Dioxin And Dioxin Like Compounds Biology Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

There are many ways and methods into analyzing the problem and perspective. First step is to identify the problem and the nature of the problem. Once the problem is identified, the problem is then analyzed further through various means, namely the nature of the problem and how it arises. This step is important as it allows further insight into the problem. Usually in scientific experiments, the problem is first identified before the next steps are carried out. Scientist carry out experiments first based on a problem they encounter or on a proposed theory or hypothesis. Without such a catalyst, the experiment can't be carried out. Experiments are to examine the problem that arise or to prove the hypothesis, if it can't be proven then a new theory comes up, this is how it works in the world of science.

The next step comes the perspective. This part is not distinct from the problem but actually forms an extension of it. Perspective can be defined as a point of view on the subject at hand. This can also be understood when looked at a vantage point, any angle or view from that is considered a perspective, albeit right or wrong. With this meaning, we can now see the connection that a problem and its perspective has. One has to come with the other, they are quite inseparable.

The way we did all this was simple. We simply used what available tools we could access, which is the internet, journals, newspapers and magazines of any kind. The internet presented a big help to us in that because the internet houses tons and tons of information of various kind. All we needed to do was narrow down our search and look for the right sources to carry out our job, then the rest was just accumulating, dissimilating and presenting the data/info/findings in a fashionable way. Below shows a flowchart of that very process.

Newspapers

Magazines

Internet

Flowchart 1: The process in a randomized fashion.Journals/Books

Information

For the information part, our main source would be the internet. The internet represents somewhat like a virtual library storing terabytes and terabytes of information. In recent times, the internet has been an important tool in helping students gather their needed information. The internet can be used to help in assignments as well. Most of the information these days are digitalized, so searching information can be done through a computer/laptop with internet connection with the benefits of being at home. This also saves a lot of time, stress and unnecessary trouble like going out to a public library to search for information. Journals can also be found on the internet, aiding students in their search. One of the setbacks is, some journals can't be accessed. Some requires membership, payment or a student of that particular university. Therefore, our information is mostly based on websites, journals and books that are available.

Picture 10: Shows how the world is connected to the internet. This depicts how much of today is digitalized.http://endthelie.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/ISP-surveillance.jpg

Methods of gathering data

In this part, we had to thoroughly deliberate the methods we were going to employ in gathering the data. In that course, we had set up a meeting to discuss this matter after college hours, and after careful consideration we had decided to use survey forms in gathering the data. We chose this method of gathering data because a questionnaire type of survey is easy to hand out and it doesn't take much time to complete. Another reason we chose this method is because when doing a face to face interview, most people feel nervous, including us as well, and that might affect our performance and the way the information is delivered. When nervous, a person might forget to say something or say something totally irrelevant to the topic or question asked. In view of all this, the survey type of gathering data was picked with no objections and with complete compliance.

Personal reactions and biases

In carrying out the survey, we have chosen an age group of between the ages of 15 and 30. We have chosen this age group because people in this age group usually consumes the most fast-foods like burgers compared to other age groups. We have found that people in age 30 and above hardly consume burgers or even fast-foods, mainly because they prefer other sources of food, and because they grew up in an era where fast-foods was practically new and foreign to them. With today's generation, fast-foods are common to them and readily acceptable, comprising a high percentage of their diets compared to older generations. If we were to take older generations when conducting the survey, our data collected would be insignificant, because these generations hardly consume any, therefore data obtained can't be analyzed, compared, and discussed.

As well, to make it fair, we have divided the 50 people surveyed into 25 females and 25 males. This is fair to everyone and our assignment because there's no gender favouritism or gender discrimination. This decision has been agreed on by all 3 members of the group. 25 females and 25 males for the survey is to supply balance to our data and not a one-sided information that would bring down a certain gender.

Furthermore, when being surveyed, the participants took part willingly and happily after explaining to them that this is for assignment purposes and that their information given in the survey forms like their names and number won't be exploited for selfish or other reasons. The participants felt more relaxed and assured hearing the explanation. Participant's privacy and comfortness has been established. We thanked the participants with warm-hearts and gratitude once they have finished. This gesture leaves both the participants and us feeling good. A small portion of the survey was carried out through the internet. Survey forms were sent out and replied back with answers from the participants. This method also includes the element of un-inhibited answering as there's pressure of being watched when answering the survey.

Results

Data obtained from other reseachers

1. Dioxin and dioxin-like compounds

Dioxins are a group of chemically-related compounds that are persistent environmental pollutants. Dioxins are found throughout the world in the environment and they accumulate in the food chain, mainly in the fatty tissue of animals. More than 90% of human exposure is through food, mainly meat and dairy products, fish and shellfish. Dioxins are highly toxic and can cause reproductive and developmental problems, damage the immune system, interfere with hormones and also cause cancer. Because burger patties have high fat content and the fats ability to retain dioxin and dioxin like compounds, this poses a threat to consumers worldwide. Not only is burger consumption a norm in fast developing countries, it is also a frequently craved food in all over the world. Studies have shown that consumption of burgers have more than tripled in the last decade, marking a significant health threat to all. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has done a lot of research into this chemical compounds and it has taken them more than 27 years for that completion!! On why it took so long for the EPA to publish its findings, the EPA said, "For more than 25 years, different segments of the regulated industry (pulp and paper, chemical, food and agriculture) have pushed back and generated tremendous pressure on EPA not to release this assessment. The science of the reassessment has been very consistent and only strengthened since a draft was released in 1994. The agency has used the latest scientific methods and followed its published guidelines to determine the risks from exposure to dioxin. These guidelines and methods were peer-reviewed and open to public comment prior to being finalized (they are also regularly updated). But none of this matters to the industry that has been well organized and financed. They will never be satisfied with the science of EPA because they do not like the bottom line since it affects their operational costs and profits, not because there is something wrong with EPA's science". Now we can clearly see why if this report was published a long time ago, it would have affected the fast-food industry and its profit making methods. This can also be said of the pharmaceutical industry where selling drugs is its aim and not selling the cure, inadvertently, they create long-term customers rather than healthy individuals.

Nearly all of us are exposed to dioxin by eating meat and dairy products. According to EPA over 90% of human exposure to dioxin occurs through our diet. Dioxin is most prevalent in meat, fish, dairy, and other fatty foods. Our exposure begins as crops are contaminated by airborne dioxins settling onto plants, which cows and other animals eat. The exposures are compounded when animals are given fat laden feed contaminated with dioxin. At each step, dioxin accumulates in the fat portion of the animal. We then ingest dioxin by eating meat and dairy. This is startling information revealed by the EPA because the majority of the world's population consumes meat and dairy products, partly because of its availability in the market. In the long run, this scenario is creating a list of diseased individuals.

The research done by EPA shows that dioxin can cause a wide range of non-cancer effects including reproductive, developmental, immunological, and endocrine effects in both animals and humans. Animal studies show that dioxin exposure is associated with endometriosis, decreased fertility, the inability to carry pregnancies to term, lowered testosterone levels, decreased sperm counts, birth defects, and learning disabilities. In children, dioxin exposure has been associated with IQ deficits, delays in psychomotor and neurodevelopment, and altered behavior including hyperactivity. Studies in workers have found lowered testosterone levels, decreased testis size, and birth defects in offspring of Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange. Dioxin is also a human carcinogen.

Suffice to say, not only is consuming burger patties with high fat content dangerous, consuming other fatty meat products and dairy products are also dangerous.

Picture 11: Logo for EPA.File:Environmental Protection Agency logo.svg

2. Acrylamide in burger buns/bread

This compound has been found in burger buns or breads that have been cooked at a high temperature. Nowadays, it's common to find burger buns cooked at high temperatures on hot pans to increase crispiness and flavor of the buns. This is usually done by adding butter or margarine on the hot pan or without as well. The bun is then cooked until a light golden or light brown color is obtained, removing the bread before a darker color is produced which signifies the bun is over-cooked and it is generally undesired by customers. Un-knowingly, many consumers have been consuming a chemical known as acrylamide from this process as a result and unaware of its consequences.

Acrylamide is usually formed by using high heat to cook starchy foods such as potato chips, french fries and even cereal products which has the highest level of acrylamide. Suffice to say, burger is also one of them. Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in animals. Also, certain doses of acrylamide are toxic to the nervous system of both animals and humans. In April 2002 the Swedish National Food Authority reported the presence of elevated levels of acrylamide in certain types of food processed at high temperatures. Since then, acrylamide has been found in a range of cooked and heat-processed foods in other countries, including The Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. A research done by the World Health Organization said that The levels of acrylamide found in some foods are much higher than the levels recommended for drinking-water, or levels expected to occur as a result of contact between food and food packaging (from paper) or use of cosmetics. This data indicates that drinking water is much safer in terms of acrylamide consumption, however, there are also other chemicals found in untreated water which is detrimental to our health also.

Some scientist are still uncertain how acrylamide is formed in the food, however some scientist says that as asparagine has some credit to the formation of this chemical. Asparagine is an amino acid that is found in many vegetables, with higher concentrations in some varieties of potatoes. When heated to high temperatures in the presence of certain sugars, asparagine can form acrylamide. High-temperature cooking methods, such as frying, baking, or broiling, have been found to produce acrylamide. This causes neurological damage in the long-run.

Picture 12: 2-D skeletal picture of acrylamide.File:Acrylamide-2D-skeletal.png

3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

PAHs are naturally found in biofuel or coal products, however it is also prevalent in meat cooked in high heat such as grilling and barbecuing in the making of burger. This poses a threat to human health as it is a known carcinogen. The carcinogen is mainly benzo[a]pyrene (structure is shown), though other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are present and can cause cancer, too. PAHs are in smoke from incomplete combustion.

A key factor in PAH toxicity is the formation of reactive metabolites. Not all PAHs are of the same toxicity because of differences in structure that affect metabolism. Another factor to consider is the biologic effective dose, or the amount of toxics that actually reaches the cells or target sites where interaction and adverse effects can occur. CYP1A1, the primary cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme that biologically activates benzo (a) pyrene, may be induced by other substances [Kemena et al.1988; Robinson et al. 1975]. The mechanism of PAH-induced carcinogenesis is believed to be via the binding of PAH metabolites to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Some parent PAHs are weak carcinogens that require metabolism to become more potent carcinogens. Diol epoxides-PAH intermediate metabolites-are mutagenic and affect normal cell replication when they react with DNA to form adducts. A theory to explain the variability in the potency of different diol epoxides, "the bay theory," predicts that an epoxide will be highly reactive and mutagenic if it is in the "bay" region of the PAH molecule (Figure 1) [Jerina et al. 1976 and 1980; Weis 1998]. The bay region is the space between the aromatic rings of the PAH molecule.

Figure 1.http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/pah/images/pah.jpg

PAH-induced carcinogenesis can result when a PAH-DNA adduct forms at a site critical to the regulation of cell differentiation or growth. A mutation occurs during cell replication if the aberration remains unrepaired. Cells affected most significantly by acute PAH exposure appear to be those with rapid replicative turnover, such as those in bone marrow, skin, and lung tissue. Tissues with slower turnover rates, such as liver tissue, are less susceptible. Benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide adducts bind covalently to several guanine positions of the bronchial epithelial cell DNA p53 gene, where cancer mutations are known to occur.

Processing of food (such as drying and smoking) and cooking of foods at high temperatures (grilling, roasting, frying) are major sources generating PAH (Guillen et al., 1997; Phillips,1999). Levels as high as 200 µg/kg food have been found for individual PAH in smoked fish and meat. In barbecued meat, 130 µg/kg has been reported whereas the average background values are usually in the range of 0.01-1 µg/kg in uncooked foods. Besides that, foods can also be affected by outside factors, these include PAH that are present in air (by deposition), soil (by transfer) or water (deposition and transfer), examples are;

Stubble burning (Ramdahl and Moller, 1983) and spreading of contaminated sewage sludge on agricultural fields (Hembrock-Heger and Konig, 1990; cited by IPCS, 1998).

Exhausts from mobile sources (motor vehicles and aircrafts). Close to an emission source such as a motorway, very high concentrations of PAH were detected in the surface layer, but soil at a depth of 4-8 cm was two times less contaminated (Butler et al., 1984; cited by IPCS, 1998). Close to highways, concentrations of PAH in the soil in the range of 2-5 mg/kg can be found whereas in unpolluted areas, the levels are in the range of 5-100 µg/kg. The distribution and concentration of PAH in soil, leaf litter, and soil fauna depend broadly on the distance from the roadside.

Industrial plants (e.g. aluminum foundries, incinerators).

Domestic heating with open fireplaces. Levels of PAH in the atmosphere appear to be higher in the winter than in the summer period.

Burning of automobile tires or of creosote treated wood releases considerable amounts of PAH.

Forest fires and volcanic eruptions (Hites et al., 1980; cited in IPCS, 1998).

As we can see from the examples given above, there are numerous ways PAH can enter the food-chain and not only through cooking meat using high heat. Without even the consumer realizing, he/she is consuming levels of PAH way more than anticipated, and the onset of cancer by the carcinogenic effects of PAH is brought on even faster. PAH are lipophilic and generally have a very poor aqueous solubility. PAH accumulate in lipid tissue of plants and animals. This spells bad news for us as it makes PAH harder to excrete from the human body as they accumulate in the fatty region. Unless we have a way of removing fat, we can be sure PAH will accumulate in the body and bring on it bad effects.

PAH formation during charcoal grilling was shown to be dependent upon the fat content of the meat, the time of cooking and the temperature. For example a heavily barbecued lamb sausage contained 14 µg/kg of carcinogenic PAH (Mottier et al., 2000).

3. Oxidized fats/Saturated fats

Most of us have heard of saturated fats and oxidized fats which has another name called trans-fats. Most of us are readily exposed to these terms as they're circulating widely in the market today, we see products which claim they're fat free or no trans-fat at all. Most of the fats from animals are saturated fats, unsaturated sources usually come from plant-based or oil-based. In addition to that, when these saturated fats are cooked at a high temperature, they become oxidized fats because the attack of oxygen molecules on its molecular structure, changing its molecular structure entirely. The high intake of these fats have been shown to increase cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack.

Trans fat is usually formed in the processing process of the burger patty. The reason why trans fat are used in the food industries is because they're more stable compared to other fats which are susceptible to high heat damage, UV light damage, and rancidity. Trans fatty acids are formed through the process of hydrogenation, during which the bonds in a fatty acid chain become bonded in a trans configuration, with the atoms of hydrogen bonding on opposite sides of the chain. As the hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides of the chain, this does not allow the fats to bend, meaning they are hard at room temperature. These trans fatty acids are more stable, and less likely to become damaged, at room temperatures than unsaturated fats and, for this reason, food manufacturers prefer to use these in foods.  Trans fatty acids are found in many foods, including margarines, pizzas, cakes, biscuits, breakfast cereals and a variety of other processed foods. Trans fatty acids have, however, been found to be harmful to health in many respects. Studies by Mozaffarian et al. (2006) and Clarke and Lewington (2006) have linked trans fatty acids to coronary heart disease. As shown by Mensink et al. (2003), trans fatty acids are related to changes in the ratio of total:HDL cholesterol with this increasing the risk of cardiovascular problems and coronary heart disease. Brouwer et al. (2010) support this finding, showing that trans fatty acids raise the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of cardiovascular problems. Other studies, such as that by Lopez-Garcia et al. (2005) and Mozaffarian (2004) have linked trans fatty acids to inflammation and to adverse effects on endothelial function. Morris et al. (2003) has linked trans fatty acids with the onset of Alzheimer's disease, showing that whilst a high intake of unsaturated, unhydrogenated fats is thought to be protective for Alzheimer's disease, an intake of saturated fats or trans fatty acids may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. The negative effects of trans fatty acids on health are, thus, many and varied.

Picture 13: Blockage in right coronary artery http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/08/01/health/adam/9377.jpg

The intake of all these fats have also been linked to high cholesterol, bringing many heart complications with it. There isn't a general symptoms, but can be found through have blood test regularly. High cholesterol can increase the chance of getting atherosclerosis and stroke. There are a few symptoms of atherosclerosis like angina. This is a pain in the chest due to the narrowing of the arteries. (Robson.D. 2005) Others can experiences pain in the leg during exercising like walking and running. (Robson.D. 2005). Another sign is in some cases known as xanthoma which is a yellow patch made of cholesterol that normally form around the eyelids on the skin and can also occur on other parts on the skin. (Robson.D. 2005). Plaques can be ruptured allowing the platelets to form blood clot. This can occur in one of the arteries that supply the blood to the heart and can lead to heart attacks. This condition is known as thrombosis. Stroke is a sudden event that doesn't give warning to the person. This cuts the blood supply to the brain. Mini stroke can occur due to blood clots and ruptured blood vessels.

Impact and significance of data obtained

This section reviews the survey questions and discusses the answers given by the participants, consisting of ages 15-30 of 25 males and 25 females.

Question 1: Do you like burgers?

Male

Female

Answer

22

23

Yes

3

2

No

Table 1:Tthe answers to Question 1.

As shown above in the table, the majority likes burgers which comprises of 45 participants out of 50, and only 5 of them does not like burgers. This data implicates that burgers have penetrated the market widely, providing customers with much satisfaction about the product.

Question 2: Do you like the taste of burgers?

Male

Female

Answer

24

23

Yes

1

2

No

Table 2: The answers to Question 2.

In question 2, participants have been asked whether they liked the taste of burgers and 47 of them answered yes while the remaining 3 answered no. This data is important as it shows burger sellers or fast-food restaurants have marketed a product which has a taste that is accepted by the majority of people. This sensory factor is important as it provides a continual stream of customers coming back for more. As we know, sensory factors plays an important role in determining one's choice of food. Naturally, if you liked the taste of a food, consumption and preference for that food increased significantly compared to undesirable food products.

How often do you consume burger?

Male

Female

Answer

13

6

Once a week

8

14

Once a month

4

5

Other…

Table 3: The answer to Question 3.

In this question, the data reveals that most of them consume burgers primarily once a week which is 38%, and once a month which is 44%. The other 18% comprises of people who consumes burger once a year or either according to their moods. When comparing both male and females, the majority of females consumes it once a month. This can be easily deducted as girls are more concerned about their physical appearance like their weight and body figure. Most girls considers burgers as fatty food, which, when consumed, is hard to burn off or lose it. The media has portrayed that woman who does not fit into the socially accepted body figure or bodily measurements are deemed as fat, undesirable and even repulsive. This explanation easily explains why woman are so concerned with their physical appearance. As a contrast, in the man category, most of them consume their burgers once a week. Man generally do not care about their physical appearance as compared to woman, so less emphasis is given on how often they consume their burgers. However, this trend is beginning to change as the numbers of man consuming burgers once a month is beginning to rise as shown by the data above. 32% of man consume it once a month while 52% consume it once a week. This shows that the number of man consuming it once a month is on the rise. This can be implicated as health awareness has taken place on the population, we are living in a world where information is easy to obtain and highly accessible. The population is more educated now and are more health conscious compared to older generations. Nowadays, the media has also placed important emphasis on certain male body figure types which is deemed attractive and desirable like having hard-rock 6 packs or a lean muscular body low in fat. Most man are aiming for this body types and are eliminating foods high in fat. This gives a boost in confidence as testosterone as woman find them more attractive, this scenario can be applied to woman as well. This topic also touches on psychology and how human or peer attention affects the emotional well-being of an individual. The human need for attention is humungous, often feeding the ego, which also helps to shape the human personality up to certain extends. Attention also serves as a motivational factor for most people, often leading them to work harder and harder just to maintain that level of attention or even increase it.

According to your knowledge, is eating one a balanced nutritional option?

Male

Female

Answer

7

4

Yes

18

21

No

Table 4: The answer to Question 4.

In this question, the participants are questioned whether they think that eating burger can provide them a balance of nutrition required by the body, and 78% of them answered no while the remaining 22% answered yes. This goes to show that most people don't believe that eating a burger could provide them all the necessary nutrients in a single serving meal. This also implies that after eating a burger, most people would buy something else to eat to substitute the lack of nutrient or just buy another burger. In fact, studies have shown that the bad effects of eating a burger far outweighs its benefits, albeit only a little. Eating a burger does more harm than good.

Even if it offers a balanced nutrition, do you think it's a healthy food option?

Male

Female

Answer

12

3

Yes

13

22

No

Table 5: The answers to Question 5.

For females, it is not surprising that 88% of them consider it as not healthy. This shows that most women are quite well-informed about their food. As for guys, 48% of them consider it as healthy food whereas 52% of them do not consider it as healthy food. Now this is a close call, but nonetheless shows the mindset of the man. One category of man consider it as an healthy option because it has all the 3 macro-nutrients such as carbohydrates from the bun, fats and proteins form the meat patty, with extra nutrients coming from the vegetables like cabbage and tomatoes. Another group of man consider it as not healthy because of the way it is cooked or how the meat patty is prepared. In this Information Age, it is easy to obtain information on most anything and it has been revealed by the media that most patty production includes animals leftover or unwanted animals products such as skins, bones, organs and even feces! This helps the product company on saving costs as less animals are required to be farmed or raised and easy to obtain leftover provides a cheaper way of producing patties, this saves the company a lot of money!! It is a win-win situation for them, cut costs and rake in profits.

Would you still consume one, even after knowing it contains grinded and mixed leftovers like animal skin, bones, organs, added plastic and the sort?

Male

Female

Answer

11

7

Yes

14

18

No

Table 6: The answers to Question 6

For woman, 72% of them answered no as the obvious choice while the remaining answered no. This is easy to see why, as after finding out the ingredients to the meat patty, most of them felt disgusted and rebuked. As for the man, 56& answered no while the other 44& answered yes. This is startling as 44% of them answered yes, which is almost half of 100%. This can be explained by man being more open as to the ingredients of the patty and generally more accepting compared to woman, or either, they just don't care and just love their burgers, no matter what the ingredients or health warnings.

Do you think the habit of eating a burger has become a prevalent or prominent culture throughout the world's population?

Male

Female

Answer

23

18

Yes

2

7

No

Table 7: The answers to Question 7.

The majority of them has answered yes whether the habit of eating a burger has become a prominent culture in today's world. This shows that they are aware of today's trend as fast-food industries are growing and can generally be seen everywhere in today's market. It is important to note the trends of today culture as it also serves as a doorway to rectify the problem and bring it to a minimum. How can one change something without first knowing it exist or the problem? As such, it is important for people to observe and know today's eating trends and cultures and to analyse if it's good or bad.

Question 8 asked of the participants thoughts after taking the survey and have been requested to write it out.

For this question, the majority of them, above 90% have stated that eating a burger is unhealthy and considers reducing their intake. This awareness have been developed by going through the survey questions, particularly Question 6 which offers the patty ingredients, or the participants have already been exposed to various information earlier before taking the survey. In this question, most of them have stated that although eating a burger is unavoidable in their lives, they try to reduce their intake of it. Most of them still enjoy a good burger even while knowing the bad effects of it. This is an interesting human behavior, even after knowing the bad effects of something, one does not totally avoid the it. This serves as a paradox. It is definitely interesting.

Conclusion

In summary of findings

In summary, the EPA and WHO have stated the bad effects of chemicals such as dioxin and acrylamide which are found in burgers and its implications on human health. This brings an alarming warning to all of us consumers and we were previously oblivious to these chemicals. Now thanks to the EPA and WHO for their efforts and research, better understanding of these chemicals are delivered and obtained, consumers now are more aware and educated on the subject.

For PAHs;

The formation of reactive metabolites and the biologically effective dose are key to PAH toxicity.

Diol epoxides-PAH intermediate metabolites-are mutagenic and affect normal cell replication when they react with DNA to form adducts.

The location of epoxides in the bay region of a PAH predicts reactivity and mutagenicity.

DNA adducts, as markers of exposure used in research, can be measured in various biologic media.

The ability of CYP1A1 to biologically activate PAHs may be heritable and thus point to genetically susceptible populations at risk of PAH carcinogenesis.

The most significant endpoint of PAH toxicity is cancer.

Animal studies show that certain PAHs affect the hematopoietic, immune, reproductive, and neurologic systems and cause developmental effects.

Continued research regarding the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects from chronic exposure to PAHs and metabolites is needed. The following table indicates the carcinogenic classifications of selected PAHs by specific agencies.

Agency

PAH Compound(s)

Carcinogenic Classification

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

benz(a)anthracene,

benzo(b)fluoranthene,

benzo(a)pyrene,

dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and

indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene.

Known animal carcinogens

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)

benz(a)anthracene and

benzo(a)pyrene.

Probably carcinogenic to humans

benzo(a)fluoranthene,

benzo(k)fluoranthene, and

ideno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene.

Possibly carcinogenic to humans

anthracene,

benzo(g,h,i)perylene,

benzo(e)pyrene,

chrysene,

fluoranthene,

fluorene,

phenanthrene, and

pyrene.

Not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

benz(a)anthracene,

benzo(a)pyrene,

benzo(b)fluoranthene,

benzo(k)fluoranthene,

chrysene,

dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and

indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene.

Probable human carcinogens

acenaphthylene,

anthracene,

benzo(g,h,i)perylene,

fluoranthene,

fluorene,

phenanthrene, and pyrene.

Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity

Table 9: Shows the carcinogenic classifications of selected PAHs by specific agencies.

Concerning trans fat in the United Kingdom, health concerns over trans fatty acids, as reported by the BBC (2007), major UK retailers - including Tesco, ASDA, Boots, Sainsbury's, the Co-op and Marks & Spencer - decided to stop using trans fatty acid in their own-brand products in January 2007. The BBC (2007) reported that this would affect around 5000 products sold by these supermarkets. The BBC (2007) reported that this represented a "scale and pace of change way beyond anything retailers or manufacturers are doing anywhere else in Europe". As the BBC (2007) report, many feel, however, despite this move, that foods should be clearly labeled so that people can make their own choices as to what they eat. As Tickell (2006) suggests, given the many demonstrated links between trans fatty acids and health problems, the Government should be doing more than simply labeling foods as containing trans fatty acids, particularly as many people don't read food labels and because many foods that people eat (such as unpackaged foods in restaurants) contain trans fatty acids, yet these foods are not subject to any labeling requirements. In addition, the use of synonyms for trans fatty acids on food labels is confusing for consumers, meaning that consumers could, unwittingly, be buying foods containing trans fatty acids even if they are trying to avoid consuming them.

Trans fatty acids in other words trans fats made by hydrogenation process by heating liquid vegetable oils in the presence of hydrogen which means the liquid is saturated and converted into turned into solid making it more stable. This is for easier transportation hydrogenetead oils can withstand longer and this is ideal for frying process of making foods. Trans fats are even worse than saturated fats because not only they increase LDL but they lower the level of HDL in the blood. The consumption of these saturated fats and most importantly Trans fatty acids causes problems in the cardiovascular system such as causing people to have heart diseases, stroke, diabetes, obesity and other related chronic condition. But what is worse is that in some places, mostly in developing countries people use partially hydrogenated oils because they are cheaper. But these oils are completely different than the oils that are used for cooking, they are mostly like trans-rich partially hydrogenated oils and they are really bad and the main causes of heart diseases.

saturated fats boosts cholesterol level by increasing the harmful LDL and but also increases protective HDL. (In this cases unsaturates fats are much prefereable because it lowers the harmful LDL and increases the protective, goods HDL). LDL is low-density lipoproteins. They are responsible for carrying cholesterol from liver to the rest of the body. When going throught the cells in the body, the cell might attach themselves in it and extract fat and cholesterol. So that is why they are referred to as bad and harmful lipoproteins which are detrimental to the human system overall.

Implications of findings and future suggestions

Because dioxin compounds are found in fatty acids of the patty, trimming fat from meat may decrease the exposure to dioxin compounds. Also, a balanced diet (including adequate amounts of fruits, vegetables and cereals) will help to avoid excessive exposure from a single source. This is a long-term strategy to reduce body burdens and is probably most relevant for girls and young women to reduce exposure of the developing fetus and when breastfeeding infants later on in life. We as aware consumers have the power of reduce our intake levels of dioxin and we should exercise it.

Also, as a side note, here are six steps to avoid dioxin in your food:

 Eat less animal fat - buy lean meats and poultry - and cut off the fat before cooking.

 Eat fat free dairy products - or as low as you can - such as milk, cheese, and yogurt.

 Fish is a healthy food choice - but fish are also affected, so avoid fatty fish (such as salmon) and cut the fat off before cooking and eating.

 Purchase food products that have been grain or grass fed. Farm animals fed food with animal

products that includes other animal's fat increases the amount of dioxin ingested by livestock

and increases the amount of dioxin that is in the consumer meat product.

 Eat more fruits and vegetables.

 Breast feed your babies - breast milk is still the healthiest food for your baby

As for acrylamide found in breads,

The FDA also does not recommend that you avoid particular foods because of dioxins. The EPA's 2003 draft dioxin reassessment indicates that following the science-based advice in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will also likely help individuals lower their risk of exposure to dioxins. These guidelines include the recommendations to choose a variety of meat and dairy products that are lean, low fat, or fat free and to increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain products. Meat, milk, and fish are important sources of nutrients for the American public and an appropriate part of a balanced diet. Each of these foods provides high quality protein in the diet. Lean meat includes meats that are naturally lower in fat, and meat where visible fat has been trimmed. For fish and poultry you can reduce fat by removing the skin. Reducing the amount of butter or lard used in the preparation of foods and cooking methods that reduce fat (such as oven broiling) may also lower the risk of exposure to dioxin.

As for acrylamide, consumption, it is suggested that burger buns which are not cooked on a hot pan is preferred over pan-cooked buns. This reduces the intake acrylamide in the diet from burgers. As elsewhere, consumption of high-heat-cooked starchy foods like French fries, potato chips and cereals are to be reduce as these foods contain high levels of acrylamide. Acrylamide ingestion is mostly from food and cigarettes, and unlikely sources included is water. This is because polyacrylamide is used as a one of a variety of cleaning agents, combining with solid material making it easier to filter/remove unwanted substances from water. According to the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, the guideline value (the concentration representing the tolerable risk to the health of the consumer over a lifetime of consumption) is 0.5 micrograms per litre in drinking-water. Concentrations in drinking-water can be controlled by product and dose specification. The European Union's legal limit for drinking-water is 0.1 micrograms per litre of water. Some countries, like the United States and Japan, have regulations on treatment techniques, rather than a water quality standard value for acrylamide. For future research suggestion, although studies in rodent models suggest that acrylamide is a potential carcinogen, additional epidemiological cohort studies are needed to help determine any effects of dietary acrylamide intake on human cancer risk. It is also important to determine how acrylamide is formed during the cooking process and whether acrylamide is present in foods other than those already tested. This information will enable more accurate and comprehensive estimates of dietary exposure. Biospecimen collections in cohort studies will provide an opportunity to avoid the limitations of interview-based dietary assessments by examining biomarkers of exposure to acrylamide and its metabolites in relation to the subsequent risk of cancer.

In case of PAH from barbecue, The presence of PAH was studied in several samples of meat and fish that were grilled on two geometrically different gas barbecues. In contrast to a horizontal barbecue, the vertical barbecue prevented fat from dripping onto the heat source, and the PAH level were very low and 10-30 times lower than with the horizontal system (Saint-Aubert et al., 1992). This information could serve as a method to reduce PAH levels from barbecuing. As well, the type of wood used can also determine the levels of PAH. Regarding the generation of liquid smoke flavorings, it has been showed that poplar wood generated the highest number and concentration of both total and carcinogenic PAH, while oak, cherry tree, beech samples were similarly less effective. Hardwoods instead of softwoods have also been recommended, indeed, dry woods generate more PAH because of their higher smoke generation temperature (Guillen et al., 2000). All this information shows that certain conditions plays a very big role in determining PAH levels. Simple practices are known to result in a significantly reduced contamination of foods by PAH (Lijinsky and Ross, 1967; Lijinsky, 1991; Knize et al., 1999) as well as by other undesirable contaminants. This may include selectingA16 preferentially lean meat and fishes, avoiding contact of foods with flames for barbecuing, using less fat for grilling, and, in general, cooking at lower temperature for a longer time. Broiling (heat source above) instead of grilling can significantly reduce the levels of PAH. Actually the fat should not drip down onto an open flame sending up a column of smoke that coats the food with PAH. The use of medium to low heat, and placement of the meat further from the heat source, can greatly reduce formation of PAH. The intensity of flavor is not necessarily associated with the depth of the brown color of grilled foods. It is therefore needless to overcook the food to get the flavour. However, cooking must always remains effective as regards inactivation of any possible contaminating bacteria or endogenous toxins.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.