Diet and Digestion in a male athlete

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Diet and digestion

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TAQ1

1 -

  1. A teenage male athlete

Day 1

Breakfast – cereal – bran flakes, banana

Lunch – grilled chicken salad

Dinner – spaghetti bolognaise

Day 2

Breakfast - scrambled eggs on toast

Lunch – jacket potato and beans

Dinner – grilled salmon and vegetable stir fry

Day 3

Breakfast - porridge

Lunch - turkey salad sandwich

Dinner – chicken, vegetables and potatoes

  1. A soon to be mother in her 30s
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Day 1

Breakfast – fresh fruit salad and yogurt

Lunch – grilled chicken salad

Dinner – pork chops, vegetables and potatoes

Day 2

Breakfast - porridge

Lunch – vegetable soup

Dinner – lasagne and side salad

Day 3

Breakfast – cereal

Lunch – ham and salad sandwich

Dinner – chicken curry

  1. An elderly male hospital patient

Day 1

Breakfast – muesli, yogurt and berries

Lunch – chicken salad sandwich

Dinner – grilled salmon, vegetables and sweet potatoes

Day 2

Breakfast – omelette

Lunch – vegetable stew

Dinner – lasagne and salad

Day 3

Breakfast – porridge and honey

Lunch – quiche and salad

Dinner – ocean pie

2 –

A male teen athlete

I have chosen this meal plan for a teen athlete because they have more nutritional needs than others, because Athletes exercise more than others; they will generally need more calories to give them energy for their sports activity and their health and growth. As they exercise more they will need from 2,000 to 5,000 total calories per day to meet their energy needs. When an athlete doesn’t eat enough calories they won't be as fast and as strong as they could be and may not be able to maintain their weight. If they don’t eat enough calories then that could lead to growth problems and other serious health problems.

A soon to be mother in her 30s

I chose this meal plan for pregnant women because they should be eating a balanced diet. Growing a baby is hard on the mother’s body and eating a healthy diet is one of the best things a mother to be can do for her and her baby, to help ensure that the baby grows and develops healthy. Eating a balanced and healthy diet can also help prevent things such as anemia and infections in the mother and the unborn baby, Poor healing, an early birth of the baby, and a low birth weight for the baby.

Pregnant women need about 300 extra calories a day, but these calories need to be healthy and not junk food so that the baby gets all the vitamins and minerals from the mothers body to grow and also the mothers health could suffer if she is not eating correctly. Nutrients that babies needs are Calcium, for healthy growth of the baby and Iron, for the baby’s blood supply. It also prevents anemia in the mother. Folic acid, for reducing the risk of spina bifida, anencephaly, and any other birth defects

An elderly male patient in hospital

I chose this meal plan for an elderly patient because older men need Calcium and Vitamin D to help maintain strong and healthy bones. Calcium-rich foods are things such as low fat and fat free dairy like milk fortified cereals, yogurt, milk, fruit juices, dark green leafy vegetables and canned fish with soft bones. Older adults will need three servings of calcium and vitamin D every day. Elderly patients also need fibre which helps keep bowel functioning normal and is good for your heart. Men older than 50 need 30 grams of fibre a day, this can be found in whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Increasing a patient’s potassium intake and also decreasing their salt intake may lower a patient’s risk of high blood pressure. Good food sources of potassium are fruits, vegetables and low fat or fat free milk and yogurt.

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TAQ2

1) Type 2 diabetes

There are different risk factors that can contribute to Type 2 diabetes, which include obesity, bad diet and age any of these can increase your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

In a healthy person, the pancreas releases insulin to help the body store and use the sugar from the food you eat. Diabetes happens when one of these happens, when the pancreas does not produce any insulin or when the pancreas produces very little insulin. This is then called insulin resistance when the body doesn’t respond to insulin properly. When there isn't enough insulin or the insulin is not used in the right way, sugar can't get into the body's cells and builds up in the bloodstream instead. When sugar builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, it causes damage in lots of different areas of the body. And also, since cells aren't getting the glucose they need, they can't work as they need to.

Arthrosclerosis

As you get older your arteries may naturally begin to harden and narrow, leading to atherosclerosis, but there other things that can speed up this process such as. High-fat diets and cholesterol

Cholesterol is a type of fat that is essential for the functioning of the body. Cholesterol helps your body to produce hormones, make up cell membranes and protect nerve endings.

Lack of exercise

A lack of exercise increases the cholesterol levels in your body.

Smoking

Smoking can damage the walls of your arteries. Your arteries can be damaged by smoking then blood cells; will clump together at the site of the damage to try to repair it. This may then cause your arteries to narrow. Smoking also decreases the blood's ability to carry oxygen around your body, which increases your chances of having blood clot.

High blood pressure

If you have high blood pressure it will damage your arteries in the same way as smoking. Your arteries are there to pump blood at a certain pressure. If that pressure gets too high, the walls of the arteries will be damaged. High blood pressure can be caused by being overweight, drinking large amounts of alcohol, stress, smoking and a lack of exercise

Overweight

Being overweight or obese does not directly mean you are at risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease but it does lead to related risk factors that do. Overweight or obese people have an increased risk of developing high blood pressure; they also tend to have higher levels of cholesterol as a result of eating a fatty diet.

Alcohol

Drinking large amounts of alcohol can cause high blood pressure and raise your blood cholesterol levels, increasing your risk of developing atherosclerosis.

Rickets

The most common cause of rickets is not enough vitamin D or calcium in a child’s diet. Both are very important for children to grow and develop strong and healthy bones. The main sources of vitamin D are Sunlight; your skin will produce vitamin D when it is exposed to the sun. We get most of our vitamin D this way. We also get vitamin D from Food such as oily fish, eggs and breakfast cereals. Calcium is found in dairy products such as milk, cheese and yoghurt and green vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage. Over time, a vitamin D or calcium deficiency causes rickets in children and soft bones in adults.

Any child who does not get enough vitamin D or calcium can develop rickets. Babies born prematurely are also at risk of developing rickets because babies build up stores of vitamin D while in the womb in the later stages of pregnancy.

TAQ3

A

Absorption is about the passage of digested nutrients into the blood from the gastro intestinal tract, sugar, fructose and amino acids go straight to the blood capillaries, where as fatty acids and monoglycerides go into the lymphatic system first and then the blood system. Assimilation is about the integration of these absorbed molecules into the living processes of the organism that ingested them, using them to build new molecules that are necessary for its normal functioning and survival, and for using them to produce energy.

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B

Organ/body part

Process

Importance

Mouth/ buccal activity

The process of digestion starts at the mouth. Food is broken down by the process of chewing which makes food easier to swallow and also helps with digestion by making good into smaller pieces. And then the chemical action of salvia which is produced by the salivary glands and break down starches into smaller molecules.

The mouth is an important part of digestion because if it didn’t break food down, then it wouldn’t be small enough to fit through the esophagus.

Esophagus

The esophagus is a muscular tube which carries food and liquids from the throat to the stomach for digestion after it has been chewed and then softened in the mouth by saliva. Food is forced into the stomach by powerful muscles contracting passing through the walls of the esophagus. These muscles are so strong in the throat and the esophagus; we can swallow in any position.

The esophagus is important because it carries the food to the stomach.

Stomach

The stomach is the main food storage tank of the body. Food enters the stomach by the cardiac sphincter. If the stomach wasn’t as big as it is, we would have to eat little and often instead of three times each day. Food is digested for several hours in the stomach while it creates a mixture of acid, mucus, and digestive enzymes that helps to digest and sanitize our food while it is being stored

The stomach is important because from here the food is then broken down and stored before being sent to the correct part of the body where is it needed.

Small intestine

The first part of the small intestine is the duodenum which task is to break down food, then food is passed down past the pancreas which produces juices to break down large molecules of food. The food passes the gall bladder which releases bile. Food is then passed through the jejunum and then the ileum The intestines process about 2.5 gallons of food, liquids and bodily waste every day. The small intestine does this to provide enough nutrients to be absorbed into the body,

The small intestine is important because it absorbed all the nutrients that we need from food.

Large intestine

When food has reached the large intestine it is mostly indigestible material and food. The large intestines job is to take care of absorbing any water left in the food that hasn’t been digested yet, and then passing any unused waste from the body. The large muscles in the large intestine will then push any waste into the rectum It is one of the final sections of the digestive system.

The large intestine is important because it passes any food that has not been used and then disposes of it.

Anus

The anus is a canal at the end of the digestive tract through which feces is passed out. It is about five inches long and is an extension of the rectum. It is only open during the expulsion of feces because it is usually kept closed by sphincter muscles, which can be relaxed when needed.

The anus is important for disposing of all the food that is unused from our body.

C

Name a digestive juice

Site of production

Enzyme in digestive juice

Function of the enzyme

Saliva

Saliva is produced in the mouth.

Salivary amylase

Saliva contains salivary amylase enzymes which digest and breaks down carbohydrates or starches and turns them into sugar and mucus which softens food into a ball and ingestion starts

Pepsinogen

Pepsinogen is produced in the gastric glands.

pepsin

While food is being digested in the stomach Pepsin is created from the stomach enzymes its function is to digest protein.

Pancreatic juice

Pancreatic juice is produced in the Pancreas.

Trypsinogen

Trypsinogen is an inactive form of trypsin; it is activated by the enzyme enterokinase present in the intestinal juice. Trypsin has the same function of Pepsin its job is to break down protein to smaller molecules.

TAQ4

A see attached appendix 1

B

Digestive system organ

Function

Mouth

The process of digestion starts at the mouth. Food is partly broken down by the process of chewing which makes food easier to swallow and also helps with digestion by making good into smaller pieces. And then the chemical action of salvia which is produced by the salivary glands and break down starches into smaller molecules.

Stomach

The stomach is the main food storage tank of the body. Food enters the stomach by the cardiac sphincter. If it were not for the stomach’s storage capacity, we would have to eat little and often instead of three times each day. Food is digested for several hours in the stomach while it creates a mixture of acid, mucus, and digestive enzymes that helps to digest and sanitize our food while it is being stored

Large intestine

When food reaches the large intestine it is mostly indigestible material and food. The large intestines job is to take care of absorbing any water left in the food that hasn’t been digested yet, and then passing any unused waste from the body. The large muscles in the large intestine will then push any waste into the rectum It is one of the final section of the digestive system.

TAQ5

""

The stomach is a tank that stores all the swallowed food and water, it then mixes the food and water with digestive juice it has produced, and slowly empties the contents, into the small intestine. The muscle of the upper part of the stomach relaxes to accept large amounts of swallowed food and water from the oesophagus. The muscle of the lower part of the stomach mixes the food and liquid with digestive juice. The stomach muscle creates three layers of muscle, the outer layer, the middle layer and the inner layer.

The outer layer runs parallel in the direction that food moves, contraction of this layer causes the stomach to shorten and widen.

The middle layer of circular muscles run around the stomach and cause the stomach to become longer and narrow.

The inner layer of diagonal muscles run at the angle to both the other layers and causes the stomach to twist and contract.

The action of these layers together causes the stomach to agitate food. The churning action is increased to ensure that more of the food is exposed to the gastric juices. When agitated is combined with chemical effect of acid in the stomach, food can be reduced into liquid in less than an hour.

The muscles of the small intestine then mixes food with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and intestine and then pushes the food forward to help with further digestion. The small intestine absorbs the digested nutrients into the bloodstream. The blood delivers the nutrients to the rest of the body where it is needed.

The muscles then push the waste products into the large intestine. The large intestine will then absorb water and any remaining nutrients and changes the waste from liquid into stool, and then pushes the stool in to the rectum. The rectum stores stool until it pushes stool out of the body during a bowel movement.

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Reference

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(Accessed on 3/4/14)

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http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Atherosclerosis/Pages/Causes.aspx

(Accessed on the 6/4/14)

http://www.diabetes.co.uk/diabetes-causes.html

(Accessed on the 6/4/14)

http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/guide/diabetes-causes

(Accessed on the 6/4/14)

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Rickets/Pages/Causes.aspx

(Accessed on the 6/4/14)

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(Accessed on the 11/4/14)

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(Accessed on the 11/4/14)

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(Accessed on the 11/4/14)

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