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Controlling the Spread of Disease

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Published: Thu, 29 Mar 2018

Cholera

  • Cholera is caused by the bacterium vibrio cholerae, which contaminates food and drinking water
  • This bacterium infects the small intestines with a toxin called CTX , which in turn causes severe diarrhoea
  • Normally present in coastal waters, attaching to crustaceans known as copepods which are found in plankton rich environments

http://research.pomona.edu/jane-liu/files/2012/08/Vibrio-cholerae.jpg

(WordPress, 2014).

  • This bacteria does not always make people ill however, this bacteria may come out in stools, which can contaminate the water supply
  • When vibrio cholerae enters the human body toxic poisons are released, causing diarrhoea
  • The nutrients in the water enables provides ideal condition for the bacteria to multiply

Prevention

  • To prevent contracting cholera use bottled or boiled water when drinking and preparing food and drink
  • Thoroughly washing hands on a regular basis

Malaria: a potentially life threatening disease

The life cycle of malaria

  • Malaria plasmodium parasites have two hosts; female anopheles females and humans
  • Female anopheles mosquitos infected by malaria parasites Inject sporozites into humans whilst feeding on their blood
  • Sporozites then infect cells within the liver; transforming into thousands of merozoites.
  • These merozites travel out of the liver and then invade the red blood cells; where they multiply forming new merozites
  • Red blood cells then burst; this releases merozites which go on to infect other cells
  • Whilst invading red blood cells merozites can develop into gametocytes; which is the sexual reproductive stage.
  • Gametocytes are sucked up by mosquitos when they are feeding; fusing with gametes to make zygotes in the mosquitos gut
  • Zygotes become fertilised and form motile ookinete; which turn into oocyst, these then multiply producing thousands of sporozoites
  • These then move into the salivary gland of the mosquito after around a week; ready to infect humans

So what can be done to protect against malaria? carta_dos_sintomas_da_doenca_mosquito_carregada_da_poster-r104aa96342ca4b668cb0b68a6f6cac4d_aiknp_8byvr_512

  • The use of mosquito nets are commonly used to stop mosquitos from biting as well as the use of insect repellent
  • Some medicines are given to people to help prevent the risk of contracting malaria: doxycycline, proguanil with atovaquone, mefloquine; some of which need to be taken for weeks after return

(disqus, 2014).

Influenza

  • Influenza (flu) is a common viral infection which attacks the nose, throat and lungs (respiratory system)
  • Influenza is air borne and can be transmitted between people if someone has the virus and sneezes, others can inhale this
  • The virus can also be present on objects an infected person has touched
  • Cytokines are produced when the innate immune system starts to respond to the threat these induce responses such as the inflammatory response

Lifecycle

  • The flu enters its host and then invades cells within the respiratory system
  • The virus uses its host cell to replicate its DNA; forcing the cell to make copies of the virus
  • This triggers the body’s immune response which sends white blood cells to the area of infection
  • If not stopped the virus can then break free from the host cell allowing it to infect other cells around the body

220px-Symptoms_of_influenza_svg.png

(fitbuff.com, 2009).

Prevention

  • Vaccinations are offered to protect against influenza but are not one hundred percent effective
  • Washing hands regularly prevents the spread of infection

Athlete’s foot (trichophyton)

  • Trichophyton rubrum causes tinea pedis (athletes foot) which feeds off keratin in the upper layer of the skin, hair and nails
  • Trichophyton rubrum form part of the dermatophytes which is a group of fungi
  • Within four to ten days symptoms appear as a result of body’s inflammatory response; resulting in a red rash on the skin
  • The blistered and itchy skin occurs as a result of the trichophyton reproducing on the skin, particularly they like moist places such as in-between the toes
  • If the fungus infection is not treated it can spread to other areas of the feet such as the toe nails
  • This fungi can be passed from person to person and is prevalent in public showers and swimming pools, where skin particles are left around

Symptoms

  • Skin between the toes can burn and become itchy
  • Early treatment is recommended
  • If untreated in the first instance it can cause the skin to become cracked and infected further with bacteria
  • The fungus infection may cause an unpleasant smell

Prevention

  • Thoroughly washing feet daily and making sure all areas are completely dry before putting socks on
  • Not wearing socks and shoes where possible to allow air to circulate around the feet
  • Changing socks regularly, this is because fungus can multiply on flakes of skin

Bibliography

Advameg. (2014). Athlete’s foot. [online] Available: <http://www.faqs.org/health/topics/2/Athlete-s-foot.html. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Bupa. (2014). Malaria – prevention. [online] Available: <http://www.bupa.co.uk/individuals/health-information/directory/m/malaria-prevention. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Horizon Primary Care. (2012). The Life Cycle of the Flu. [online] Available: <http://horizonprimarycare.com/the-life-cycle-of-the-flu/. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

How stuff works. (2014). How Viruses Work. [online] Available: <http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/cellular-microscopic/virus-human2.htm. Last accessed 25/9/2014>

Interpod Pty Ltd. (2013). What is Tinea Pedis aka Athletes foot? . [online] Available: <http://www.interpod.com.au/symptoms/what-is-tinea-pedis-aka-athletes-foot-diagnosis-treatment-and-pain-relief/. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Live strong. (2014). Life Cycle of Influenza. [online] Available: <http://www.ehow.com/about_5491671_life-cycle-influenza.html. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

malariavaccine. (2014). Life cycle of the malaria parasite. [online] Available: <http://www.malariavaccine.org/malvac-lifecycle.php. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

malaria.wellcome. (2014). The malaria lifecycle. [online] Available: <http://malaria.wellcome.ac.uk/interactive/parasitelifecycle/interactive.html. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2014). Cholera. [online] Available: <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cholera/basics/causes/con-20031469. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2013). Influenza (flu). [online] Available: <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/flu/basics/definition/con-20035101. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

medicalnewstoday. (2013). What Is Cholera? What Causes Cholera?. [online] Available: <http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/189269.php. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Medline Plus. (2014). Immune response. [online] Available: <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000821.htm. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

MIMS (NZ) Ltd . (2014). What is tinea?. [online] Available: <http://www.everybody.co.nz/page-c172a44b-7f65-4de9-99d5-1568036d64c5.aspx. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

OurHealthNetwork. (2006). What is athlete’s foot? . [online] Available: <http://www.ourhealthnetwork.com/conditions/FootandAnkle/AthletesFoot.asp. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Patient.co.uk. (2012). Athlete’s Foot (Tinea Pedis). [online] Available: <http://www.patient.co.uk/health/Athlete’s-Foot-(Tinea-Pedis).htm. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Viral zone. (2011). Bacterial viruses biology pages. [online] Available: <http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

virology. (2009). The inflammatory response. [online] Available: <http://www.virology.ws/2009/07/01/the-inflammatory-response/. Last accessed 25/9/2014>

WebMD. (2014). Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis):. Available: <http://www.webmd.boots.com/foot-care/athletes-foot-tinea-pedis. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Wise Geek. (2014). What Is Trichophyton?. [online] Available: <http://www.wisegeekhealth.com/what-is-trichophyton.htm. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

References

disqus. (2014). Body odour reveals malarial infection. Available: http://naijanetworknews.com/?p=390. Last accessed 24/9/2014

fitbuff.com. (2009). 10 Swine Flu Symptoms to Watch Out For. [online] Available: <http://www.fitbuff.com/10-swine-flu-symptoms-to-watch-out-for/. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

WordPress. (2014). Liu Lab Research. Available: http://research.pomona.edu/jane-liu/liu-lab-research/. Last accessed 24/9/2014

  • Rachel Sylvester

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