Cooking Storage And Reheating Practice Biology Essay

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This project consist of questionnaires on rice, to establish the cooking, storage, and reheating practice from Caribbean Indian and Chinese restaurants/takeaways around a small part of the Birmingham area. The objective was to determine whether the management and staff of each establishment understood the cooking practice of rice. There is an extreme risk of food poisoning if rice is been cooled down at room temperature at long period, and it is not stored under the right temperature condition. Reheating rice under those conditions will produce the Bacillus cereus toxin.

Birmingham has a large multicultural society of Caribbean Indian and Chinese restaurants/takeaways around a small part of the Birmingham area.

Rice is arguably the most important foodstuff associated with Bacillus cereus food poisoning (Adams and Moss, 2000) and (Baat, 1999). Because of its particular cultivation conditions in rice paddies where B. cereus comprises not, vert, similar10% of the soil microflora (Varnam & Evans, 1991), raw rice is generally contaminated to varying degrees with B. cereus (Sarrias et al., 2002 J.A. Sarrias, M. Valero and M.C. Salmeron, Enumeration, isolation and characterisation of previous termBacillus cereusnext term strains from Spanish raw previous termrice,next term Food Microbiology 19 (2002), pp. 589-595. Abstract | http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxyd.bham.ac.uk/scidirimg/icon_pdf.gifPDF (160 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (18)Sarrias, Valero, & Salmeron, 2002).

The manner in which rice is prepared for human consumption can promote the survival and outgrowth of B. cereus. The modes of contracting B. cereus-mediated food poisoning include; consumption of pre-cooked and incorrectly stored rice from oriental-style take-away restaurants, undercooking or storage at incorrect temperatures of sous-vide or REPFED (refrigerated food of extended durability) meals, domestic storage of cooked rice or "leftovers" of rice-containing meals at incorrect temperatures ([Baat, 1999] and (Little et al., 2002 C.L. Little, J. Barnes and R.T. Mitchell, Microbiological quality of take-away cooked previous termricenext term and chicken sandwiches: Effectiveness of food hygiene training of the management, Communicable Disease and Public Health 5 (4) (2002), pp. 289-298. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (13)(Little et al., 2002).

Many outbreaks of B. cereus food poisoning have been associated with the preparation of rice in bulk in advance of later serving or storage at room temperature for extended time periods (Adams and Moss, 2000), (Anonymous, 2003) and (Mossel et al.,1991).

Heating of these foods by the consumer generally kills any vegetative B. cereus cells present but not endospore. If such meals are left to stand at room temperature post-heating for a prolonged period (>4 h for rice dishes) or if "leftovers" are stored at room temperature for consumption the following day, any endospore present may be activated by heating of the food, allowing germination and outgrowth to potentially dangerous levels (Little et al., 2002).

Uncooked rice contains B. cereus endospores, which may germinate if rice is kept at room temperature following cooking (Mossel et al., 1991).

Heating of these foods by the consumer generally kills any vegetative B. cereus cells present but not endospores. If such meals are left to stand at room temperature post-heating for a prolonged period (>4 h for rice dishes) or if "leftovers" are stored at room temperature for consumption the following day, any endospores present may be activated by heating of the food, allowing germination and outgrowth to potentially dangerous levels (Little et al., 2002).

2.1. TAXONOMY

Chapter Three

-

Materials and methods

3. MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1. QUESTIONNAIRES

A survey questionnaire on the cooking practices with rice was taken into Caribbean, Indian and Chinese restaurants/takeaways around parts of the Birmingham area. There are many ethnic restaurants/takeaways in Birmingham, and the most popularity of these are Chinese, Indian and the least is popular is Caribbean. Questionnaires on (Appendix 1).

Questionnaire were handed to 25 Chinese, 30 Indian and 15 Caribbean restaurants/takeaways within Birmingham, to survey there cooking, storage, and reheating practice with rice. (Appendix 1).

Most restaurants/takeaways manager completed the questionnaire

. CHINESES RESTAURANTS/TAKEAWAYS

Table 1 Details of Chinese cooking practice with rice

Types of rice used? No. of Premises

American easy cook pre-fluffed 2

Basmati 2

American long grain 8

Other 3

How many times you wash your rice. No. of Premises

Once -

Twice 4

Three 6

Four 5

More than four 0

Do you soak your rice before cooking? No. of Premises

Less than 10 minutes 2

10 minutes - 30 minutes 1

30 minutes - 1 hour -

More than 1 hour -

Do not soak 12

How do you cook your rice No. of Premises

Boiled 12

Steamed 3

Fried -

Braised -

Quantity of rice cooked No. of Premises

< 20 portions 5

20 - 40 portions 5

40 - 60 portions 2

> 60 portions 3

Do you cool down your rice after cooking No. of Premises

Yes 11

No 4

How long does your rice takes to cool No. of Premises

Do not cool down 4

Within 90 minutes 8

90 - 2 hours 3

2 hours - 3 hours -

More than 3 hours -

Do you use freshly cooked rice daily No. of Premises

Yes 14

No 1

How do cool down your rice after cooking and store it No. of Premises

Do not cool down 4

Leave it at room (ambient) temperature until cool, then refrigerate? 9

Leave it at room (ambient) temperature until used? 1

Put it into plastic container and then into the refrigerator? 1

Put into a shallow container until it is cooled down, -

and then put into refrigerator?

Putting a container of hot rice into a larger container of cold -

water and ice unto cool then into the refrigerator?

At what temperature do you store your rice in the refrigerator? No. of Premises

Below 1oC? -

Between 2oC - 5 oC? 11

Between 7oC - 10 oC? -

Above 10oC? -

Do not know? -

How many days do you store your cold rice for? No. of Premises

1 day? 12

2 days? -

3 days? -

Do not store? 3 -

Do you keep your hot rice in a Bain-Marie? No. of Premises

Below 1hour? -

Between 2hours - 4 hours? 2

Between 4 hours - 6 hours? -

More than 6 hours ? -

Do not know? 1

No? 12

How do you reheat your rice? No. of Premises

Microwave ? 7

Steaming? 4

Dip it in boiling hot water? -

Other -

When reheating rice, what temperature do you take it to? No. of Premises

Between 30 oC - 40oC? -

> 75 oC? 10

Between 65 oC - 70 oC -

Between 45oC - 50 oC? -

< 63oC? -

Don't know? 1

How many of your staffs handle rice? No. of Premises

Between 1 - 5 12

Between 6 - 10 3

Don't know?

-

How many food handlers have food hygiene training? No. of Premises

1 - 5 15

4 - 10 -

Don't know? -

Did any of your staffs attend an external hygiene course? No. of Premises

Yes 14

No 1

Were your staffs trained in house? No. of Premises

Yes 14

No 1

How many staffs have food hygiene certificates? No. of Premises

1 - 5 15

4 - 10

Don't know?

Do you keep records of all staffs training? No. of Premises

Yes 14

No 1

Do you and your staffs know what Bacillus Cereus is? No. of Premises

Yes 14

No 1

3.3. INDIAN RESTAURANTS/TAKEAWAYS

Table 1 Details of Indian cooking practice with rice

Types of rice used? No. of Premises

American easy cook pre-fluffed 1

Basmati 14

American long grain 4

Other baba rice 1

How many times you wash your rice? No. of Premises

Once 2

Twice 9

Three 7

Four 1

More than four 1

Do you soak your rice before cooking. No. of Premises

Less than 10 minutes 3

10 minutes - 30 minutes 8

30 minutes - 1 hour 4

More than 1 hour 1

Do not soak 4

How do you cook your rice? No. of Premises

Boiled 20

Steamed -

Fried -

Braised -

Quantity of rice cooked No. of Premises

< 20 portions 12

20 - 40 portions 5

40 - 60 portions 3

> 60 portions -

Do you cool down your rice after cooking No. of Premises

Yes 19

No 1

How long does your rice takes to cool No. of Premises

Do not cool down 1

Within 90 minutes 10

90 - 2 hours 8

2 hours - 3 hours

More than 3 hours 1

Do you use freshly cooked rice daily? No. of Premises

Yes 20

No -

How do cool down your rice after cooking and store it No. of Premises

Do not cool down 1

Leave it at room (ambient) temperature until cool, then refrigerate? 11

Leave it at room (ambient) temperature until used? 1

Put it into plastic container and then into the refrigerator? 2

Put into a shallow container until it is cooled down, 5

and then put into refrigerator?

Putting a container of hot rice into a larger container of cold -

water and ice unto cool then into the refrigerator?

At what temperature do you store your rice in the refrigerator? No. of Premises

Below 1oC? -

Between 2oC - 5 oC? 19

Between 7oC - 10 oC? -

Above 10oC? -

Do not store? -

How many days do you store your cold rice for? No. of Premises

1 day? 15

2 days? 4

3 days? 1

Do you keep your hot rice in a Bain-Marie? No. of Premises

Below 1hour? 4

Between 2hours - 4 hours? 4

Between 4 hours - 6 hours? -

More than 6 hours ? -

Do not know? -

No? 12

How do you reheat your rice? No. of Premises

Microwave ? 18

Steaming? 1

Dip it in boiling hot water? -

Other -

When reheating rice, what temperature do you take it to? No. of Premises

Between 30 oC - 40oC? 2

> 75 oC? 12

Between 65 oC - 70 oC 3

Between 45oC - 50 oC? -

< 63oC? 1

Don't know? 1

How many of your staffs handle rice? No. of Premises

Between 1 - 5 18

Between 6 - 10 2

Don't know? -

How many food handlers have food hygiene training? No. of Premises

1 - 5 13

4 - 10 7

Don't know? -

Did any of your staffs attend an external hygiene course? No. of Premises

Yes 18

No 2

Were your staffs trained in house? No. of Premises

Yes 7

No 13

How many staffs have food hygiene certificates? No. of Premises

1 - 5 13

4 - 10 7

Don't know? -

Do you keep records of all staff training? No. of Premises

Yes 18

No 2

Do you and your staffs know what Bacillus Cereus is? No. of Premises

Yes 9

No 11

3.4. CARIBBEAN RESTAURANTS/TAKEAWAYS

Table 1 Details of Caribbean cooking practice with rice

Types of rice used? No. of Premises

American easy cook pre-fluffed 1

Basmati 12

American long grain 1

Other 1

How many times you wash your rice? No. of Premises

Once 1

Twice 2

Three 5

Four -

More than four 7

Do you soak your rice before cooking? No. of Premises

Less than 10 minutes 1

10 minutes - 30 minutes -

30 minutes - 1 hour -

More than 1 hour -

Do not soak 14

How do you cook your rice? No. of Premises

Boiled 8

Steamed 7

Fried -

Braised -

Quantity of rice cooked No. of Premises

< 20 portions 3

20 - 40 portions 9

40 - 60 portions 1

> 60 portions 2

Do you cool down your rice after cooking No. of Premises

Yes 11

No 4

How long does your rice takes to cool No. of Premises

Do not cool down 4

Within 90 minutes 7

90 - 2 hours 3

2 hours - 3 hours -

More than 3 hours 1

Do you use freshly cooked rice daily? No. of Premises

Yes 14

No 1

How do cool down your rice after cooking and store it No. of Premises

Do not cool down 4

Leave it at room (ambient) temperature until cool, then refrigerate? 4

Leave it at room (ambient) temperature until used? 2

Put it into plastic container and then into the refrigerator? 3

Put into a shallow container until it is cooled down, 1

and then put into refrigerator?

Putting a container of hot rice into a larger container of cold 1

water and ice unto cool then into the refrigerator?

At what temperature do you store your rice in the refrigerator? No. of Premises

Below 1oC? -

Between 2oC - 5 oC? 11

Between 7oC - 10 oC? -

Above 10oC? -

Do not store? 4

How many days do you store your cold rice for? No. of Premises

1 day? 6

2 days? 5

3 days? -

Do not store? 4

Do you keep your hot rice in a Bain-Marie? No. of Premises

Below 1hour? -

Between 2hours - 4 hours? 2

Between 4 hours - 6 hours? 3

More than 6 hours ? -

Do not know? -

No? 10

How do you reheat your rice? No. of Premises

Microwave ? 14

Steaming? -

Dipped in boiling hot water? 1

Other -

When reheating rice, what temperature do you take it to? No. of Premises

Between 30 oC - 40oC?

> 75 oC? 11

Between 65 oC - 70 oC 3

Between 45oC - 50 oC?

< 63oC?

Don't know? 1

How many of your staffs handle rice? No. Premises

Between 1 - 5 12

Between 6 - 10 3

Don't know? -

How many food handlers have food hygiene training? No. of Premises

1 - 5 15

4 - 10 -

Don't know? -

Did any of your staffs attend an external hygiene course? No. of Premises

Yes 14

No 1

Were your staffs trained in house? No. of Premises

Yes 14

No 1

How many staffs have food hygiene certificates? No. of Premises

1 - 5 15

4 - 10

Don't know?

Do you keep records of all staffs training? No. of Premises

Yes 14

No 1

Do you and your staffs know what Bacillus Cereus is? No. of Premises

Yes 14

No 1

Chapter Four

-

Results

RESULTS

Amount Overall results surveyed

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

The amount of times rice was washed before cooking

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Do you soak your rice before cooking?

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

How long was rice soaked before cooking?

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways.

How do you cook your rice

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Quantity of rice cooked

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Do you cool down your rice after cooking

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

How long does it takes to cool down after cooking

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Do you use fresh rice daily?

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

Caribbean Indian & Chinese restaurants/takeaways

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