Drinking Water And Staying Hydrated Biology Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Human cardiopulmonary physiology is simply the biological study of some of the functions and parts of a living person. For Homo sapiens, the cardiopulmonary system is dealing with the heart and lungs working together within the cycle of the body. The "cardio" part of "cardiopulmonary" just means the heart and "pulmonary" means lungs. These two working together is crucial for survival (Lujan and White 1999). They are part of the respiratory system that keeps the human body functioning, which deals with heart rate and blood pressure (Lujan and White 1999).

Drinking water and staying hydrated is one of the main ways to keep the heart rate at a regular slow rate and to keep blood pressure at a regular rate (Burke 1998). Oxygen and carbon dioxide is being exchanged for blood from the right atrium of the heart to the left atrium of the heart where the oxygen and carbon dioxide change from deoxygenated to oxygenated blood, and oxygen rich blood then returns back to the right side of the heart; the system of exchanging oxygen, carbon dioxide, and blood happen simultaneously (Mader 1995). When the body is hydrated, the cardiopulmonary system is at its prime with regular and healthy heart rates and blood pressure (Burke 1998).

Dehydration causes the quality of the cardiovascular system to take a drastic decrease in its function (González-Alonso et al 1997). Dehydration can cause hypotension, which is very low blood pressure, or hypertension, which is dangerously high blood pressure, and both are unhealthy for the human body (González-Alonso et al 1997). The human body functions at its best when it is fully hydrated with water.

Hypothesis, Significance, and Variables: I believe that if hydrated, blood pressure will decrease and heart rate will decrease to a regular and healthy rate. I also believe that if dehydrated, both blood pressure and heart rate will increase. The significance of hydration is being able to lower high or dangerously high blood pressure and or heart rate to safe and healthy amounts. The independent variable for this experiment was the level of hydration. The dependent variables for this experiment were the effect the consumption of water had on blood pressure and heart rate.

Methods and Materials

Methods: (I followed the Lab Manual of Donna Weedman 2009). First, we refrained from drinking any water for two hours and thirty- eight minutes. Then, we used the Sphygmomanometer for each person to take basal reading number. Next, we took basal reading number two after waiting one minute after taking the first reading and recorded the data; then, after one more minute passed after collecting the second reading, we took our third and final basal reading and recorded the data.

Then, at the last twelve minutes of our two hour and fifty minute class, we made a chart that consisted of times from zero to twelve increasing in increments of three, and then consumed sixteen ounces of room temperature water. As soon as we finished drinking the water, we took the first blood pressure and heart rate reading on the Sphygmomanometer and recorded the information in the chart. We then had to wait three minutes until we were able to take the next reading. At the three minute mark, we took our second reading and recorded the information. Then, we sat and waited three more minutes until it was time; so at six minutes, we took the third reading of our heart rate and blood pressure. We then waited three more minutes to obtain our next reading, and at nine minutes we took our fourth reading and recorded it. Then, we calmly waited three more minutes to collect our next set of information; so at twelve minutes, we took our fifth and final reading of blood pressure and heart rate.

Materials: In this lab we used a few materials. We used a Sphygmomanometer, sixteen ounces of room temperature water, a stopwatch for timing, and our bodies for consumption of the water (Weedman 2009).

Results

In this experiment we tested how hydration and dehydration affects blood pressure and heart rate by refraining from drinking water for a couple hours and then consumed water to see what results we would get.

In Table 1 below, it demonstrates the number of people in the experiment used as subjects to test the experiment of how hydration and dehydration affect blood pressure and heart rate. From this chart, I derived averages of basal blood pressure of both systolic and diastolic and the average of basal for heart rate.

Table 1

In figure one below; the line graph reveals that the systolic pressure is higher than the diastolic pressure. It also shows that there is a large difference in blood pressure between the times zero minutes and six minutes. There is a drastic change in the data from those two points of time. In the next graph, figure two, shows the average of all of the subjects' heart rate after three minutes of being hydrated and it also shows the average of all of the subjects' heart rate when they were dehydrated and before everyone consumed water. In this graph, consumption of water is the independent variable on the x- axis and heart rate as a dependent variable on the y-axis.

Figure three below, illustrates what effect being hydrated or dehydrated has on each individual subject's heart rate. This figure compares hydration and dehydration per subject and shows how his or her heart rate was affected on an individual level using the data, heart rate after three minutes and the first basal reading taken. Table two is a chart of a T-test made from the averages of all three basal readings and the averages of each time period for the heart rate. Table three is another T-test made from the same type averages except it was created from the systolic blood pressure. Table four is also a T-test exactly to that of Table three except it was derived from diastolic blood pressure. The T-tests determine the P-value, the percentage saying the percentage of chance is due to randomness and not real differences, and if something is paired (comparing data from same individual) or unpaired (comparing different people's data). The number, 0.05, is the end marking for significant numbers so if the number is greater than 0.05 than it is not significant.

Table 2 T-test (Heart Rate)

Name

P-value

Significant?

Basal to 0 min

0.0447

Yes

Basal to 12 min

0.0038

Yes

0 to 3 min

0.0737

No

0 to 6 min

0.0488

Yes

0 to 9 min

0.5328

No

0 to 12 min

0.4088

No

Table 3 T-test (SystolicBlood Pressure)

Name

P-value

Significant?

Basal to 0 min

0.0165

Yes

Basal to 12 min

0.2585

No

0 to 3 min

0.4509

No

0 to 6 min

0.1899

No

0 to 9 min

0.7895

No

0 to 12 min

0.2328

No

Table 4 T-test (DiastolicBlood Pressure)

Name

P-value

Significant?

Basal to 0 min

0.0033

Yes

Basal to 12 min

0.4761

No

0 to 3 min

0.2189

No

0 to 6 min

0.0687

No

0 to 9 min

0.8406

No

0 to 12 min

0.0703

No

Discussion

I believe that if hydrated, blood pressure will decrease and heart rate will decrease to a regular and healthy rate. I also believe that if dehydrated, both blood pressure and heart rate will increase. The results proved that hydration decreases blood pressure and heart rate and dehydration increases blood pressure and heart rate. According to Figure three, almost every individual had a lower heart rate when hydrated compared to when dehydrated. As seen in Figure two, the overall average of how heart rate is affected based on hydration versus dehydration, confirms that heart rate is increased when dehydrated; in this example the dehydration heart rate is four mm Hg's higher than hydration's heart rate. In T-test in Table two, both basal readings and the compared time of zero to six minutes all had significant P-values. In Table three and four, only the first basal reading had a significant P-value.

Our results supported other previous results of hydration decreasing heart rate but conflicted with hydration decreasing blood pressure because in both experiments the heart rate results were similar, but the blood pressure results clashed. "Drinking water will replete blood volume and reduce the heart rate" (Nicholls 2007). There were some weaknesses identified in our experimental set up. There were errors in some of the data which could have affected the results just slightly, but we really did not pay too much attention the "error" markings due to the fact that when it appeared it was only once per section of information. Also, sometimes during measuring blood pressure and heart rate, the Sphygmomanometer would show an error and shut off; which meant we had to hurry and attempt to measure for that same time period again. The conclusion that I have drawn from this experiment is that hydrating yourself causes your heart rate and blood pressure to decrease to a normal and healthy level.

Literature Cited

Burke, E. R. 1998. Precision Heart Rate Training. United States: Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. p 5-6.

Campbell, N. A., Reece, J.B., Urry, L.A., Cain, M.L., Wasserman, S.A., Minorsky, P.V., and Jackson, R.B. 2008. BIOLOGY. Eighth Edition. 2. San Francisco, California: Pearson Custom Publishing. p 903-927.

González-Alonso, J., Mora-Rodríguez, R., Below, P.R., Coyle E.F. 1997. Journal of Applied Sciences: Control of Breathing, Circulation, and Temperature. J Appl Physiol 82: 1229-1236.

Lujan B.F., White R.J. Human Physiology in Space. 1999. 29 Jan 2010. http://www.nsbri.org/HumanPhysSpace/focus2/respiratory.html.

Mader, S.S. 1995. Human Biology. Fourth Edition. United States of America: Wm. C. Brown Communications, Inc. p 94-95.

Nicholls, T. Anatomy. 2007. 20 Feb 2010.

http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/2007-03/1173210073.An.r.html

Weedman, D, Smith Sokoloski E. 2009. Biology of Organisms: A Laboratory Manual for LIFE 103. 5th ed. United States: Cengage Learning. p 173-184.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.