Dry Fruits Fruit And Medicinal Plants Biology Essay

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Dry Fruits are important sources of minerals especially chromium. In human diet minerals are provided mainly by fruits and vegetables puree and medicinal plants. In market different types of juices or instant drink are available that produce from fruit and vegetables which contain minerals, fibers and vitamins (Black et al 2004).Chromium regulates the action of insulin and is also essential in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (Alam and Mahpara, 2003).

Minerals are unique nutrients because of their important role in metabolism. They are essential part of many impotent enzymes and they also play roles as catalysts and antioxidants. Iron and copper for example are essential in blood formation and copper is also involved normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (Hambidge et al. 1987). Chromium plays an important role in metabolism of carbohydrates and potentiates the action of insulin, and its deficiency leads to diabetes in human body. In Pakistan majority of people use vegetables, fruits and cereal as daily food stuff. (Abbas et al, 2010).

In this view there is a dire need to estimate mineral contents in different fruits, cereals, vegetables, crops, medicinal plants etc that the normal people in usually take in their daily life. The present research work was carried out at Pakistan Council of scientific and industrial research (PCSIR). The objective was to estimate the chromium concentration in selected dry fruits and medicinal plants which have suitable chromium concentration.

Material and Methods

Chemicals and glass ware

All chemicals used were of Analytical grade. The glass ware used in experiment was Pyrex made and calibrated. Deionized water was used for preparation of reagents.

Collection of sample

All Samples of were collected from local market and medicinal plants.

Digestion of samples

All samples were washed thoroughly and separately. Firstly running tap water was used to remove dust and dirt particles. After that samples were rinsed thrice with de-ionized water and subsequently dried in oven at 60-80°C. About 2 g of each dried sample was weighed accurately in cleaned and dried 50ml beaker and digested in 10 ml of 1:3 mixture of concentrated 65% HClO4 : HNO3 (Merck) using a hotplate. When clear solution found the digested samples were cooled at room temperature. These were then acidified with 10 ml of 1:1 mixture of HCl:H2O and filtered through 0.45 micron filter paper and the volume was made up to 50ml with distilled water.( AOAC, 2000)

Analysis through atomic absorption spectrophotometer

The digested samples were analyzed by using air-acetylene flame in combination with single element hollow cathode lamps into an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer Aanalyst 800). Calibration of the instrument was repeated periodically during operation. Mineral contents were calculated by comparison of their standards solutions. The blanks were used for zeroing the instrument before each analysis to avoid matrix interference.

Quality Control

High purity deionized water was used for making the solutions. Precision and accuracy of analysis was assured through repeated analysis of samples.

Results and discussions

Table 1: Concentration of trace element in selected medicinal plants.

Plant species

Common name

Plant part

Cr

mg/100 g

Terminalia arjuna

Anjun

Fruit

0.0246

Leave

0.1594

Bark

0.3480

Eucalyptus camaldulensis

Safaida

Fruit

0.0985

Leave

0.1212

Bark

0.0406

Cassia fistula

Amaltas

Fruit

0.0193

Leave

0.1075

Bark

0.0941

Rose damascena

Rose

Flowers

0.1

Santalum album

Sandle

Heart wood

10.33

Cichorium intybus

Kasini

Roots and seeds

158.6

*N.D= Not-detectable

Table 2: Amount of chromium contents (mean values of triplicate samples of fruits, vegetables and spices) Deeba et al, 2010

Sample

Botanical name

Plants part

Moisture %

Ash %

Cr in oven dried samples mg/100gm

Cr in ash mg/100gm

Cr in of original samples mg/100gm

Jaman

Syzygium jumbolana

Seed

20.427

93.35

0.1395

13.9376

0.1156

Pulp

90.99

95.42

0.4575

-

0.2395

Whole

79.577

94.285

0.04157

8.6956

0.0232

Bitter gourd

Charatium

Peel

90.91

94.30

0.252

13.695

0.1319

memerdica

Seeds

77.85

84.40

0.155

-

0.087

Whole

92.618

86.26

0.188

21.840

0.5191

Potato

Solanum tuberosum

Peel

85.33

86.1027

0.2069

22.489

0.11

Inner

96.132

96.132

0.0256

2.876

Whole

95.40

95.40

0.0396

2.2628

0.02159

Meethi

Trigonella

Leaves

0.4

18.90

0.1951

4.1059

0.1924

Seeds

0.1

75.66

0.1399

13.038

0.0322

Rice

Oriza stiva

Whole

0.02

2.94

0.01759

2.019

0.01757

Wheat (Flour)

Triticum sativa

Whole

0.01

1.61535

0.0379

11.28

0.0377

Barley (porridge)

Herdeum vulgare

Whole

0.01

1.728

0.01741

4.6176

0.01739

Kalongi

Nigella saliva

Whole

0.001

93.54

0.1311

6.909

0.1369

Table 3: Amount of chromium in different vegetables on dry basis (PCRWR report 2006)

Sr #

Vegetables

Chromium contents on dry bases (mg/100gm)

Sr #

Vegetables

Chromium contents on dry bases (mg/100gm)

1

Tomato

0.319

10

Barley

0.210

2

Beens

0.317

11

Maize

0.351

3

Wheat

0.353

12

Chilli (Green)

0.194

4

Radish

0.219

13

Sorghum

0.500

5

Cauliflower

0.383

14

Sugar beat

0.202

6

Sugarcane

0.160

15

Garlic

0.433

7

Turnijs

0.445

16

Berseem

0.191

8

Mastand

0.228

17

Spinach

0.319

9

Carrot

0.242

18

Mint

0.297

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