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Anopheles mosquito is a female mosquito that feeds on human blood, which transfers malaria into humans (Easmon). The parasite is called Plasmodium. Malaria is a biggest problem for humans in some parts of Asia and most of Africa countries. It affects liver and also causes anemia, jaundice, chills, and fever. Usually applying a mosquito repellent on skin and taking drugs prevents one from getting malaria when traveling to these countries. Although this is a harmless illness, there is also one type of malaria that is caused by Plasmodium Falciparum, which is deadly. Even though, this illness is very preventable for the most part, however, it is also a pathogen that kills more children that any other disease (Easmon).
It has a complex cycle of fever and chills; this is caused by the plasmodium parasite when it goes through a developmental phase in the liver, which is followed by the asexual multiplication phase in the red blood cells. It also has a stage where the merozoites enter the erythrocytes. This article talks about different stages of the life cycle at which the parasite goes through in our body.
This article first analyzes the Plasmodium sporozoites in the mammalian host, which takes this from the skin to the liver stages. The cycle begins by Anopheles mosquito sucking on to human blood and transferring plasmodium sporozoites into the dermis of the host and, which then travels to the liver proceeds to develop into hepatocytes. Certain proteins at this level decide whether they pass from the blood to the liver or are degraded. In the skin, some sporozoites remain at the injection site (outside surface) of the skin for a long time, while some are randomly moving and some get tossed out and do not make it to the blood or the liver. The CD8 + T-cells eliminate parasites in the liver, protective immune response against plasmodium.
In the liver, the sporozoites inject intradermally and go to the dermis. If it goes through the dermis it gets into blood circulation than further travels into the liver. For example, the ones that goes through the skin stick to the endothelial and slide along each other. Another good example stated in this article was that cells that divide they become merozoite that are called schizogony and are infectious. Another important thing that is also stated in this article is that sporozoites that attack the hepatocytes could be good vaccines to target malaria.
Another stage of development is the liver stage development. There are specific genes that result in specific development and function. UIS4 and Pb36p are important against infections. CSP gene is important for developmental process of the parasite. The GAPs or genetically attenuated parasites are important in vaccine strategy. Another important gene lastly is L-FABP; this is involved with reduction of parasite development. After each of these gene passages, the Plasmodium parasites separate into merozoites; at the very end of the cycle from the lung capillaries they pass to the blood stream and starts the blood stage of the infection in the body. Despite, all of this study and recent data collected, the article states that during the life cycle of plasmodium, to understand the molecular mechanism it still needs to be further researched and investigated.
Plasmodium then precedes merozoite into erythrocyte. This is where they have their asexual replication in the red blood cell as mentioned earlier in this paper. This life cycle goes through 9-steps and at the 9th step of the cycle the merozoite egress and the free ones attach to nearby erythrocyte and new cycle beings. The attack of merozoite into erythrocyte occurs in few seconds and fast by Babesia and Theileria. These cycles are better understood by biochemical and structural data.
The article further talks about development inside red blood cell. This could be potential life threatening because the red blood cell donâ€™t have antigen coding proteins like other fighter cells. In recent studies, research found that PEXEL and HT work as splitting of cellular functions or movement of cellular receptors in surface of RBC. Furthermore, PMV is a resident protein that is used for genetic coding in Plasmodium parasite. These proteins help the parasite grow in some ring stages and liver stage. This process (stage) is now just being understood, because the host interactions allow the growth in the host cell (RBC), which is unlike other cells that are easier for the parasite to grow in.
Lastly, the article talks about a study that is done in mice to understand severe malaria in a non-immune child or adults. The mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei, this helped them understand the genetic factor that regulate the development of cerebral malaria. The study further showed and proved that inhaling CO prevents from neuroinflammation and that CO and HO-1 plays an important role in preventing cerebral malaria and the nueroinflammation in brain. However, HO-1 is what controls the blood stage infection, and liver stage infections of malaria in oneâ€™s body.
In conclusion, this article illustrates each of the stages of malaria and how the developmental process works in each stage of the life cycle. However, it is hard to treat severe malaria because the study has not yet been proved at a molecular level. The next part of the research of this article should be to look at the illness at its molecular liver stage as mentioned earlier in the summary.
In my opinion this article provides a thorough understanding how the different stages of life cycles of malaria attack your body. It is crucial to understand the important factors and the genetic function of plasmodium to be able to treat have prevented the disease without causing death in an individual who is immune deficient. The problem with malaria in the mammalian host is that the Plasmodium gets into the blood system, which is the dangerous because it affects the rest of the body and also causes severe stage of anemia.
Finding a vaccine for this disease in my opinion is possible and would be preventative to the host. Researching more about the liver stage of the life cycle of plasmodium would give us an idea of exactly how the stop it from developing further. According to the article liver stage is where they are lacking the understanding of the gene and molecular aspect of the disease.