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4.1 CULTIVATION RESULTS
4.1.1 CHALLEGES FACED
Initially the samples were run to test the conditions of Temperature and humidity fluctuations. The results obtained had infection occurred in the bags. Fig. 4.1. indicates the invasion of pests leading to formation of leachate. The infection might be linked to inappropriate moisture in the substrate and inadequate temperature control.
In the later part in order to control humidity and temperature fluctuations the room was regularly watered twice a day and moistened with a sprinkler to control humidity levels. In order to monitor a Sensor was installed in mushroom cultivation room.The moisture of the substrate determined by hot air oven method was 70%.
4.1.2 CULTIVATION ON VEGETABLE SUBSTRATE
In vegetable waste the maximum yield was 26.5g fresh fruiting body/250g substrate weight for Pleurotus djamor mushroom. When the comparison was done for mycelium development of Pleurotus florida was faster than other mushroom species. Primordia development was also seen maximum in Pleurotus florida species. While the fruiting development was faster in Pleurotus florida species. Lentinula edodes was unable to develop mycelia and perform fructification on vegetable substrate.
4.1.3 CULTIVATION ON SPENT TEA GROUNDS
In spent tea grounds the maximum yield was 16.78g fresh fruiting body weight/ 250g of substrate for Pleurotus djamor mushroom. When the comparison was done for mycelium development of was same in both the mushroom species cultivated. Primordia development was also seen maximum in Pleurotus florida species. But the fruiting development was faster in Pleurotus djamor species. Lentinula edodes was unable to develop mycelia and perform fructification on vegetable substrate.
4.1.4 CULTIVATION ON GROUND NUT SHELLS WITH SUPPLEMENT
Comparison study was done to identify the effect of supplement (Melanoidin effluent from alcohol industry) and black polythene on Groundnut shell substrate for cultivation of Pleurotus florida. It was recorded that mycelia development was faster in GS + supplement. Primordia development was faster in GS + supplement. Fruiting body was first harvested in GS + supplement with yield of 24.34g of fresh fruiting body weight/ 250g of substrate. Highest yield was recorded in only GS substrate 33.93g of fresh fruiting body weight/ 250g of substrate.
4.1.6 CULTIVATION OF Pleurotus djamor on Groundnut shells
In groundnut shells the maximum yield was 33.93 fresh fruiting body weight/ 250g of substrate for Pleurotus florida mushroom. When the comparison was done for mycelium development of was same in both the mushroom species cultivated. Primordia development was also seen maximum in Pleurotus florida species. The fruiting development was faster in Pleurotus djamor species. Lentinula edodes was unable to develop mycelia and perform fructification on groundnut shells.
4.1.7 CULTIVATION OF MUSHROOM ON FRUIT PEELS SUBSTRATE
None of the mushroom species was able to grow on fruit waste. This might be because of citric content of the fruit sample which inhibited the formation mycelia network. Water melon peels were also used which did not show any mycelium network growth.
4.2 NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS RESULTS
4.2.1 Chemical toxicity
Fresh mushroom fruiting body harvested was pressed on low lignin containing newspaper for extraction of juice. A drop of HCl was added on the newspaper over the spot and allowed to dry. After complete drying there was no colour change observed which indicated mushroom grown on Kitchen waste were safe for consumption with no toxin uptake.
4.2.2 Moisture content
Empty Petri plate = 44.40g
Initial weight of fresh mushroom = 4.88g
Total = empty Petri plate + Fresh mushroom weight
= 44.4 + 5
It was placed in hot air oven in temperature range of 75o – 90oC to determine moisture content. The weight of sample was taken after every 5 min.
Final weight of sample + Petri plate……….. 45.34g.
Final weight of Mushroom sample………….. 0.94
Weight of sample……………………………. 4.88 – 0.94 = 3.94
Moisture %...................................................... = 80.73%
Thus moisture content of mushroom cultivated on KW was found to be 80.73%. Amount of water evaporated from sample was found to be 3.94ml.
4.2.3 Ash content
Ash content in 1g of sample was determined to be 0.03g of dried mushroom sample.
4.2.4 Protein content
Protein content was determined in dried mushroom sample of 1g. It was subjected to colorimetric analysis to determine OD at 650 nm. These readings were used to plot standard graph. The protein conc. was thus determined from standard graph to be 0.66g / 1g of dried mushroom sample.
Fig. 4.11 sample solutions showing color difference to determine OD at 650nm by colorimetric method
Table 4.1 shows OD of duplicate samples measured at 650nm.
Annexure1. Shows Standard graph plotted to determine the protein concentration in the sample
4.2.5 Lipid content
Empty Petri plate = 52.7g ------ (a)
After evaporating solvent
1ml of Sample weight (supernatant) + Petri plate = 52.71g ------ (b)
Lipid content = (b) – (a)
= 52.71 – 52.7
Thus in 10ml of extraction buffer, lipid content was found to be 0.01g.
4.2.6 Total Carbohydrate content
Total carbohydrate content of dried mushroom sample was subjected to colorimetric assessment to determine OD. Samples taken in duplicates showed OD as tabulated in Table 4.2. On plotting standard graph the carbohydrate conc. was determined to be 0.3g / 1g of dried mushroom sample.
Fig. 4.13 sample solutions showing colour difference to determine OD at 490nm by colorimetric method
Annexure2. Shows Standard graph plotted to determine the protein concentration in the sample
4.3 BIOGAS GENERATION USING SMS RESULTS
The apparatus was basically designed to check the biogas produced using various digested and undigested substrates. Seven similar apparatus was fabricated to measure biogas produced in seven different substrates. Following tables and graphs shows the results of volume of biogas produced in different substrates.
4.3.1 Biogas produced using Vegetable substrate
Digested waste had more amount of gas produced as compared to undigested vegetable waste. This might be because the fungus has already digested the substrate and generated simple biomolecules like glucose which can be readily up taken by methanogenic bacteria for production of gas. While in the case of vegetable waste the gas produced is less and duration period to initiate the production of biogas was more when compared to digest vegetable waste.
Fig. 4.14 Represents comparative graph study of biogas production of Digested SMS (vegetable) with undigested vegetable waste.
Table4.3. Shows the yield of biogas produced from digested SMS and undigested vegetable waste.
4.3.2 Biogas produced in Spent Tea substrate
The results recorded showed that biogas produced was in greater volume in case of digested spent tea substrate compared to undigested substrate. The No. of days taken for biogas production in case of SMS was less than undigested substrate. This might be because the substrate was already in simplified form which allowed the accumulation of biogas faster in SMS than undigested substrate.
Fig. 4.15 Represents comparative graph study of biogas production of Digested SMS (Spent tea grounds) with undigested vegetable waste.
Table4.4. Shows the yield of biogas produced from digested SMS and undigested spent tea grounds waste.
4.3.3 Biogas produced in Groundnut shells
It was noticed from the results recorded that maximum amount of biogas was produced in digested substrate. It was noted that duration period for biogas production was longer in undigested substrate than in SMS. It might be because of well simplified substrate.
Fig. 4.16 Represents comparative graph study of biogas production of Digested SMS (Groundnut shells) with undigested Groundnut shells.
Table4.4. Shows the yield of biogas produced from digested SMS and undigested groundnut shells.
4.4 MUSHROOM FRUITING CHAMBER RESULTS
Mushroom fruiting chamber so fabricated was tested for relative humidity and temperature maintenance within the chamber. Initial relative humidity of the chamber when fabricated was found to be 45%. But when water from water tank was allowed to flow the relative humidity increased rapidly. The relative humidity was increased to 85 – 90% with the flow of 150ml of water. This is because the concrete sand placed at bottom in sieve plate absorbed the water. Due to low porosity of sand water retention was high and water percolated easily. The water so absorbed maintained the relative humidity as well temperature of 280 C for 5 days at constant rate. It was noticed that time taken to attain the 85% RH was 3 hours.