Human beings are part of the living things which is well organized. The Cells in the human body forms tissues and such tissue is well organized to form the various organs. These organs include the digestive system, respiratory, excretion, circulatory system, skeletal system muscular systems. The circulatory system is important as part of the circulation process among the organs. The circulatory systems enable the human body to be filling with the blood which serves numerous functions as transportation, regulatory and protection. This paper will however explore the human anatomy and physiology of how the human body functions. It will however illustrate a diagram of the circulatory system and disease associated with the circulatory system its cause and ways of preventing such disease.
The Circulatory System of the Human Body
According to Sandhyarani (2000) "the circulatory systems are essential for the body since it is responsible for supplying nutrients and oxygen to the body cells and tissue" (p.237). In a sense, "The circulatory system is the transport system, that supplies substance absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract oxygen (O2) to the tissues, returns carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to the lungs and other products of metabolism to the kidneys, functions in the regulation of body temperature, and distributes hormones and other agents that regulate cell function". (Ganong, F. William, 1973, p. 379-390). The blood serves as a numerous functions which help in free flow of circulation throughout the vessel and back to the heart. The blood begins to circulate as its moves the heart from the left ventricle and then goes to the aorta. The aorta is very large artery in the human body however the blood leaves the aorta with full oxygen then the cells in the brain and the body starts to work. The oxygen blood circulates in the body and its system of arteries into the smallest arterioles back to the heart, the blood travels into the veins as its reaches the lungs, metabolic substances such as carbon dioxide or waste products are removed from the blood and then fresh oxygen will is replaced enables the human body to be inhaled as its passes through the lungs. The circulatory system is responsible for the free flow of blood into the body. However it is also responsible for transporting nutrients, water, oxygen, into the whole body cells. Secretion substance and metabolic waste are get rid off due to the circulatory system. The major component of the circulatory systems are divided into two which consist of cardiovascular system which is t the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic system which consists of the lymph vessels, lymph nodes and lymphoid organs. (Van De Graaff and Fox, 1985, p.549).
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Van De Graaff and Fox in 1985 stipulate that, "the routes of the circulatory blood flow consist of the systematic and pulmonary circulation. The pulmonary circulation are made up of the blood vessels that transport blood from the right ventricle to the lungs for gas exchange and then to the left atrium of the heart. It includes the pulmonary trunk with its semi lunar valve, the pulmonary arteries that transport blood to the lungs, the pulmonary capillaries within each lung, and four pulmonary veins that transport oxygenated blood to the heart. On the other hand, the systematic circulation is composed of all the remaining vessels of the body that are not part of the pulmonary circulation. It includes the aorta with its semi lunar valve, all of the branches of the aorta, all capillaries other than those in the lungs, and all veins other than the pulmonary veins. The right atrium receives all the venous return of oxygen-depleted blood from the systemic veins" (Van De Graaff and Fox p.549).
This diagram illustrates the circulatory system of the human body. Retrieved from http://www.wccusd.k12.ca.us/gompers/HealthScience/BodySystems/CirculatorySystem.html
The Circulatory System which includes the Heart, the Blood and the Blood Vessels
The Functions of the Circulatory System relating to the Organs
The circulatory system is an essential system for the circulation of blood into the body. The blood however can serve as an agent of transporting diseases which can cause virus, bacteria and toxic. The circulatory system serves as a protective guide with help of the white blood cells and lymphatic system. For the circulatory systems to work effectively, the system works together with other organs to make free flow of circulation. The functions of the circulatory systems can be categorized into three areas namely transportation, regulation and protection.
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Transportation is a way of transporting substances into the body. The various substance of the cellular metabolism is transported by the circulatory systems. These substances are respiratory, digestive, excretive, endocrine, and skeletal systems.
Respiratory, the red blood cells, or erythrocytes transport oxygen to the tissue cells. In the lungs, oxygen from the inhaled air attaches to hemoglobin molecules within the erythrocytes and is transported to the cells for aerobic respiration. Carbon dioxide produced by cell respiration is carried by the blood to the lungs for elimination in the exhaled air. . (Van De Graaff and Fox, 1985, p.549). Also, the digestive system is responsive for the breakdown of food so that it can be absorbed through the intestinal wall and into the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The blood then carries these absorbed products of digestion through the liver and to the cells of the body. Another organ is the excretory system; metabolic wastes, excessive water and ions as well as other molecules in plasma (the fluid portion of blood) are filtered through the capillaries of the kidney and excreted in urine. Moreover with the Muscular system, the blood vessels deliver nutrients and oxygen to muscles, carry away wastes. Muscles contraction keeps blood moving in the heart and blood vessels. Again under the skeletal systems, the blood vessels deliver nutrients and oxygen to bones; carry away wastes. Rip cage protects heart; red bone marrow produces blood cells, bones store Ca2+ for blood clothing. Nevertheless, the nervous system helps the blood vessel to deliver nutrients and oxygen to neutrons; carry away wastes. Brain controls nerves that regulate the heart and dilation of blood vessels.
Lastly the endocrine system, here the blood vessels transport hormones from glands; blood services glands; heart produces Atrial Natriuretic hormone. Epinephrine increases blood pressure; ADH, Aidosterone, and Atrial Natriuretic hormone factors help regulates blood volume; growth factors control blood cell formations. (Mander, S. 2002, p. 125- 143) Regulation
Another function of the circulatory system is the regulation that is, the blood carries hormones and other regulatory molecules from their site of origin to distant target issues. Diversion of blood from deeper vessels to surface vessels in the skin aids in the regulation of body temperature.
The circulatory system protects against injury and foreign microbes or toxins introduced into the body. The clothing mechanism protects against blood loss when vessels are damaged, immune to many disease-causing agents. Leukocytes may also protect the body through phagocytosis (Van De Graaff and Fox, 1985, p.549).
Health Condition Disease Associated with the Circulatory System
The human body needs a healthy system in order to survive. When an individual is fit and strong the circulatory system works together with other system for all the body. The circulatory system enables nutrients and oxygen into the cells and tissue. When the human heart beat, blood circulates by transporting into the blood vessels to enable the nutrient to go through every parts of the body. Sandhyarani (2000) assert that However since the circulatory system consist of the blood, heart and blood vessels there are kind of disease associated with it. The blood which serves as a numerous functions in the body consist of the red blood cell and white blood cells, platelets and blood plasma the blood vessels also contains the capillaries, arterioles, and veins, however all these components of the circulatory systems makes it work effectively, any disorder that may affect these components might results in complication and disease that can end or cause death to the human body.
In today's world, the rate of circulatory or cardiovascular (CVD) disease is on high rate causing untimely death in the western and the low middle income countries. The CVD is a leading mortality with 82% of people dying in the low middle countries especially Ghana. Modern researchers have however dealt into the causes and ways in presenting the disease. An individual can develop the circulatory system problem at present at birth. The following are the disease associated with it.
According to Mader (2002) an "aneurysm is a ballooning of a blood vessels, most often the abdominal artery or the arteries leading to the brain". (p. 137). Disease such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, obesity and high blood pressure can cause the aneurysm that is the wall of the artery can be weakened or defect. The aortic is the largest artery in the body and it is very likely to cause death if its burst. However when damaged it can be replaced with a plastic tube.
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Angina or Myocardial Infarction (IM)
A myocardial infarction is also called the heart attack, this disease of the circulatory system occur as a result of the blockage in the blood vessels leading to the heart, this can completely kills the heart muscles due to lack of oxygen, when the coronary artery is blocked, the arm develop a radiating pain in the left arm. Nitroglycerin drugs usually help to relieve the pain. Any blockage of the coronary artery totally, in a way of the Thrombeombolism, a heart attack has occurred.
Cerebrovascular Accident, (CVA)
A Cerebrovascular can be called stroke, strokes results when a small cranial arteriole burst or is blocked by an embolus" when the human brain lacks oxygen it can cause the brain to die and paralysis and even death of a person. When an individual however experience the symptoms such as feeling of numbness in the hands, or face difficulty in speaking and temporary blindness, such person must immediately talk to a medical doctor for counseling. Sandhyarani (2000).
According to Jones et al (1978), "Hypertension simply means high arterial blood pressure" (p.344). It is estimated that 20% of Americans are suffering from hypertension which is the high blood pressure. In Ghana, from the past 30 years, the rate of hypertension has increased drastically which is a now a public problem. Hypertension can cause death at the middle in males. Hypertension however, is a condition at present when the systolic blood pressure is 140 or greater or the diastolic pressure is 90 or greater. Both systolic and diastolic is in important when it comes to treatments. Hypertension is a silence killer disease because of its late detection. This result of two genetic factors such as Angiotensinogen and plasma that is converted to a powerful vasoconstrictor in part by the product of the second gene. Hypertension can be cured if a patient goes to regular gene therapy.
According to Mader (2002) "atherosclerosis is an accumulation of soft masses of fatty materials, particularly cholesterol, beneath the inner linings of arteries" (p.137). The deposit is called plaque. The plaque interrupts with the lumen of the vessels and then turns to block the free flow of blood. The atherosclerosis can be inherited in some families. Early detections of the disease can be cured or prevented from spreading. Atherosclerosis can begin at early adulthood to the middle age but it's difficult to detect the symptoms early about around 50 or order. To prevent means one must goes through intensive dietary process or one take less cholesterol.
The Causes and Ways of Preventing the Disease of the Circulatory System
In the past 20 years, researcher has come out with ways and prevention of disease pertaining to the circulatory system. Most physicians have studied to now have knowledge about the risk factor and are able to detect the sickness earlier. Some of the risk factors of the circulatory system are hypertension, obesity, and smoking. According to Van De Graaff and Fox in 198 suggested that, the circulatory system can be under functional if the individual is found smoking, drug abuse and weight gain and other.
Jones el at in 1978 stipulated that, Tobacco contains more than 100 chemical compounds and out of that 270 chemicals can be identified in the cigarette smoke. Smoking can be a habit someone enjoys doing without looking forward to see the causes of how the cigarette can damage the bloodstream. Individuals who smoke destroy the heart. Nicotine causes the arterioles for the blood pressure to rise such restriction block the easily circulation of blood. Under more serious note, the heart need to pump the blood harder through the lungs at a time however when the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is reduced, then results in cardiovascular disorder. The use of the tobacco can cause lung cancer because of the inhales and cancer of the tongue, lips, and larynx. Again respiratory disease such as bronchitis and emphysema can result when smoking.
Drug abuse is any excessive use drugs which is not prescribed by qualified medical doctors however stimulants, drugs like cocaine, heroine and amphetamine is very dangerous to an individual health. The stimulants drugs can results in upnormal heart beat which can cause heart attack which can eventually lead to death. Intravenous drugs an results in cerebral blood clot and stroke. According to research too much alcohol can damage the organs including the heart.
A person with heavy weight that is 20% heavy above the normal weight in height is more likely to get hypertension (high blood pressure). Most tissue requires servicing and the heart sends the extra blood out under greater pressure in those who are overweight. According to Jones el at 1978 "An obese person with high blood pressure (hypertension) runs a greater risks of coronary heart disease than does a nonobese person with hypertension" (p. 286). Researchers have stipulated that, it may be harder to lose weight once it is gained, and therefore it is recommended that weight control be a lifelong endeavor; even a slight decrease in weight can bring with it a reduction in hypertension.
Personality trait has been scientifically proven that, males are more likely to contract heart attack at an early age than women. It is however concluded that women who are in their menopause are likely to get stroke or heart attack.
Jones et al (1978) suggested that, the risk factors of the circulatory diseases can be controlled or eliminated through regular medical checkups. An individual suffering from hypertension can be recommended by a medical doctor in the ways of controlling the high blood pressure especially a family with a history of high blood pressure. Moreover, an obese people should eat less food and reduce an intake of high calories and fatty food by changing your eating habit. Furthermore, smoking of tobacco shortens lives therefore individual that are found smoking must stop. Coffee is a stimulant drug which should not be taken as beverage in the morning. Lastly, regular exercise helps easy flow of blood throughout the circulatory system. However, medical doctors encourage patients to check their pulse whilst exercising.
The circulatory disease can be treated depending on how serious or critical the case of conditions is. Surgery or heart transplant can be done when a person is affected with cardiovascular disease. However early detections saves lives. Nevertheless, individuals are advice to allow ventilation in enclosed places such their rooms, workplaces and churches. Individuals should avoid going near smokers or chemical compounds that can affect their lungs in order to restore breathing and maintain circulation.