, biosorption gives equivalent performance at a very low cost. Apart from cost effectiveness and competitive performance, other advantages are possible regeneration at low cost, availability of known process equipment, sludge free operation and recovery of the sorbate (Volesky, 1999). The use of dead biomass is enhanced rather than live biomass because toxic or pollutants from nature cannot effect on the sorption process. Other than that, there is no requirement for either having any nutrients or maintaining a growth environment.

Moreover, fungal biomass seems to be good material because it can be produced economically using simple and economical growth media. Furthermore, fungal biomass is also accessible as by-product or waste material from various industrial processes (Fu and Viraraghavan, 2000). It is simply and economically available anywhere, especially in locations with hot and humid such as Malaysia.

4.4 Scope of the Study

This study investigates the biosorption abilities of inactive Rhizopus oligosporus for the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. There are two parameters to be studied which are pH of the dye solution and effects of biosorbent dosage.

4.4.1 Biosorption

Biosorption can be defined as the removal of materials such as organic compounds, metal ions and dyes molecules by inactive, non-living biomass (materials of biological origin) as alternative low cost and eco-friendly technology (Farooq et al. 2010). It is a property of certain types of inactive, dead, microbial biomass to bind and concentrate heavy metals and other types of molecules or ions from dilute aqueous solution. Biomass exhibits this property, acting just as chemical substance, as an ion exchange of biological origin. It is particularly the cell wall structure of certain algae, fungi and bacteria which was found responsible for this phenomenon. In similar meaning stated by D.J. Ju et al. in his research, the uptake or accumulation of chemicals by biomass is known as biosorption.

4.4.2 Biosorbent

There are a lot of efforts were made in many studies for the removal of dyes from either aqueous solution or wastewaters. This includes the use of metal hydroxides, clays, sunflower stalks, hardwood, fertilizers and steel wastes. The biosorbent used in the study were prepared from autoclaving and drying Rhizhopus oligosporus (biomass). The dye solution will be treating with inactivated Rhizopus oligosporus. This is because, if the cells of the fungi are active they are easily affected by toxic compounds and chemicals in the waste water and they may then pollute the environment by releasing toxins.

Another difficulty when dealing with active biomass is that it could not be stored at room temperature for long time periods before it may spoil. When the biomass is dead and dried it could be stored and transported easier. Based on the previous study, autoclaved of biomass has a higher biosorption capacity compared to living biomass. (Fu and Viraraghan, 2000 and 2002). These facts are the reasons why inactivated biomass by autoclaving is chosen for this experiment.

4.4.2.1 Rhizopous Oligosporous

Rhizopus oligosporous is a genus of molds that is found in soil and plant material. Usually, it is used as starter to make tempeh, a food made of fermented soy beans. Rhizopus oligosporus is the dominant tempeh fungus(Sharma and Sarbhoy,1984) although some other moulds, such as R. Oryzae and Mucor spp, may also contribute to the flavour, texture or nutritive value (Wiesel,Rehm and Bisping,1997).(Heseltine et al.) isolated Indonesia and found that only Rhizophus could make tempeh in pure culture fermentation. They also found that the 40 strains of Rhizophus studied, 25 of them are R.oligosporus others are R.stolonifier,R.arrhizus.R.oryzae, and R.formosaensis.This finding was also confirmed by (Saono et al), who isolated 118 cultures from 81 tempeh samples collected from markets in various parts of Indonesia.

Figure 1: Rhizopous Oligosporous

4.4.3 Absorbate

Formula Weight for MB is 320 gmol-1, with the chemical formula, C16H18N3SCl, and wavelength number is 662nm. MB is not generally considered as acutely toxic, but it can have various harmful effects. On inhalation, it can increase to short periods of rapid or difficult breathing, while by ingestion through the mouth it produces a burning sensation and may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gastritis. MB is one of the commonly used commercial dyes and compared to the other dyes, it has high brilliance and color intensity, resulting in high visible color, even at very low dye concentration. (Fu and Viraraghavan, 2000).

4.4.4 Design of Experiment (DOE)

DOE is used to build set of experiments of minimum number with optimum condition. This current research consists of two parameters, which is pH of dye solution and dosage of biosorbent. The surface charge on each fungal biomass is predominantly negative at pH 3.0 until 10.0 due to the presence of ionized groups such as carboxyl, phosphate, and amino groups (Zumriye et al. 2008). However at pH values below the isoelectric point (<3.0) (Wu and Yu, 2006), the overall surface charge on fungal cells becomes positive due to protonation of nitrogen-containing functional groups such as amines which are the major biosorption sites for dye removal.While the range for the dosage of biosorbent is between 0.1 until 0.6g. Other than that, DOE is also used to optimize the optimum condition for both parameters in order to make the dye clearer.

METHODOLOGY

Figure 2: Flow Chart of the Experiment

Rhizopus Oligosporous

Cultivation on PDA

Biosorbent Preparation

(Autoclaving at 121° C for 30 minutes)

(Drying at 80 °C at 24 hours)

Biosorbtion Optimization (Using DOE)

pH

Dosage

No

Percentage Dye Removal

Biosorbent Analysis:

UV-vis Spectrometer

Yes

Data Analysis

The experiment could be divided into two different parts.The first part is the biosorbent preparation and the second part is the biosorption optimization.

5.1 Biosorbent Preparation

The solid agar, Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), is prepared by mixing a prepared powder with de-ionized water. The composition of the agar is 5.0g/L potato, 20.0g/L dextrose, 13.0g/L agar and 0.1g/L chloramphenicol. After that, the PDA is autoclaved at 121°C for 30 minutes. The Petri dish containing the PDA is then laid down at room temperature until the medium is turned into solid mass. When it is solid the dish are incubated for 1 day. After incubation one could be excluded that other biomass is growing at the agar. The rhizopus oligoporus grown on PDA is stored in a fridge at 4°C. By inoculating the cultures further onto fresh PDA, the biomass is deactivated. After inoculation, the dish is incubated for at least 5 days. Next, the biosorbent is inactivated by being autoclaved at 121°C for 30 minutes. The mixture is then filtered to get rid of the supernatant and to get only biomass. After filtration, the biosorbent is dried in an oven at 80°C for 24 hours. When the biomass is dry it is powdered and finally it is ready for the biosorption experiment.

5.2 Biosorption Optimization

Table 1: Optimization of Biosorption

Optimization Design

Design of Experiment (DOE)

Parameter

pH

Biosorbent Dosage

Unit

-

g

Symbol

X1

X2

Low level

-1

2

0.1

Medium Level

0

5

0.35

High Level

+1

8

0.6

Table 2: Design of Experiment

Design Of Experiment(DOE)

Run

Replicate

pH

(Coded)

Biosorbent Dosage

(Coded)

pH

(non-coded)

Biosorbent Dosage(g)

(non-coded)

1

1

+1

-1

8

0.1

2

1

-1

0

2

0.35

3

1

+1

+1

8

0.6

4

1

0

+1

5

0.6

5

1

-1

0

2

0.6

6

1

0

0

5

0.35

7

1

-1

-1

2

0.1

8

1

0

0

5

0.35

9

1

+1

0

8

0.35

10

1

0

-1

5

0.1

11

1

0

0

5

0.35

12

1

0

0

5

0.35

13

1

0

0

5

0.35

14

2

+1

-1

8

0.1

15

2

-1

0

2

0.35

16

2

+1

+1

8

0.6

17

2

0

+1

5

0.6

18

2

-1

0

2

0.6

19

2

0

0

5

0.35

20

2

-1

-1

2

0.1

21

2

0

0

5

0.35

22

2

+1

0

8

0.35

23

2

0

-1

5

0.1

24

2

0

0

5

0.35

25

2

0

0

5

0.35

26

2

0

0

5

0.35

Two different biosorption experiments is performed according to two different parameters; biosorbent dosage and pH. Each experiment will be done in different intervals and in duplicate samples. The dye solutions used is prepared by mixing the methylene blue stock solution with a water solution at a NaCl concentration of 30g/L. The concentration of the methylene blue stock solution is 1g/L. The biosorption will take place in an incubator at temperature 30+/-1 °C, a shaking of 150 rpm and during 16 hours. After the biosorption the samples will be filtrated to get the supernatants. The absorbance of that solution is measured by a UV/Vis Spectrophotometer and the absorbance units are then converted into concentration units by using a standard curve.

5.2.1 Biosorption dosage

The biosorption experiments with different biosorbent dosage are performed at natural pH and an initial dye concentration of 50mg/L. The dye solution is prepared by taking 50ml of the stock solution and adding de-ionized water until the volume is 1 liter. Different biosorbent dosages is used; 0 until 0.6g. The biosorbent is weighted and put into a shake flask. Then 50 ml of the dye solution is added to every conical flask.

5.2.2 pH

Now the biosorption experiments will be performed at different pH. As in the experiments above the initial dye concentration will be 50mg/L. The proper biosorbent dosage to use in this experiment is got in the previous experiment. Different initial pH will be tested; 2, 4, 6,8, 10 and 12. The pH of the dye solutions is prepared by adding 1M HCl or NaOH solutions.

5.3 Data Analysis

Design of experiment (DOE) is use to extract the information from experimental data or results.

The calibration standard on the Absorbance versus concentration is plotted. The amount of dye absorb by biosorbent is calculated by the following formula; (mg dye / mg biosorbent)

Where; qt is the adsorption capacity,

C0 is the initial dye concentration,

Ct is the dye concentration at time, t,

V is the volume of the solution, and

W is the mass of biosorbent used,

The dye removal percentage can be calculated by the following formula;

Removal percentage (decolourization) (%)

Where; C0 is the initial dye concentration, and

Ct is the dye concentration at time, t.

6.0 Gantt Chart

Activity

Weeks

Semester 1

Semester 2

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

Searching / Gathering information

Proposal writing

Proposal submission / proposal defence

Proposal correction

Biosorbent development

Biosorbent testing

Process study

Optimization study

Biosorbent characterization

Analyze data and results obtained

Thesis writing

Final report submission and VIVA

Table 3: Gantt chart for the Final Year Project

MILESTONES

Milestones

Date

Gathering details information about Methylene Blue

October 2012

Collect biosorbent and developed it

November 2013

Prepared all material and apparatus regarding biosorption process

November 2013

Biosorbent development

December 2013

Optimization by DOE

January 2013

Biosorbent characterization

February 2013

Table 4: Milestones

EXPECTED OUTCOMES

For this current research, the cost can be reduced by operating in reactors of moderate size and by minimizing heat and power requirements. This is due to the temperature used in this study is in a room temperature. This is because, the increment of heat and power generated are affected the cost.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.