Crickets Have Similar Characteristics To Most Insects Biology Essay

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First and foremost, Crickets have similar characteristics to most insects, they have a three-segmented body parts (head, thorax and abdomen), six jointed legs, and two antennae. A hard exoskeleton covers their body. Crickets like any other incest in the Orthopterans family, have excellent vision and hearing. Their compound eyes are able to see in several directions at once. Their hearing abilities are also unique because their ears are situated at the front legs of the crickets and not on the head. While crickets have wings, the majority of them do not fly. The wings are often too small to be of any use and lie useless across the back. Most get about by jumping from place to place, and through time, have developed legs that are built for jumping at great heights when put in comparison to their size [1] . They can be found in many locations, but mainly in grasslands and forests. Some even lives in bogs, marshes and even caves. [2] 

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Even though there are plenty of researches being done on the most prominent ability of the crickets which is their famous ability to chirp(stridulation), there is still very information available when it comes to the overall behavior of crickets when exposed to certain external stimulus. Crickets are well-known for its ability to detect changes in the temperature in the environment and indicate it to others through their chirping. As for light sensitivity, their eyes are well-equipped to be able to perceive the lights containing different wavelengths. The same goes to their ability to perceive sounds even though their hearing organ is situated on their knees. To further expand our knowledge on the behaviour of the crickets, this research could aid in that quest.

2.0 HYPOTHESIS

The crickets are drawn more towards the warm temperatures of the surrounding than the other temperatures that might be present in the surrounding. This is because it is a cold-blooded animal and is attracted to heat.

Dark areas are most preferred by the crickets but out of all the coloured light, there would be a higher preference towards the blue colour.

The type of music that would attract the crickets the most would be the rock songs. This is because it is around the same range of frequency as their normal calling "songs".

3.0 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Vision

The compound eye of the cricket contains three spectral types of photoreceptors. These are blue, green and UV photoreceptors. The blue photoreceptors are comparatively more sensitive than the green photoreceptors. The blue receptors are reportedly 60 times more sensitive than the green receptors. This is probably the case because crickets need to forage and migrate under dim light or bad lighting conditions. [3] Even with three receptor types, crickets only have dichromatic colour vision. [4] Their behaviour towards the coloured light, especially those of the basic colour spectrum has not yet been known.

Auditory Senses

Female crickets search for its mate through "songs" produced by the male. Crickets have special hearing organs attached to their forelegs, and uses different stimulations to try to detect the direction of the sound. This is called phonotaxis. [5] In other words, phonotaxis is the movement of insects reacting towards a certain sound or sound vibrations. In other insects, positive phonotaxis means a positive reaction towards a certain sound (insects are attracted to it), while negative phonotaxis means a negative response (insects are repulsed by it). [6] Studies had shown that crickets are drawn to other calling with a frequency of 3 to 5 kHz. Furthermore, anything above that range would repulse them. [7] 

4.0 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING

The setting up of the experiment chamber.

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4 empty aquaria ( 29cmx20cmx19cm) are set up. These 4 aquaria would contain the different stimulus from which would draw interest of the crickets. To make things easier for recording purposes, the aquaria are labelled A, B, C, and D. From the experiment, the aquaria which has the most number of crickets contained in it would be considered as the most preferable stimulus for the crickets. The 4 empty aquaria would be connected together with connecting tubes big enough for the crickets to move through. At the centre of it all would be a hub taken from a hamster chamber. The hub which is the size, ( ) would be able to contain 30 crickets at any time. Wires of mesh are used to close off the opening from the hub to the connecting tubes at the beginning of each trials in order to hold the crickets to be in place in the hub for a few minutes. These wires of mesh works as a gate that stops them from moving about. The rationale behind this action is simply to let the crickets familiarise itself with the externalities present to them.

Crickets.

The crickets were obtained from a pet supplier near my home in Petaling Jaya. The crickets are collected from a forest near the area of Batu 9 in Hulu Langat, Selangor Darul Ehsan. Once captured, they are housed in an empty aquaria bought specifically for them. Inside the aquarias, are strips of old newspaper cuttings that serves as areas of shade just like the leaves in the wild which gives them shelter from the sun. They are placed on a diet of freshly cut grass and leaves. The aquarias are placed out in the open to help simulate the natural habitat of the crickets.

Variables.

Temperature.

a) This variable is chosen to observe the preference of the crickets towards changes in the surrounding temperature. Four set of temperatures are chosen for this experiment. Cold, room temperature, warm and hot. As seen below:-

Aquaria A

10oC to 15oC (cold)

Aquaria B

25oC to 30oC (room temperature)

Aquaria C

31oC to 36oC (warm)

Aquaria D

40oC to 45oC (hot)

Temperature is controlled using a few apparatus:-

Thermometer - Thermometers are placed inside the aquaria through the roof of the aquaria from time to time in order to monitor the temperature of the surrounding inside the aquaria.

Heating pads - Heating pads are used for aquaria C and aquaria D in order to maintain a high temperature with the help of a thermometer. Heating pads are placed close to the aquaria. Due to convection currents, the heat from the heating pads would heat up the air inside the aquaria. Distance of the heating pads from the aquaria is determine with the help of the thermometer. *caution: the heating pads are hot and should not be held too close to the aquaria in fear that it might melt the plastic shell of the aquaria.

Wind shield - Wind shields are used to reduce wind disturbance on the whole set-up. Wind shields are set up surrounding the experimental set-up. Any excess wind activity might cause a fluctuation in the temperature of the surrounding of the aquaria.

Ice packs - For aquaria A, the temperature must be dropped below the room temperature but not too low. Ice packs are the safest method of doing that without affecting the set-up. Through convection currents of air, the temperature inside the aquaria would drop to the temperature needed. The ice packs are placed surrounding the aquaria.

The temperatures of the surrounding of each of the aquaria are kept constant with the usage of the thermometer to constantly monitor any changes in the temperature. If there is a sudden drop or increase in the temperature of the surrounding in the aquaria, then more heat is applied by adjusting the position of the heating pads from the aquaria or by adding or replacing the ice packs surrounding the aquaria.

Sounds.

This variable would show how crickets are affected by the different sounds or in this case, songs which has known to contain different frequency. In this experiment, four songs are chosen from a wide range of songs to be used based on their records of frequency levels:-

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Aquaria A

Rock ( 3.0 - 5.0 kHz)

Aquaria B

Ballad (6.0 - 7.0 kHz)

Aquaria C

Instrumental (7.0 - 9.5 kHz)

Aquaria D

Ethnic (2.5 -4.5 kHz)

The apparatus needed in this experiments are :-

Mp3 player - The different types of songs used in this experiment are played through the Mp3 player.

Speakers - To ensure that the crickets can hear the sound of the songs, speakers are used to amplify the sound.

Coloured light.

As the crickets' eyes perceived the light spectrum a little differently from human eyes, a few coloured lights are selected to observe which coloured light would draw the attention of the crickets. The examples of the coloured lights used are:-

Aquaria A

Black (dark)

Aquaria B

Blue

Aquaria C

Red

Aquaria D

Yellow

The base colours for all the colours in the visible light range consist of those three colours which are blue, yellow and red. Thus, these colours are used because it is the most common colours in the surrounding.

Some studies show that the crickets are more inclined to reside in dark places, thus the introduction of a dark area is also introduced in this experiment in order as a control.

The apparatus needed to carry out this experiment are:-

Coloured paper (blue, yellow, red and black) - At the beginning, coloured light using artificial light is purposed for this experiment but it is later found out that the lighting of the aquaria might not be even and external light from the surrounding might affect the experiment. Thus, coloured paper is used to turn the natural light into coloured light. Coloured papers are wrapped around the aquaria and also the whole connecting tubes that connects the centre hub to the aquaria. This would enable the insides of the connecting tubes and the aquaria to appear a certain colour to the crickets.

5.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS

5.1 Materials and Apparatus

APPARATUS

QUANTITY

Aquaria (Habitat for the crickets)

4

Connecting tube

4

Holding cell

1

Voice recorder

1

Disc player

4

Artificial light

4

Coloured paper (Yellow, Black, Red, Blue)

4 of each

Thermometer

4

Heating pads

2

Newspapers

Some

Timer

1

MATERIAL

QUANTITY

Cricket

50

Grass and leaves

A lot

Distilled water

For drinking (crickets)

Different types of songs (ballad, instrumental, rock, ethnic)

4

5.2 Variables

Variables

Units

Possible effect(s) on results

How to control variable

Independent Variable.

The temperature of the surrounding.

The colour of the light from the surrounding.

The types of songs being played to the crickets.

oC

-

-

The temperature might affect the behavioural activity of the crickets.

Crickets might be sensitive to some colours due to their different wavelengths.

The different frequencies of the songs might affect the crickets in some way.

Explained above in method planning and development.

Dependent Variable.

Number of crickets in the aquaria.

-

The number of crickets in the aquaria are affected by the type of stimulus present in the area inside the aquaria.

-

Fixed Variable.

The species of the crickets.

The relative mass and size of the crickets.

The period of the experiment.

The diet of the

crickets.

The other conditions (external conditions) of the experiment.

-

-

-

-

-

1. Different species have different behavioural behaviour and would react differently towards the stimulus given.

2. Different sizes and mass would also affect the reading and the reactivity of the crickets towards the stimulus.

3. The time of day at which the experiment takes place might affect the crickets behavioural patterns.

4. Their diet might affect their behaviours.

5. When the experiment is to test on temperature, other factors such as light and humidity should be kept constant and while light is the independent, temperature and humidity will be kept constant.

Only the same species of crickets are used in the experiment which is the Black Field Crickets (Gryllus Gryllinae)

The average size and mass of the crickets are made sure to be around the same.

The experiment should be done at the same time of the day to eliminate the time of day as an externalities.

The crickets are only given grasses and leaves.

The experiment is carried at the same place to avoid any drastic changes in the surrounding.

5.3 Methods

5.3.1 Experiment 1 - Temperature

4 empty aquaria is cleaned and emptied before the start of the experiment.

The four aquaria are connected to a holding cell in the middle using 4 different connecting tubes. The experimental instruments are set up as previously descripted.

Next, different temperatures are set at the different aquaria:-

Aquaria A

10oC to 15oC (cold)

Aquaria B

25oC to 30oC (room temperature)

Aquaria C

31oC to 36oC (warm)

Aquaria D

40oC to 45oC (hot)

30 crickets are placed in the holding cell. The wired mesh is used to hole the crickets in the holding cell in order to let them familiarize with their surrounding stimulus.

After 2 minutes, the gates closing all the connecting tubes are lifted and the movement of the crickets in the direction of each of the stimulus presented is observed carefully.

The experiment is stopped only when all the crickets have left the holding cell and are either close to any of aquaria or residing exactly in it.

Repeat the whole experiment for 10 more trials and the data recorded from each of the trial would be tabulated and analysed.

5.3.2 Experiment 2 - Coloured Light

4 empty aquaria is cleaned and emptied before the start of the experiment.

The four aquaria are connected to a holding cell in the middle using 4 different connecting tubes. The experimental instruments are set up as previously descripted.

Coloured paper will be used to cover the aquaria and also the connecting tube leading up to each of the aquaria.

The different colour of the aquaria is as follows :-

Aquaria A

Black (dark)

Aquaria B

Blue

Aquaria C

Red

Aquaria D

Yellow

30 crickets are placed in the holding cell. The wired mesh is used to hole the crickets in the holding cell in order to let them familiarize with their surrounding stimulus.

After 2 minutes, the gates closing all the connecting tubes are lifted and the movement of the crickets in the direction of each of the stimulus presented is observed carefully.

The experiment is stopped only when all the crickets have left the holding cell and are either close to any of aquaria or residing exactly in it.

Repeat the whole experiment for 10 more trials and the data recorded from each of the trial would be tabulated and analysed.

5.3.3 Experiment 3 - Songs

4 empty aquaria is cleaned and emptied before the start of the experiment.

The four aquaria are connected to a holding cell in the middle using 4 different connecting tubes. The experimental instruments are set up as previously descripted.

Next, different songs with different wavelengths are played using the disc player and speakers at the end of each connecting tube in the different aquaria. The different songs present is as follows :-

Aquaria A

Rock ( 3.0 - 5.0 kHz)

Aquaria B

Ballad (6.0 - 7.0 kHz)

Aquaria C

Instrumental (7.0 - 9.5 kHz)

Aquaria D

Ethnic (2.5 -4.5 kHz)

30 crickets are placed in the holding cell. The wired mesh is used to hole the crickets in the holding cell in order to let them familiarize with their surrounding stimulus.

After 2 minutes, the gates closing all the connecting tubes are lifted and the movement of the crickets in the direction of each of the stimulus presented is observed carefully.

The experiment is stopped only when all the crickets have left the holding cell and are either close to any of aquaria or residing exactly in it.

Repeat the whole experiment for 10 more trials and the data recorded from each of the trial would be tabulated and analysed.

6.0 DATA COLLECTION

Aquaria

Types of Environmental (Temperature)

Number of crickets

1st trial

2nd trial

3rd trial

4th trial

5th trial

6th trial

7th trial

8th trial

9th trial

10th trial

A

Hot

0

0

2

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

B

Warm

20

23

19

21

20

21

23

22

21

21

C

Room

10

7

8

9

10

9

6

7

7

8

D

Cold

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

Table 1: Table of the number of crickets residing in aquaria with different environmental stimulus (temperature)

Table 2: Table of the number of crickets residing in aquaria with different environmental stimulus (coloured light).

Aquaria

Types of Environmental (color of light)

Number of crickets

1st trial

2nd trial

3rd trial

4th trial

5th trial

6th trial

7th trial

8th trial

9th trial

10th trial

A

Dark

25

25

20

17

18

16

17

20

16

15

B

Red

1

0

3

5

4

5

3

0

4

3

C

Blue

4

4

7

8

8

7

8

9

9

9

D

Yellow

0

1

0

0

1

2

2

1

1

3

Table 3: Table of the number of crickets residing in aquaria with different environmental stimulus (types of song)

Aquaria

Types of Environmental (Types of song)

Number of crickets

1st trial

2nd trial

3rd trial

4th trial

5th trial

6th trial

7th trial

8th trial

9th trial

10th trial

A

Rock

15

10

8

11

15

8

11

7

15

9

B

Ballad

5

7

1

3

3

9

0

0

2

5

C

Instrumental

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

D

Ethnic

10

13

21

16

12

13

19

23

13

16

7.0 DATA ANALYSIS

Aquaria

Types of Environmental (Temperature)

Number of crickets

1st trial

2nd trial

3rd trial

4th trial

5th trial

6th trial

7th trial

8th trial

9th trial

10th trial

Average

A

Hot

0

0

2

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

B

Warm

20

23

19

21

20

21

23

22

21

21

21

C

Room

10

7

8

9

10

9

6

7

7

8

8

D

Cold

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

Table 1: Table of the average number of crickets residing in aquaria with different environmental stimulus (temperature)

Aquaria

Types of Environmental (color of light)

Number of crickets

1st trial

2nd trial

3rd trial

4th trial

5th trial

6th trial

7th trial

8th trial

9th trial

10th trial

Average

A

Dark

25

25

20

17

18

16

17

20

16

15

18

B

Red

1

0

3

5

4

5

3

0

4

3

3

C

Blue

4

4

7

8

8

7

8

9

9

9

7

D

Yellow

0

1

0

0

1

2

2

1

1

3

1

Table 2: Table of the average number of crickets residing in aquaria with different environmental stimulus (coloured light).

Aquaria

Types of Environmental (Types of song)

Number of crickets

1st trial

2nd trial

3rd trial

4th trial

5th trial

6th trial

7th trial

8th trial

9th trial

10th trial

Average

A

Rock

15

10

8

11

15

8

11

7

15

9

11

B

Ballad

5

7

1

3

3

9

0

0

2

5

4

C

Instrumental

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

D

Ethnic

10

13

21

16

12

13

19

23

13

16

16

Table 3: Table of the average number of crickets residing in aquaria with different environmental stimulus (types of song)

7.1 Calculations

Calculation to find standard deviation for time taken

Σx2 - summation of the number of crickets

n - Number of trials

x - Average number of crickets

Standard deviation, Δ t

For Aquaria A from the first experiment(temperature)

=

=

= 0.60

The other values for standard deviation of time taken are calculated using the above formula. The data is tabulated in the table below.

Table 7: Table of standard deviation of the average number of crickets for the experiment with temperature as the environmental/external stimulus.

Aquaria

Types of Environmental/External Stimulus (Temperature)

Average number of crickets

Standard deviation of the average number of crickets

A

Hot

0

0.77

B

Warm

21

2.4

C

Room

8

1.8

D

Cold

0

0.55

Table 8: Table of standard deviation of the average number of crickets for the experiment with coloured light as the environmental/external stimulus.

Aquaria

Types of Environmental/External Stimulus (Coloured light)

Average number of crickets

Standard deviation of the average number of crickets

A

Dark

18

6.7

B

Red

3

1.4

C

Blue

7

2.8

D

Yellow

1

1.0

Table 9: The table of standard deviation of the average number of crickets for the experiment with types of song as the environmental/external stimulus

Aquaria

Types of Environmental/External Stimulus (Types of Song)

Average number of crickets

Standard deviation of the average number of crickets

A

Rock

11

2.5

B

Ballad

4

2.1

C

Instrumental

0

0.32

D

Ethnic

16

1.8

8.0 Evaluation

8.1 Discussion

8.1.1 Experiment 1

In the first experiment, the stimulus in the surrounding that were altered or manipulated was the temperature of the surrounding.

As seen from the results, it can be deduced that the highest amount of crickets prefers the room temperature rather than the other conditions (hot, warm, or cold).

According to previous research, it is said that the preferred temperature for the crickets is 27.3oC, which is at room temperature. Thus it correlates with the finding of my experiment.

An interesting find during the experiment is that when the crickets reside in an area with higher temperature, it becomes more active than the other crickets in much lower temperatures.

This can be explained through the physiology of the crickets themselves. They are cold blooded, therefore they get more active (they show most movement and are more alert to the surrounding) in high temperatures. This is because of the enzyme activity in the body of the cold-blooded animals' increases as the surrounding temperature increases.

Reptiles, an example of a cold blooded animal, will increase its body temperature before hunting and is better able to escape predators when it is warm. Cold-blooded animals also need to be warm and active to find a mate and reproduce.

However, in low temperatures, the crickets become dormant and less active. Their movements are noticeably slower and less. Crickets in the lower temperature environment would be seen to undergo a state of hibernation.

This is because, as the temperature of their body drops, the enzymatic activities in their body also drop. Therefore, normal body processes becomes slower and this results in the animal becoming dormant (tends to stay at one place and appear to be asleep).

Low temperature could prove useful to the crickets though. This is because temperature affects their immune system. The immune system of a cold-blooded animal would be more efficient if their body temperature is higher, but since bacteria probably grow more slowly in lower temperatures, cold-blooded animals sometimes lower their body temperatures when they have an infection. This might show a change in their behaviour as the crickets would sometimes prefer cold places in order to prevent the infection to spread any further.

8.1.2 Experiment 2

In this experiment, the variable used in the environment is the coloured light. Three different coloured environments are used and a dark environment is used as a control.

Based on the findings from the experiment, it is determined that the crickets generally prefer the dark area environment. This correlates with the research that has been done before that states that the crickets prefer a dark area than a lighted area.

Dark areas are preferred by the crickets because in the wild, crickets prefer shaded area because it means they would receive shelter from predators that might be out hunting for them.

Crickets are also more active at night than in the day. Thus they are prone to living in the dark because it is much safer for them and it is also more comfortable for them.

As for the coloured lights, least amount of crickets are attracted to the bright colours such as yellow and red. Bright colours such as yellow and red have a very high frequency and a very short wavelength. These kind of colours are not really perceptive by the crickets thus they do not react positively towards it.

Blue has more reception from the crickets than the other two colours present in the experiment. The responses in the blue receptors in the dorsal rim area have a much greater latency of responses than the other colours. Therefore, the crickets perceive the colour of the blue much easier and much clearer than the other colours. As to why it is attracted to the colour, it is probably because of the longer wavelength of the colour itself.

8.1.3 EXPERIMENT 3

As seen from the table, there are four types of songs used which are rock, ballad, instrumental and ethnic.

The most number of crickets are attracted to the songs of instrumental and ethnic. This is followed by the ballad songs and rock songs.

Instrumental songs and ballad have recorded a low tempo and low frequency. This might be the reason as to why the crickets do not prefer to reside in an area with these types of song playing in the background.

Rock songs and ethnic songs have a much higher tempo and a much higher frequency. This stimulates a very noisy environment in which the crickets usually spend most of their time in.

Males usually fight against each other vocally through their songs of chirping to attract their female counterparts.

The louder the chirps are, the more the females are attracted to their area.

Based on the results of the experiment, it shows that the crickets are more attracted to a song rich environment. This is probably because it signifies an area with a lot of cricket activity.

This explains why those crickets used in this experiment prefer to congregate in an area with a high concentration of high frequency sounds.

Another reason that might explain the behaviour of the crickets of congregating in a certain area and not others would be the fact that different frequency of the music gives different meaning to the crickets.

For frequencies of 4 - 5 kilohertz, this the normal the frequency at which crickets emit sound in order to communicate to each other regardless of the gender of the crickets. This is the range of sound that would attract them to a certain area. However, natural predators of the crickets would emit sound with a frequency much higher than 4 - 5 kilohertz. When the frequency of sounds hits an area of 10 kilohertz and above, this signals something that the crickets would want to avoid.

As stated above, the instruments played for instrumental songs or orchestral music produces a high frequency sound, above the 7 kilohertz threshold, while rock music has a sound frequency of around 3 to 5 kilohertz, which is preferable to the crickets.

8.2 LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

Limitation

Suggestion

The behaviour of the crickets might be different when placed in an enclosure when compared to their behaviour when they are in the wild.

In order to try and simulate a more luscious and green vegetative area in which the crickets usually inhabit in, leaves and other features found in the wild can be placed in the enclosed are to make it more natural for the crickets.

Only a selected few crickets are chosen for the experiment and this might not simulate the behaviour of the bulk of crickets in the nature.

This can be overcome by repeating the experiment using different populations of crickets taken from different areas in order to get the best overall results of the behaviour of crickets.

There are no discrimination between the presence of the female or the male crickets used in the experiment.

In order to find a more accurate result, to see whether the gender might affect the outcome of the experiment, the female and male are divided and tested separately to find any differences in their behaviour.

The songs' sound frequency might have not stayed consistent throughout the whole song because of the different instruments being played in the song and the different harmonies in which instruments were to interact with one another.

A frequency spectrum software can be used to identify the best song choice which have the most consistent range of frequency of sounds which can be used in the experiments.

For the method of heating and cooling the temperature of the surrounding, the temperature could possibly fluctuate due to the way the experiment is set up and the fact that the apparatus is exposed to the surrounding normal room temperature.

As for heating, a much better instrument might be more suitable to be used such as an incubator. For cooling purposes however, it would be possible to find other suitable alternatives that would work just as well.

9.0 CONCLUSION

After exploring the behaviour of crickets under different external conditions, it is clear that the behavioural patterns of crickets' changes according to the types of environment in which they are in. The types of music playing in the background, the different coloured lighting, and also the different temperature of the surrounding can affect the behaviour of crickets. The crickets also show a preferential to certain conditions and not to others. This more or less helps us to learn more about the behaviour of the crickets and how they would react to a certain stimulus that is placed in their natural environment. From the temperature experiment, the most suitable temperature of which the crickets are most comfortable with are determined with much ease. Just like any other cold blooded animals, it shows preference towards warm and room temperature more than an environment with extreme cold or hot conditions. As stated in previous research studies, crickets have shown a more active and lively behaviour when the surrounding temperature is warmer but if the surrounding temperatures increases too high it will have negative effects on the crickets. The other extreme, which is the cold temperatures, would cause slower metabolic reactions in the body of the crickets which would cause the crickets to become inactive. In the wild, crickets prefer warmth as it would give them the necessary energy to continue with their life processes such as searching for food, searching for shelter, or searching for mates. This is clearly illustrated in the experiment carried out.

The next experiment which involves the different types of light sheds some light towards how the different lights with their colours and wavelengths affect the crickets. Before this experiment was carried out, the behaviour of crickets are only experimented based on their preference towards lighted area of dark areas. But now, we manage to see whether other coloured lights have any effect on the crickets and how they respond to them, which is whether they like the coloured light or not. To no one's surprise, the crickets love dark places, as this is their natural behaviour to seek shelter and hide in the darkness to avoid being eaten by any lingering predators. Yellow light repels the most amounts of cockroaches, followed by the other lights. Yellow light being the brightest and has the shortest wavelength have a negative effect on the crickets and they do not like the presence of the yellow lights. From the discovery of this new knowledge, maybe a cricket friendly contraption can be build using the usage of yellow light to repel any invading crickets. This would help both the humans and crickets as it protects humans from the pests and also spares the life of the crickets.

For the last experiment in which different types of songs are let playing in the background, it shows a whole different set of readings with unsuspected results. Even though at first I expected the crickets to prefer a slower tempo and quiet type of music, the results of the experiment turned out completely different than what I have expected. Loud music with a fast tempo and high frequency such as rock and ethnic songs attracts the most amounts of crickets. This is not the same with instrumental and ballad songs where the number of crickets attracted to this kind of music is much less than the rock and ethnic songs. It seems that the crickets are more inclined to be at a place in which there is a loud and fast tempo music playing in the background. From this, the behaviour of the crickets towards music is determined and more knowledge is shed upon their responses towards an external stimulus. Although in the wild they would not as easily exposed to the different types of songs, in this ever changing world in which the world of the humans and animals are in close contact, this new evidence could help humans understand the crickets better.

Last but not least, what all these experiments have done is to help us learn a lot more on how the crickets would react to an external stimulus. The stimulus chosen for the experiment ranges from stuff they normally face in the wild like the temperature to something totally alien to them such as coloured light and types of music. The data collected is hoped to be beneficial towards the constant quest of obtaining new knowledge on the natural behaviour of our friendly critter, the cricket.