Demand Side Management Techniques Biology Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

The selection of most appropriate Demand Side Management techniques is perhaps the most crucial question both the supplier and the consumer face. The problem is difficult since the number of available DSM techniques-from which to select is so large. In addition, the relative attractiveness of alternative techniques depends upon specific utility characteristics such as load shape, peak demand, duration of peak, consumer mix, load characteristics etc. [7, 4 and 9]. The following are the DSM techniques applied to an industrial consumer.

1) End Use Equipment Control (EUEC)

2) Load Priority Technique (LPT)

3) Peak Clipping & Valley Filling

4) Differential Tariff (DT)

5) Resizing Operation

4.4.2 End Use Equipment Control

Of all the alternative techniques available, End Use Equipment Control (EUEC) is found to be more appropriate for the industry under investigation. However, the art of successful implementation and the ultimate success of the technique rest within the act of balancing of supplier and the consumer needs.

4.4.2.1 Features of EUEC

End Use Equipment Control deals with the controlled operation of the various end use appliances for better utilization of available resources without affecting the production and quality of supply. This is one of the most active areas of DSM technology development. The majority of the work is done in the industrial sector although commercial and residential consumers are also developing interest in DSM technology application. This is because some of the bulk industrial loads exhibit maximum peaks and valleys in their load curves. Due to the increased industrial activities from most of the industrial consumption pattern, it is found that the use of electrical power is exceeding beyond the permitted limit for some hours of the day; and for other hours of the day, the electric power demand is very low. So, for these bulk industrial consumers, there is more room for flattening these curves and, thus, improves the load factor of the industry.

However, the questions that have to be answered by the DSM planner to convince the consumer and the supplier through End Use Equipment Control program are:

1. What loads could be suitable for End use control in an industry

What are the technical benefits? (Like potential load reduction, Voltage profile improvement etc.)

What are economic benefits of EUEC

Is it possible to apply EUEC program without causing inconvenience in the production schedule

A well-designed EUEC program must be able to answer all the above questions, which benefit both the supplier as well as the consumer.

4.4.2.2 Scope for EUEC

In general, it is not very easy to change the consumer's habits and it is not even wanted if one habit means the behavior of individual consumer, daily routines etc.. The DSM planner does not wish to cause any inconvenience for the consumer; but there are many ways of rescheduling the load patterns by his electrical equipments with the result of the equipment remaining unchanged. An example is off-peak storage heating, cooling. In order to achieve the load changes on a voluntary basis, it is very important that the supplier gives sufficient incentives by way of Differential Tariff or Time of Use Rates.

One more way of rescheduling consumer load on a voluntary basis is based on "Use only when needed". In this case, depending on the consumer's requirements and the available resources, priorities are assigned to various loads to achieve the desired output within the limited resources and with least inconvenience.

The EUEC costs i.e., for communication, transmitters, receivers and computers will be less for industrial load than the multiple residential consumers. This means that the cost of control per kilowatt is less for industrial consumers compared to the residential consumers.

4.4.2.3 EUEC Methods

The consumer end use appliance control is achieved through the following ways:

Deciding the priorities of the loads without affecting the production schedule;

Availing the benefits of Differential Tariff; and

Using proper automatic demand controllers for the bulk loads.

Of the above various end use appliance control methods, after a careful examination of the industry considered for investigation, 'Load Priority Technique' is adopted for detailed implementation. The next section deals with the details of the LPT.

4.4.3 Load Priority Technique

The first step towards the development of Industrial End Use Equipment Control is to identify the loads that could be controlled and cause potential load reduction. To achieve this, the Load Priority Technique is employed. Load Priority Technique works on individual loads on priority of operation, (in service and out of service). This is mainly influenced by the production schedule. The load priority could also be connected directly with the rate communication system i.e., Differential tariff system. However, in the present work, while deciding priorities of various loads for operation, the production schedule is given immense importance in consultation with the section superintendents.

In developing LPT, the loads are classified into non-interruptible and interruptible loads. Non-interruptible loads are the high priority loads while the interruptible loads are low priority loads. The priorities are assigned to the loads in discussion with the respective section supervisors. The load demand on the industry is continuously monitored at acceptable fixed time intervals. If the demand exceeds the permitted limit, then the low priority loads to the exceeded value are cut-off. If the load demand is less than the permitted limit, then the loads, which were interrupted in the previous time slots, were switched on.

The success of LPT is totally dependent upon the development of various load priorities for operation, which will not disturb the production schedule and gives enough scope for reduction of load demand. In order to achieve this, a close interaction between the various sections of the industry is required. Hence, before deciding the priorities of load, enough attention should be paid to the production cycle, characteristics of loads, their ratings, level of inconvenience etc.. The DSM creates possibilities for the consumers to shave peaks and fill out valleys in their load curves, thus resulting in almost flat load curve which improves load factor of the load. It also helps to maintain consumer life style indirectly by reducing the unscheduled outages. As there is a strict control over the maximum demand, it avoids paying Maximum Demand penalty for the consumer. Also electrical installation is safe and reduces the chances of faults, which indirectly increase the lifespan of the electrical system and the various end-use appliances.

From the supplier's point of view, this technique gives a highly desirable pattern of load consumption. Moreover, the load curve will be a flat one compared to load curve with peaks and valleys without the application of the technique.

4.4.3.1 Peak Clipping and Valley Filling

Reduction of peak demands reduces the demand charges of the consumer. Peak clipping is achieved by direct control of equipment, which is responsible for the peaks. Peak clipping is used to reduce capital investment charges, operating charges and dependence on high cost critical fuels. The main objective of peak clipping is to match the available generating capacity with the demand without going in for additional generation, which means cost.

The principle involved in valley filling is to build up load or consume power during the light load periods of the supply system. This results in a more flat load curve as seen from the supply system; hence, the supplier's equipments like generators, transformers, transmission lines etc. are loaded to the tone of 80% to 90% of their rating instead of 15 to 20% during light loads. Thus, it results in high efficiency and lower cost of operation because of improved load factor or energy efficiency of the system.

4.4.4 Differential Tariff

This technique has been introduced because of variable load on the supplier's equipment. Usually, the load curve of an industrial consumer will have some peaks and valleys depending upon his production schedule. Hence, the supplier must install his equipment (may be a generator or a transformer) that will be capable of supplying peak load of the consumer. With this high capacity equipment, there is no doubt that he will be able to supply the consumer's peak; but, during the consumer's valley period, the equipment will be very much underutilized, thereby, highly reducing the energy efficiency of the equipment. Hence, the supplier will insist or will try by all possible means that his equipment is utilized to its rated capacity for the entire duration, whenever it is in the commissioned state.

This step involves a dialogue with the consumer and suggests to him to reschedule his production schedule so that the supplier will see as flat a load curve as possible. He will announce an incentive (say 1/3 of the normal-load period tariff) for the consumer to consume more during his valley period and he will announce punishment (may be 3 times the normal tariff), if the consumer utilizes energy during the peak hours. With this type of tariff, the consumer will try to avoid energy consumption during supplier's peak hours and try to consume more energy during supplier's valley period. To achieve this, he may have to re-schedule his production schedule. This is the basic principle of DT.

4.4.5 Resizing Operation

It is a well-known fact that any electrical equipment will have maximum efficiency near its rated capacity, and will have relatively low efficiency under lightly loaded condition. It is not advisable to keep any electrical equipment in the system with low load on it [3]. The improvement in the efficiency of the transformers is indicated in terms of Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) as explained below.

4.4.6 Terms used

The energy efficiency of the supplier equipment (i.e. transformer) has been quantified in terms of Load factor of consumer and the utilization factor, are defined as

a. Load factor (LF)

b. Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF)

(4.4.1)

(4.4.2)

Utilization factor is directly proportional to the energy delivered. This implies that the higher the Utilization Factor, the greater is the energy delivered; and hence, increased energy efficiency of the system is in terms of energy delivered. The Utilization Factors of power transformer are calculated in each hour [3 and 11].

4.4.7 Mathematical Model of Process Industry

A generalized mathematical Model is designed for the processing industry like, milk industry, cement industry etc. It gives solution for minimizing the total operating cost of the industry subject to the constraints and gives the optimal response for a given production capacity under specified electricity tariff rates.

The mathematical model is entirely based on discrete time representation as a representation of the continuous loads under some sufficient conditions. The feature of this model is that it takes into account, the key characteristics of group process loads which include:

The group time and group capacity

Material input (inflow) - time periods and quantity.

Material Output (outflow) - Time periods and quantity.

Power demand and its variations with time and quantity also type/quality of material for the group.

Initially, a day is divided into 'M' intervals with equal 't' hours of time span. The operating parameters and the sequences of the group-process are considered with respect to group-time sequence. Material inflow with quantity Ca to C (a+x) in liters from ath time to (a+x)th time and the outflow from bth time to (b+y)th time with quantity Cb to C(b+y) respectively and the power demand (in kW) from time 'd' to (d+z) is Pd to P (d+z) .

A decision variable 'J' is taken into consideration to indicate whether the equipment has started to process a new group in the particular interval or not, in order to produce a specific product.

PD = Power Demand

I = Input

O = Output

GT = Group Time

Figure 4.4.1 Represents the group-time sequence

The conditions for the decision variable are:

Jnil = 1; the nth equipment starts a group for processing the ith product.

= 0; if the above condition is not satisfied.

The electrical power input (kW) to the equipment 'n' at any interval 'l' when it is processing ith product is given as follows:

(4.4.3) Where

- Efficiency obtained from efficiency characteristics corresponding

to the percentage loading.

Xn - The rated capacity of the equipment (kW)

Ynil - Utilization of the nth equipment at the interval 'l' when it is

processing the 'ith product.

Y - De-rating factor of the equipment based on

Loading conditions,

Site conditions,

Constraints.

η nil - Efficiency of the equipment 'n' at the interval 'l'

The energy consumed (kWh) by the equipment 'n' in the lth interval, when processing the product 'i' for the group started in the eth interval is

(4.4.3)

The industry is subjected to several constraints that are as follows

4.4.7.1 Production Constraint

Initially, a constraint called 'production constraint' is considered to keep the total production 'Ui' of a product 'i'

(4.4.4)

Where

N - The particular item of equipment

Cnil - It is the production (outflow) in a group quantity for the machine

'n' for the product 'I' for the group started in 'lth' interval.

The condition for the total production of the plant 'UT' is given by

(4.4.5)

Where

I - total number of products

The condition for the availability of raw material for production is

(4.4.6)

Where

N - The particular item of equipment

Gnil - The quantity of raw material required for the 'n' th equipment for

the product 'i 'and for the group started in 'l' th interval

GT - Total raw material available

When a group process is under progress in one equipment, the same equipment should not be allocated to any other group or product.

The condition incorporated to prevent the allocation problems is

(4.4.7)

4.4.7.2 Storage condition

Process loads with storage space are modeled with maximum capacity limitations.

Net inflow into the storage for the interval 'l' is as follows

(4.4.8)

In the above equation,

(a) Material inflow for the entire equipment 'N' giving outflow to the

storage.

(b) Material outflow for the entire equipment 'G' from the storage

For both, when processing the product 'i 'for the group started at the interval 'e' is considered.

Now, Storage constraint is given by

(4.4.9)

Where

So - Initial storage level

Sm - Maximum / final storage level (maximum capacity)

4.4.7.3 Operating Sequence

This is the condition for the start of the nth unit at an interval 'l' after 't' intervals right from the start of (n-1) th unit is as follows

(4.4.10)

4.4.7.3 Availability of the equipment

The unavailability of the equipment 'n' during intervals from 'e' to 'f' is as follows:

l = 'e' to 'f' for all products 'I'

J nil = 0 for all intervals

Objective function to minimize the monthly operating cost:

(4.4.11)

The above function is subjected to production, storage and equipment constraints.

Where

Rl - Cost of energy (charge per kWh) for the interval 'l'

W - The number of working days in a month

RNT - The MD charges per kVA

N - The particular item of equipment

I - Total number of products

Rxl - Cost of load management equipment

Jx - Selection variable

Jx = 1; if additional cost occurs due to load management actions

= 0; if the above condition fails.

MDCMD = Maximum demand at normal tariff

R TOUT = Rate for Time of Use Tariff

MDACMD= load above maximum demand

The main objective of Peak load management is the minimization of the total operating cost, which consists of charges for energy consumed ( either a flat or TOU tariff), charges for the maximum demand (either normal M.D or TOU tariff charges) and additional operating costs due to shifting of loads .

4.6 Conclusion

This chapter explains the philosophy of the work conducted in the present dissertation. The next chapter deals with the details of the industry along with the application of the DSM technique.

5.0 Case study on Nandini Milk and Milk products Industry

The Nandini Milk & Milk products industry was established in the year 1983 and located in the Bangalore City, Karnataka, India. It is running under semi-government basis and one of the leading producers of milk and milk products in the district. It manufactures milk packets with different percentages of fat on a large scale. In addition, it is also producer of the Ghee, butter, buttermilk and other derivatives of milk. The industry works for 24hours round the clock [93].

This chapter describes the details of the industry where the Demand Side Management techniques described in the previous chapter have been applied. The industry selected for investigation is, "The Kurnool District Milk Producers Co-operative Union Ltd". Nandini Milk & Milk products, Bangalore.

5.1 Layout of the Industry

The figure 1 shown below illustrates the general electrical layout of the Nandini milk industry.

Figure.5.1 Electrical Layout of the Milk Industry

The industry has different sections listed below. Each section is well equipped with various kinds of machines (Electric load) with different capacities, to perform its unique job [93].

Raw Milk Reception Dock (RMRD)

Milk Processing Section (Proc)

Butter Section (Butter)

Ghee Section (Ghee)

Packing Section (Pre-Pac)

Defreeze Section (Deep Freeze)

Refrigeration Section (Ref)

Powder plant Section (Powder)

Boiler Section (Boiler)

Water pumping Section (Water)

Lighting and fans (L and F)

Colony (Colony)

Raw Milk Reception Dock - This section receives raw milk from the milk vendors of near by villages. The quality, quantity measured in this section. Based on the quality report of the lab and quantity of milk, the milk vendors are paid. The can washing is performed in stages and finally, the milk is sent to processing the section.

Milk processing section - Here the milk is chilled and boiled 3 to 4 time to kill bacteria and microbes and to get pure milk. Then milk enters into cream separation section and in this section have high speed drives witch rotate at a speeds of 10,000 rpm, to separate cream from milk therefore balancing the required quantity of fat in the milk. The milk stored in refrigerated tanks based on the fat content that is full fat milk or skimmed milk or toned milk.

Butter section - The cream is agitated through the cream agitators and then beaten by beaters to obtain butter and to separate buttermilk. Again the butter is graded into 2 forms, one for direct butter packing and the other to extract ghee from butter.

Ghee section - The butter agitated further. This agitated butter is heated in a container, with hot water circulated in the inner walls of the container. The ghee obtained is filtered and packed.

Packing section - Packing comprises of manual as well as mechanical packing. Packing of ghee and other products are made manually whereas milk, butter, milk powder etc are mechanically packed.

The large-scale packing of milk is done by milk pump with maximum packing efficiency of 2,500 packets per hour (approximately 42 packets per min). The milk packets are stored at cold temperature using air compressor and cold store blower motors.

Deep freeze section - The butter made is stored at deep cold temperatures in the freeze section to prevent virus attack. Ghee, powder and other products are also stored in separate chambers of this section. Utmost care is taken to maintain temperature between -15 0C to -20 0C for butter. Compressor motor, condenser water pump and cold store blower motors are responsible for maintaining these conditions.

Refrigeration section - Ammonia plays the main role in the cooling. Ammonia at room temperature is compressed to a pressure of 12 kg/Sq.cm adiabatically to obtain in liquid state. This ammonia is expanded through an expansion valve at a temperature of -20 0C and circulated through the evaporating coils of IBT to provide cooling effect and the water. This water is either solidified into ice or cooled to a very low temperature. During this process of heat transfer from ammonia to water, the temperature of ammonia rises and turns to gaseous state, which is then recycled. The cold water is circulated to various sections of the industry using the chill water pumps.

Powder plant - This section has two stages of operation namely

(i) Evaporation `

(ii) Air heating and drying.

In the first stage, milk is fed in calendrias, which are maintained at different temperatures. Once the milk is successively through calendrias of higher temperature, the water in the milk gets evaporated. The milk obtained is called concentrated milk.

In the second stage, air from atmosphere is drawn and heated with the help of burned oil and pumped at very high temperature between 700 0C to 800 0C. The concentrated milk is fed into drier chamber and sprayed at optimum high pressure through the nozzles. At the same time, hot air is impinged on that sprayed milk. Due to this action, the concentrated milk becomes powder and settles at the bottom of the chamber. The collected powder is packed in bags or tins.

Boiler section - A provision of coal fire as well as oil fire boilers is made in the industry. During peak season, both these boilers are operated where as in off-seasons, only coal fire boilers are operated, taking economic aspects into consideration. Softening of hard water is done in this section.

Water pump section - Water is one of the major requirements to carry on the industrial activity. Water from wells and nearby lakes are drawn and pumped into storage tanks. Part of this water is made soft by removing the salts. The softening of water reduces the scaling on the inner walls of the equipment. The soft water and raw water are stored separately in different tanks.

Lighting and Fans - Lighting of various sections of industry is essential as it runs for 24 hours of the day. Exhaust fans are needed to drive out the flu gases or to allow fresh air into respective chambers. Certain fans are used as blowers to provide cooling purpose.

Colony - A colony is located behind the industry. The working labour and staff of the industry are provided accommodation facilities.

5.1.1 Load Details of Nandini Milk and Milk Products, Bangalore

Table-1 shows the different loads with electrical specifications that exist in Nandini Milk & Milk Products, Karnataka, India.

Table-5.1 Load Details of Nandini Milk & Milk Products, Bangalore

SI No

Unit/Section

Capacity

Number

1

RMRD Unit

Milk pumps

Loading conveyor

Can washing load conveyor

Can scrubber

3.5 Hp

6 Hp

3 Hp

1 Hp

3

1

1

1

2

Milk Processing Section

Milk pumps (Raw, milk paste, cream paste, loading pumps)

Un-loading pump (Pump coupled motor)

Hot water pump of paste

Vacuum pump of paste

Cream separator

Agitators

Silo agitators

IBT agitator

Chilled water pumps

Power mixing pump

Agitator power mixing tank

CIP pump

3.5 Hp

5 Hp

5 Hp

3 Hp

5 Hp

1 Hp

3 Hp

7.5 Hp

7.5 Hp

3.5 Hp

1 Hp

1 Hp

4

1

1

1

3

7

2

1

2

1

1

1

3

Butter section

Beater

Cream pump

Butter milk pump

Kneater

Chill water return pump

Butter milk circulation pump

Diffuser

Cream tank agitators

15 Hp

1 Hp

1 Hp

3 Hp

2 Hp

3.5 Hp

3 Hp

1 Hp

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

4

Ghee section

Ghee pumps

Agitators

Hot water pump

Ghee clarifier

Ghee pump (after filter)

Diffuser cold store

Exhaust fans

4 Hp

1 Hp

3 Hp

7.5 Hp

3.5 Hp

7 Hp

0.5 Hp

2

2

1

1

1

3

2

5

Packing section

Air compressor motors

Cold store blower motor

Pre-pack milk pump

Air curtain motor

Butter milk pump

: 12 Hp

: 2 Hp

: 1 Hp

: 1 Hp

: 3 Hp

2

1

1

1

1

6

Deep freeze section

Main compressor motor

Booster compressor motor

Condenser water pumps

Cold store blower motors

50 Hp

25 Hp

5 Hp

12.5 Hp

4

2

2

3

7

Refrigeration section

Compressor motor

Compressor motor

Condenser water pumps

Chilled water pumps

200 Hp

75 Hp

15 Hp

7.5 Hp

2

2

3

5

8

Powder plant section

(i) Drier

Exhaust blower motor

Conveyor air fan

Return nozzle motors

Return nozzle motors

Drier feed pump

Rotary valve motors

Star valve motor

Winch motor

(ii) Evaporation

Milk pumps

Condenser water milk pumps

Spray pond pump

Spray return pump

Silo Milk pump

Silo milk agitator

HMT pump

(iii) Air heating

Blower motors

Blower motors

Burner oil pumps

Flu exhaust motors

Recirculation fans

Heating elements

Furnace oil pumps (near oil tanks)

(iv) ET Plant

Aerator motors

Pry sludge pump motors

Raw effluent pump motors

Aerator motor

Clarifier motor

Return sludge pump

Return filtrate pump

40 Hp

15 Hp

7.5 Hp

5 Hp

5 Hp

0.5 Hp

1 Hp

3 Hp

3 Hp

3.5 Hp

10 Hp x 2

20 Hp

3.5 Hp

3 Hp

5 Hp

120Hp

125 Hp

5 Hp

5 Hp

7.5 Hp

8 Hp

10 Hp

15 Hp

5 Hp

5 Hp

3.5 Hp

0.5 Hp

5 Hp

5 Hp

2

1

1

1

1

4

1

1

5

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

4

1

4

2

2

1

1

3

1

9

Boiler section

(i). Coal Fire: (Jaya boilers)

Feed water pump

(ii). Oil Fire

Blower motor

Oil pumps

Feed water pumps Heating elements 2 sets

3 Hp

15 Hp

5 Hp

15 Hp

16 Hp

1

1

2

1

1

10

Water pumping section

Raw water pumps

Soft water pumps

MPF Well pump

MCC Well pump

Bore well pumps

7.5 Hp

7.5 Hp

7.5 Hp

7.5 Hp

7.5 Hp

12

12

1

1

3

11

12

Lightening and Fans

Colony

5.1.2 Identification of the Problem

The industry which is considered for case study, receives a large quantity of milk during rainy seasons nearly 60 to 70 thousand liters of milk is collected in this season in two or three days. A milk powder plant, which runs in the industry, is the most important section to consume majority of the units utilizing this in these days. The industry has a contract demand (CD) of 450 kVA. When the powder plant operates, the load exceeds to nearly 550 kVA with simultaneous operation of the Refrigeration unit.

The industry has to pay three times the normal MD tariff for the load demand exceeding the contracted kVA. The contracted kVA cannot be increased, because of non-utilization of power plant during the off-seasons. At some times, it is closed for few months. During the off-season days the load doesn't exceed even 300 kVA. So, it is uneconomical for the industry to increase the contracted kVA. Moreover, even when the powder plant operates, it operates for 10 to 14 hours a day. So, the load curves exhibit odd that is peaks during the operation of powder plant and valleys when it is not in operation.

5.1.3 Technique Adopted

The DSM Alternative that has been considered for case study is Load Priority technique. The complete details of LPT are described in the earlier chapter. In consultation with the section Superintendents and section supervisors as per the LPT, the 12 sections of the industry were classified into interruptible and non-interruptible sections. Among them, RMRD, Processing, Deep Freeze, Refrigeration, Powder, Boiler, Lighting and fans and Colony were classified as non-interruptible loads (sections) while the remaining Butter, Ghee, Pre-Pac and Water pumping Sections were classified as interruptible loads (sections).

The non-interruptible sections are the highest priority loads for which the production schedule cannot be interrupted. The production schedule of the interruptible sections can be altered giving a minimum inconvenience to the consumer, as these are low priority loads. Discussing with the superintendents and chief Engineers for the availability of labor, the working hours of Butter, Ghee and Pre-Pac are shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours. In the case of Water Pumping section, large HP motors are switched off during the peak hours and they are turned on during the off-peak hours. The working hours of the Butter, Ghee and Pre-Pac are shifted as given below.

Butter: 6AM to 9AM and 2PM to 5PM

Ghee: 7AM to 10 AM and 3PM to 6PM

Pre-Pac: 4AM to 8AM and 2PM to 5PM

However, this shifting of working hours is not necessary when the industry is not producing milk powder.

5.1.4 Data collection

The DSM techniques discussed in the previous chapter are applied to the industrial consumer. The production schedule has been modified without disturbing the production cycle. The data recorded for six consecutive days starting from October 20th -25th 2006 have been taken for the analytical study. For the days 23rd, 24th and 25th, milk powder plant was in operation while 20th, 21st and 22nd, was in shut down. The important point to be noted is that 23-10-2006 records to be the Maximum Demand day for that particular month. The data collected from the industry is conveyed in table's 5.1a, 5.2a, 5.3a, 5.4a, 5.5a and 5.6a. The corresponding graphs indicating the production schedule are shown in graphs 5.1a, 5.2a, 5.3a, 5.4a, 5.5a & 5.6a respectively.

Table's 5.1b, 5.2b, 5.3b, 5.4b, 5.5b and 5.6b give modified production schedule details after the application of DSM techniques. The corresponding graphs for the modified production schedule are shown in graphs 5.1c, 5.2c, 5.3c, 5.4c, 5.5c & 5.6c respectively. The superimposed load curves are also graphically shown in graphs 5.1b, 5.2b, 5.3b, 5.4b, 5.5b and 5.6b for days 23rd, 24th, 25th, 20st, 21th and 22nd respectively.

The Differential Tariff Billing details for every hour have been tabulated in the table's 5.1c, 5.2c, 5.3c, 5.4c, 5.5c and 5.6c for 23rd, 24th, 25th, 20th, 21st and 22nd respectively. From these tables, it can be clearly seen that the energy bill reduces the Differential tariff is applied reduces, as the curve after the application of DSM techniques is flat compared to the curve before application of DSM.

5.1.5 Tariff System for Energy Billing

As per the rules of Central Power Distribution Company of AP Limited (CPDCAPL), the Energy Bill comprises of fixed charges as well as Running charges. In addition to these, there will be Low Power Factor charges, Customer charges, Transformer line charges, Capacitor surcharges, late payment charges etc. The Fixed charges are nothing but the Maximum Demand charges while the Running charges are the kWh charges.

MD Charges- The existing block rate tariff for the Maximum Demand charges is Rs. 175/- for the contracted 450 kVA and Rs.525/- for the subsequent kVA consumed as per differential tariff.

Differential Tariff- The differential tariff for the load between the normal limits is Rs. 3.80 per kWh, for the load exceeding the normal load thrice the normal load tariff is Rs. 11.40 per kWh and for the load consumed to fill the valleys incentives is 1/3 of the normal tariff that is Rs.1.2660 per kWh which is taken for the study.

5.1.6 Tables and Graphs for 23-10-06

Table-5.4a: Load consumption details in kWh before DSM application on 23-10-06

Time

RMRD

Proc

Ref

DF

Powder

Boiler

Colony

L and F

Pre-Pac

Butter

Ghee

Water

0-1

0.0

17.9

153.1

24.1

218.9

28.2

0.6

2.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

11.2

1-2

0.0

20.8

144.2

22.3

211.4

30.6

0.6

2.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

12.4

2-3

0.0

31.2

158.3

26.2

208.2

26.4

0.6

2.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

17.2

3-4

0.0

36.8

163.1

21.6

212.5

31.3

0.6

2.4

6.26

2.27

4.27

19.8

4-5

0.0

30.7

143.5

18.8

203.2

29.8

0.6

2.1

6.26

4.0

3.64

20.4

5-6

0.0

32.9

124.8

21.3

191.6

33.7

0.6

1.9

10

20

10

21.2

6-7

8.8

34.5

73.2

22.7

180.4

35.4

0.6

0.8

10

20

15.3

19.2

7-8

10.3

39.2

61.9

19.9

170.1

36.2

0.4

1.2

12.8

15

14.2

18.3

8-9

11.2

48.5

71.1

21.4

161.0

34.8

0.7

0.9

13.9

16.2

11.5

15.1

9-10

10.9

39.8

64.8

26.8

174.1

32.9

0.9

1.4

5.0

5.0

0.0

11.8

10-11

10.2

33.8

61.1

34.6

161.3

28.6

1.1

1.3

13.3

23.2

18.8

11.6

11-12

0.0

38.2

168.0

45.8

0.0

20.4

1.2

1.1

4.0

0.0

0.0

11.9

12-13

0.0

39.2

175.3

51.2

0.0

18.8

1.2

0.7

5.0

5.0

0.0

10.8

13-14

0.0

37.8

136.7

58.8

0.0

18.2

1.3

0.6

11.9

14.2

0.0

17.5

14-15

0.0

38.1

112.2

54.3

0.0

19.7

0.9

0.8

0.0

0.0

10

18.2

15-16

8.2

31.1

136.9

44.9

0.0

22.3

0.8

1.1

0.0

10

10

20.1

16-17

9.9

29.9

129.8

39.2

0.0

19.9

0.7

1.0

4.5

9.2

12.4

22.3

17-18

11.1

35.6

88.3

28.5

148.2

14.4

2.6

1.9

20

20

21.2

9.8

18-19

10.6

32.2

174.2

24.8

152.4

22.1

4.8

2.3

26

20

20.2

7.6

19-20

0.0

39.2

184.8

19.1

181.7

28.9

6.2

2.5

22.2

22

20

9.9

20-21

0.0

26.2

164.3

18.5

208.1

33.4

5.4

2.3

5.0

0.0

5.0

10.3

21-22

0.0

21.1

133.2

20.0

210.3

36.3

0.9

2.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

16.2

22-23

0.0

20.3

140.3

21.3

220.4

33.1

0.6

2.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

12.3

23-24

0.0

22.3

135.3

20.6

221.7

35.8

0.6

2.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

10.9

Table-5.4b: Load consumption details in kWh after DSM application on 23-10-06

Time

RMRD

Proc

Ref

DF

Powder

Boiler

Colony

L and F

Pre-Pac

Butter

Ghee

Water

0-1

0.0

17.9

153.1

24.1

218.9

28.2

0.6

2.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

11.2

1-2

0.0

20.8

144.2

22.3

211.4

30.6

0.6

2.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

12.4

2-3

0.0

31.2

158.3

26.2

208.2

26.4

0.6

2.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

17.2

3-4

0.0

36.8

163.1

21.6

212.5

31.3

0.6

2.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

19.8

4-5

0.0

30.7

143.5

18.8

203.2

29.8

0.6

2.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

20.4

5-6

0.0

32.9

124.8

21.3

191.6

33.7

0.6

1.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

21.2

6-7

8.8

34.5

73.2

22.7

180.4

35.4

0.6

0.8

0.0

0.0

0.0

19.2

7-8

10.3

39.2

61.9

19.9

170.1

36.2

0.4

1.2

12.8

0.0

0.0

18.3

8-9

11.2

48.5

71.1

21.4

161.0

34.8

0.7

0.9

13.9

16.2

0.0

15.1

9-10

10.9

39.8

64.8

26.8

174.1

32.9

0.9

1.4

15.7

19.3

12.7

11.8

10-11

10.2

33.8

61.1

34.6

161.3

28.6

1.1

1.3

13.3

23.2

18.8

11.6

11-12

0.0

38.2

168.0

45.8

0.0

20.4

1.2

1.1

0.0

20.2

21.6

11.9

12-13

0.0

39.2

175.3

51.2

0.0

18.8

1.2

0.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

20.8

13-14

0.0

37.8

136.7

58.8

0.0

18.2

1.3

0.6

11.9

14.2

0.0

17.5

14-15

0.0

38.1

112.2

54.3

0.0

19.7

0.9

0.8

18.1

16.8

16.3

18.2

15-16

8.2

31.1

136.9

44.9

0.0

22.3

0.8

1.1

16.2

19.8

20.2

20.1

16-17

9.9

29.9

129.8

39.2

0.0

19.9

0.7

1.0

13.9

18.6

21.8

22.3

17-18

11.1

35.6

88.3

28.5

148.2

14.4

2.6

1.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

9.8

18-19

10.6

32.2

174.2

24.8

152.4

22.1

4.8

2.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

7.6

19-20

0.0

39.2

184.8

19.1

181.7

28.9

6.2

2.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

9.9

20-21

0.0

26.2

164.3

18.5

208.1

33.4

5.4

2.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

10.3

21-22

0.0

21.1

133.2

20.0

210.3

36.3

0.9

2.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

16.2

22-23

0.0

20.3

140.3

21.3

220.4

33.1

0.6

2.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

12.3

23-24

0.0

22.3

135.3

20.6

221.7

35.8

0.6

2.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

10.9

Table-5.4c: Before and after application of DSM

Before the application of DSM After the application of SM

Time

Load in kW

DT Billing in Rs

Load in kW

DT Billing in Rs

1

456.3

3467.88

456.3

3467.88

2

444.5

3378.20

444.5

3378.20

3

470.4

3575.04

470.4

3575.04

4

500.9

3806.84

488.1

3709.56

5

463

3518.80

449.1

3413.16

6

459.9

3495.24

428.0

1626.40

7

420.9

1599.42

375.6

1427.28

8

399.5

1518.10

370.3

1407.14

9

406.5

1544.70

394.8

1500.24

10

363.4

1380.92

411.1

1562.18

11

343.6

1305.68

398.9

757.98

12

286.6

1089.08

328.4

623.96

13

297.2

1129.36

307.2

583.68

14

260.9

991.42

297

564.30

15

234.2

889.96

295.4

551.26

16

255.4

970.52

321.6

601.04

17

278.8

1059.44

307

583.30

18

401.6

1526.08

340.4

1293.52

19

497.2

377.72

431

1637.80

20

536.6

4078.16

472.3

3589.48

21

478.5

3636.60

468.5

3560.60

22

440.1

3344.76

440.1

3344.76

23

450.4

3423.04

450.4

3423.04

24

449.5

3416.20

449.5

3416.20

9595.9

54523.16

9595.9

49618.00

Figure-5.4a: Production Schedule of the consumer before the application of DSM. (23-Oct-06)

Figure-5.4b: Production Schedule of the consumer after the application of DSM. (23-Oct-06)

Figure-5.4c: Super imposed Load curves of the industrial consumer (23-Oct-06)

Before application of DSM (23-Oct-2006)

Maximum Demand = 596.2 kVA

MD charges = 450 x175 + (596.2-450) x175x3

= Rs. 1, 29,920

Load Factor = 316.2/ 536.6

= 0.589

After application of DSM (23-Oct-2006)

Maximum Demand = 541.3 kVA

MD charges = 450x175+ (542.3-450) x175x3

= Rs.1, 11,055

Load Factor = 316.2/ 488.1

= 0.648

Net Savings for the industrial consumer due to the lowering of Maximum Demand = Rs. (1, 29,920 - Rs.1, 11,055)

= Rs. 18, 865 per Month

Conclusions

In the present work, an attempt is made to implement some of the DSM alternatives namely, End Use Equipment Control, Load Priority Technique, Peak Clipping and Valley Filling, Differential Tariff. For this purpose, a major industrial consumer having various categories of loads has been considered. Existing power consuming pattern has been recorded prior to the application of DSM techniques.

In the above case studies both industrial consumers that is Nandi milk industries gets approximate savings of Rs 19,000 per month, because of the lowering of Maximum Demand when it goes beyond contacted demand.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.