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The ability of different species of bacteria including those that cause disease in humans, have the ability to resist the inhibitory action of antimicrobial agents has become a global problem. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to resist the effects of antibiotic (McGowan; Tenover 1997). They act by killing or by interfering with the growth of microorganisms thus are different from disinfectants. However, antimicrobial drugs must often act within the host and with the ability of not damaging the host (Tortora; Funke; Case, 2010). Although antimicrobials such as penicillin and sulfanilamide can treat disease conditions such as sepis resulted in cures, research has shown these drugs threatened by the development of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial chemotherapy is the treating a disease while antimicrobial resistance is resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial medicine to which it was previously sensitive (WHO Media Centre, 2012). Because of antimicrobial resistance other populations of the pathogens causing tuberculosis are now resistant to essentially all of the available antibiotics that were effective before some pathogens become resistant to those drugs. (Tortora; Funke; Case, 2010).
Also research has shown that antibiotic resistance in throat microbes is an increasing problem when treating throat infections (Bhaha; Khutpale, 2011). The part of the problem in throat infection is that bacteria and other microbes that cause infections are remarkably resilent and can develop several ways to resist antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs. Also increasing use, and misuse, of existing antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine in agriculture is also another part of the problem (WHO Media Centre, 2012). Usually inappropriate and irrational use of medicines provides the most favorable conditions for resistant microorganisms to emerge and spread thus become insensitive to the pervious effective drugs. Another example is when patients that do not take the full course of a prescribed antimicrobial or when poor quality antimicrobial are used (WHO Media Centre, 2012).
In another study, it is shown that 70% of the bacteria that cause infections in hospitals are no longer sensitive, that is have developed resistant to at least one of the drugs most commonly used for treatment (Todar, 2009). In that study, 25% of bacterial preumonia cases were shown to be resistant to penicillin, and additional 25% of cases were resistant to more than one antibiotic which was effective before the pathogen developed resistance to the drug (Todar, 2009).
Molecular biology has shown that there has probably been a gene pool in nature for resistance to antibiotic as long as there has been for antibiotic production, for most microbes that are antibiotic producers are resistant to their own antibiotic (Todar, 2009). Evidence has shown that the bacteria can pass genes for drug resistance between stains and even between species (Chattapadhyay; Sengupta, 2012). Methicillin was once used in plating out microbial samples so that the microbes will develop resistant to methicillin an Methicillin-Resistant Staphlococcus Aureus (MRSA) developed, which refer to methicillin-resistant stains of the bacterium that are resistant to the action of methicillin and related betalactam antibiotics for example penicillin (Todar, 2009).
The aim and objective of present investigation is to isolate the throat bacteria obtained from the throat swab sample and to evaluate bacteria resistant to antimicrobial drugs namely Erythromycin, Oxacillin, Ampicillin and Levefloxacillin. The antimicrobial drug susceptibilities of throat bacterial organisms is evaluated among MGI students residing in official MGI residences and MGI students non-residence.
Reasons of antibiotic resistance
The cause of the antibiotic resistance is that it evolves naturally via natural selection through random mutation although it is also engineered by applying an evolutionary stress on a population. Once a resistant gene is generated, the bacteria can then transfer the genetic information between individuals by the use of plasmid exchange (Todar, 2009). Multiresistant or informally, a superbug is when a bacterium carries several resistance genes. Causes antibiotic resistance can probably be introduced artificially into a microorganism through transformation protocols. Other studies have demonstrated that the patterns of antibiotic usage has greatly affected the number of resistant organisms which develop. Overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotic, such as second-and third-generation cephalosporins, has greatly increased the development of methicillin resistance (Jay. 2000). Incorrect diagnosis and unnecessary prescriptions are other factors contributing towards resistance. Also improper use of antibiotics as livestock food additives for growth promotion hastens the antibiotic resistant. (Caprette. 2011)
Control of antibiotic resistance
Appropriate control measures for such resistant organisms depend in part on the pathway by which resistance has arisen. Unfortunately, these pathways differ greatly from organism to organism and setting to setting. (McGowan; Tenover, 1997). Bacteria use a variety of strategies to avoid the inhibitory effects of antibiotic agents and have evolved highly efficient means for the dissemination of resistance traits. Control of antibiotic resistant pathogens provides a major challenge for both the medical community and society in general. (Kaye et al, 2000). To control the emergence of resistant pathogens, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and infection control guidelines must be adhered to, and antibiotics must be used more judiciously. (Kaye et al, 2000)