Diabetes Mellitus And Public Health Biology Essay


Diabetes mellitus - is a group of endocrine diseases developing as a result of absolute or relative (a violation of interaction with target cells) lack the hormone insulin, causing hyperglycemia, develops - a persistent increase in blood glucose. The disease is characterized by a chronic course and a violation of all types of metabolism: carbohydrate, fat, protein, mineral and water and salt. In addition to human, susceptible to the disease and also some other animals such as cats.

In the history of scientific ideas about diabetes can be identified fseveralparadigm shifts. Urinary water. The first description of this pathological condition was isolated, first of all, the most striking of its symptoms - loss of fluid (polyuria) and an unquenchable thirst. That is, at the time was the idea of diabetes - a condition in which a person continually loses fluid and fills, "as a siphon, which refers to one of the main symptoms of diabetes - polyuria (excessive urination). In those days, diabetes was considered as a pathological condition in which the body loses its ability to retain fluid.

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Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is rather distributed all over the world. There have to be taken measures and people have to be informed considering the healthy lifestyle, sports and food in their lives. Taking measures is never late, as a person can help to deal with the Diabetes and get cured.

In 1675 Thomas Willis showed that the polyuria (increased urine), urine may be "sweet" and perhaps "tasteless". In the first case, he added the word mellitus (Latin for diabetes) the word mellitus, from the Latin that means "sweet as honey" (Latin for diabetes mellitus), and the second - «insipidus», which means "tasteless". Tasteless was named diabetes insipidus - pathology caused by either kidney disease (Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus), or disease pituitary (neurohypophysis) and is characterized by a violation of secretion or biological action of antidiuretic hormone. Matthew Dobson proved that the sweet taste of urine and blood of patients with diabetes was due to high sugar content. Ancient Indians have noticed that the urine of diabetics attracts ants, and called the disease "sweet urine disease". Korean, Chinese and Japanese counterparts of the word based on the same ideograms and also means "sweet urine disease".

Elevated blood sugar. With the advent of the technical ability to determine the glucose concentration not only in urine but also in serum, the research showed that most patients improve blood sugar levels at first does not guarantee its detection in urine. A further increase in blood glucose concentration exceeds a threshold value for kidney (about 10 mmol / L) - develops glycosuria - sugar is determined in the urine. 

Explanation of the causes of diabetes had to change again, as it turned out that the mechanism of retention of sugar by the kidneys is not broken, and hence no "urinary sugar" as such. However, the previous explanation of the "come" a new pathological condition, the so-called "renal diabetes" - reduced the renal threshold for glucose (sugar detection in urine at normal rates of blood sugar). Thus, as in the case of diabetes insipidus, the old paradigm was not suitable for diabetes, but for entirely different pathologic states. 

So, from the paradigm of "urinary glucose" was abandoned in favor of the paradigm "elevated blood sugar." This paradigm today is still the main and only tool for diagnosing and assessing the effectiveness of therapy. In this modern paradigm of diabetes is not limited solely by the rise in blood sugar. Moreover, we can confidently say that the paradigm of "high blood sugar" ends the story of scientific paradigms of diabetes that can be reduced to the notion of the concentration of sugar in liquids.

Modern terminology. The term "diabetes mellitus type 1" is used to describe a group of diseases that develop due to progressive destruction of beta cells in the pancreas, resulting in a deficit of synthesis of proinsulin and hyperglycemia, require hormone replacement therapy. The term "diabetes mellitus type 2" refers to a disease that develops in patients with excessive accumulation of adipose tissue with insulin resistance, so that there is excessive synthesis of proinsulin, insulin and amylin beta-cells in the pancreas, a so-called "relative scarcity". Last revised classification of diabetes has made the American Diabetes Association in January 2010. Since 1999, according to the classification endorsed by the WHO release diabetes type 1, diabetes type 2, diabetes pregnant women and other specific types of diabetes. Also secrete term latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA, "-type 1.5 diabetes") and a number of rare forms of diabetes. 

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Epidemiology. The prevalence of diabetes in human populations, on average, amounts to 1-8.6%, the incidence in children and adolescents about 0.1-0.3%. In view of undiagnosed forms of this figure may in some countries up to 6%. As of 2002, the world's diabetes hurt about 120 million people. According to statistical studies, every 10-15 years, the number of people with diabetes is doubled, so that diabetes becomes a medico-social problem. Also of note is that over time increases the proportion of people suffering from the 1st type of diabetes. It is associated with improved quality of medical care and longer life for people with type 1 diabetes type.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 is most common among Mongoloids, so in the UK among the Mongoloid race over 40 years, 20% suffer from diabetes type 2, the second place there are people blacks, among people older than 40 years the proportion of diabetic patients is 17%. It is also not uniform rate of complications. Belonging to the Mongoloid race increases the risk of diabetic nephropathy and coronary heart disease, but also reduces the risk of diabetic foot. For those blacks most often characterized by severe, difficult to treat hypertension and more frequent development of gestational diabetes. According to the year 2000, the largest number of patients seen in Hong Kong, accounted for 12% of the population. In the U.S., the number of cases was 10% in Venezuela - 4%, the lowest number of reported cases was observed in Chile, it was 1,8%.

Physical activity - the provision of adequate work and rest providing the weight loss to the optimum for a given person, the control of energy consumption and energy costs. Replacement insulin therapy - selection of the baseline long-acting insulin and decreasing after the ups of blood glucose by insulin of short and ultrashort action. 

The treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Therapies used in diabetes mellitus type 2, can be divided into 3 main groups. This non-pharmacological therapy used in the early stages of disease, drug, used for decompensation of carbohydrate metabolism, and prevention of complications, carried out during the entire course of the disease. 

Non-pharmacological treatment. Diet therapy - reducing consumption of readily available carbohydrates, control carbohydrate intake of food preference products containing dietary fiber. Herbal hypoglycemic means - aids in achieving compensation of carbohydrate metabolism. Dosed physical loads - ensuring an adequate work and rest providing the weight loss to the optimum for a given person, the control of energy consumption and energy costs. Alcohol is not stronger than 9 degrees. 

Metabolic surgery in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Currently there are no conservative therapies that can help you achieve the cure of diabetes type 2. However, a very high chance for complete recovery (80-98%) provides metabolic surgery in the form of gastric and Biliopancreatic bypass. These operations are now very widely used for radical treatment of obesity. It is known that in patients with overweight is very common in diabetes type 2 as a comorbid disease. It turned out that the execution of such operations not only leads to a normalization of weight, but in 80-98% of full cure diabetes. This ensures a stable clinical and laboratory remission with normalization of blood glucose and insulin withdrawal. 

This was the starting point of research on the possibility of using such metabolic surgery for radical treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 patients not only with obesity but with normal weight or in the presence of moderate excess weight (with BMI 25-30). It is in this group, the percentage of complete remission up to 100% .

Self-monitoring of blood glucose is one of the major activities that will ensure effective long-term compensation of carbohydrate metabolism. Due to the fact that it is impossible at the current level of technology is completely mimic the secretory activity of the pancreas during the day there are fluctuations in blood glucose level. To this effect a number of factors relate to basic physical and emotional burden, the level of carbohydrate intake, concomitant diseases and conditions. Since it is impossible at all times keep the patient in a hospital, the monitoring and correction of minor short-acting insulin is assigned to the patient. Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels can be done in two ways. The first - the approximate using test strips that are determined by a qualitative reaction glucose in urine, the presence of glucose in the urine should be checked urine for the content of acetone. Acetonuria - Indications for hospital admission and evidence of ketoacidosis. This method of estimating blood glucose levels enough is approximate and can not fully track the status of carbohydrate metabolism.

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More modern and adequate method of assessment is the use of glucose meters. The meter is a device for measuring glucose levels in organic fluids (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.). There are several methods of measurement. In recent years, widespread portable blood glucose meters for the measurement at home. Just place a drop of blood on the device attached to a disposable biosensor glyukozoksidaznogo indicator plate, and within seconds know your blood glucose (hyperglycemia). 

It should be noted that the testimony of two blood glucose meters of different companies may differ, and the level of glucose, glucometer displayed are usually 1-2 units higher than actually exists. It is therefore desirable to compare meter readings with those obtained by examination in a clinic or hospital.

Public health is considered one of the main points that should be corrected, changed and improved. People have to take care of themselves, to eat healthy, to do sports and to have less stress. Diabates Mellitus can be cured and people have to make certain efforts to get better. Many signals of diabetes, whether diabetes is type 1 or 2-second, can be recognized almost immediately. And well, if you know the signals. This will help as quickly as possible to see a specialist and start pay more attention to themselves and their health.

The ten major signs of diabetes: 

1. You are all too often go to the toilet. Frequent urination is caused by a large amount of glucose in the blood. When not enough insulin, or when it is ineffective, the kidneys can not filter glucose and deliver it back into the blood. Therefore, having an excess of glucose, the kidneys try to drink water from the body to loosen excess glucose, as though it thinned. This collected water and fills the bladder. That's why you can spend half a day in the bathroom. 

2. Often feel thirsty. I can even say, a constant thirst. It is also associated with an excess of glucose and water in the kidneys. When the kidneys take water from the body, then immediately required to fill its reserves. The organism constantly requires more water. 

3. Losing weight without dieting. With type 1 diabetes weight loss occurs rapidly, and in type 2 diabetes - more gradually. Since the cells did not receive glucose, they are looking for alternative energy sources. The only thing that remains - is to take energy from the muscles and fat, so called quick weight loss. 

4. Fatigue and general weakness. Glucose is taken by the body from food, then she comes into the cells by insulin. If insulin is not working properly, the cells begin to starve, did not get glucose. A starving cells - is tired and weak body.

5. Numbness or tingling in hands and feet. This is due to nerve damage. High blood glucose damages the nervous system. True, people who have type 2 diabetes, this sign feel gradually, not immediately. 

6. Blurred vision. High blood sugar causes bleeding in the retinal vessels, and they are damaged. The result - the vessels are weakened, to the same liquid is not enough, his eyes swollen - and clarity of vision blurred. If this starts to happen, and time does not refer to a specialist, you can lose vision. 

7. Dry skin, itching, peeling. Dry skin occurs because of problems with water, which occurs in the body due to diabetes. When the kidneys "pull" water from the body, all other organs are affected. Because the kidneys are drinking water out of everything from leather as well. 

8. Slow healing of wounds. Wounds and bruises heal much more slowly because of the limited blood flow due to clogged arteries. Another reason for the slow healing of wounds - injuries of the nervous system caused by diabetes. Sometimes it happens: if the affected nerves of the legs, then any injury, even serious, the person can not feel.Sensitivity significantly blunted, you can not even see the deep cut. And it is - one of the clearest signs of diabetes. 

9. Fungal infections. Excessive amounts of sugar can lead to the development of fungus in the gastrointestinal tract. This, in turn, can lead to fungal vaginal infections, as well as to infections of gums, skin or bladder. Eating foods that have natural sugars (from those contained in fruit), reduce the spread of the fungus, which accumulates in the body. 

10. Increased appetite. Hunger caused by lack of insulin, which makes the body energetic. When the body lacks energy, it sends out signals asking for food. That is why many diabetics feel the need for food, even when they had just finished eating. 

But the main issue of concern: Is it possible to somehow prevent diabetes? Scientists still do not give an exact answer, and pills or an injection from the disease yet. The truth, experts say Type 2 diabetes is mostly preventable. How? - Constant weight maintenance in normal, healthy eating and exercise. Naturally, much of this is easier said than done. But I decided a little help and produced some very simple steps to prevent diabetes. Proceed? 

• Diet. Make a schedule and stick to it. Eat at the same time every day. So, your body will get used to that he was "fed" all the time, and will not accumulate fat for later. It's also a wonderful way to control what you eat. Having a plan for the day ahead, you will intuitively think through the menu, which means that it will be full meals and snacks are not random. 

• Limited in food. Though the need to eat high-grade, but the size of servings is better to reduce. You yourself eventually realize that you do not need as much food as you cook. And read food labels properly, pay attention not only on composition but also by weight. For example, one portion of meat should not exceed 100 grams and not 250, as is often packed manufacturers. 

• Watch the salt. Excessive amounts of salt does not contribute to the prevention of diabetes. Salt raises blood pressure and causes water retention. If you can not give up salt, try to at least partially replace it with spices. Now on the market there were many salt-free seasonings, pay attention to them. 

• Eat slowly. From the beginning of the meal should take about 20 minutes before the brain receives a command to the satisfying of the stomach. At this time you can eat a lot, does not it? So, if you want to keep moderation in eating, eat as slowly as possible, then you will eat only what you need, nothing more. 

• Try different foods - Diversify your diet. Sometimes people do not eat a lot of hunger, but from what they something is missing, any product missing in their diet. More correct to include in your diet variety of products. Also eat foods that are even called natural medicine for diabetes - it's beans, broccoli, cinnamon, black pepper, black olives. 

• Drink more water. Our body is mostly water, it is known. And of course, when the body is something to consume, the first thing he needs water to replenish their resources. Drink plenty of fluids - is another great and the cheapest way to prevent diabetes. In this note, that our body absorbs cold water better than warm, so keep a bottle or jug of water in the refrigerator or on a windowsill. Why do you need a lot of water? The fact that a lot of water is required for cleaning, waste transportation, and only a small part of what we drink, goes directly into the body itself. Well, it is important that a sufficient amount of moisture makes our skin young and beautiful. 

• Engage in dance. Why? Dance - a great way to get an adrenaline rush, he needs us, too. You can dance at home, you can dance to entertain the children can go to engage in a group. This is a great burden, which is accompanied by emotions. 

• Come out to the street. Not just to and from work. Really sets the time for a walk for fresh air. Make it your daily usage. If you have a dog, then this problem has been resolved. 

• More walking distance. One of the facts about diabetes is that only 30 minute walk each day can prevent this disease. Must go! It improves metabolism, it causes the entire body into shape, it gives strength! 

• Cardio load. Include them in your everyday life. Not bad, if you can ride a bike or run. Great if you are watching your favorite TV series, sitting on the bike. But it can afford not all. Then start with at least out of the elevator (first one-two storey climb on foot, not necessarily just ten). 

Thoughtful about diabetes, knowing the unpleasant consequences, we often get a very big incentive to start a little deal with it. All in one moment start doing everything, even impossible. But it is obligatory to review diets and lifestyles. These two components can prevent many diseases, even such severe diabetes, but also deliver a lot of fun as a good skin, great mood, excellent performance.


Currently, the prognosis for all types of diabetes conditionally favorable for adequately conducted treatment and compliance with diet remains disabled. Progression of complications significantly slows down or stops completely. However, it should be noted that in most cases as a result of treatment cause of the disease persists, and the therapy is only symptomatic. All in all, taking care of yourself, a person can prevent Diabetes Mellitus and ensure that people will live in joy every day.