Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.
Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers.

Any scientific information contained within this essay should not be treated as fact, this content is to be used for educational purposes only and may contain factual inaccuracies or be out of date.

Controlling the Spread of Disease

Info: 2229 words (9 pages) Essay
Published: 29th Mar 2018 in Biology

Reference this

Cholera

  • Cholera is caused by the bacterium vibrio cholerae, which contaminates food and drinking water
  • This bacterium infects the small intestines with a toxin called CTX , which in turn causes severe diarrhoea
  • Normally present in coastal waters, attaching to crustaceans known as copepods which are found in plankton rich environments

http://research.pomona.edu/jane-liu/files/2012/08/Vibrio-cholerae.jpg

(WordPress, 2014).

  • This bacteria does not always make people ill however, this bacteria may come out in stools, which can contaminate the water supply
  • When vibrio cholerae enters the human body toxic poisons are released, causing diarrhoea
  • The nutrients in the water enables provides ideal condition for the bacteria to multiply

Prevention

  • To prevent contracting cholera use bottled or boiled water when drinking and preparing food and drink
  • Thoroughly washing hands on a regular basis

Malaria: a potentially life threatening disease

The life cycle of malaria

  • Malaria plasmodium parasites have two hosts; female anopheles females and humans
  • Female anopheles mosquitos infected by malaria parasites Inject sporozites into humans whilst feeding on their blood
  • Sporozites then infect cells within the liver; transforming into thousands of merozoites.
  • These merozites travel out of the liver and then invade the red blood cells; where they multiply forming new merozites
  • Red blood cells then burst; this releases merozites which go on to infect other cells
  • Whilst invading red blood cells merozites can develop into gametocytes; which is the sexual reproductive stage.
  • Gametocytes are sucked up by mosquitos when they are feeding; fusing with gametes to make zygotes in the mosquitos gut
  • Zygotes become fertilised and form motile ookinete; which turn into oocyst, these then multiply producing thousands of sporozoites
  • These then move into the salivary gland of the mosquito after around a week; ready to infect humans

So what can be done to protect against malaria? carta_dos_sintomas_da_doenca_mosquito_carregada_da_poster-r104aa96342ca4b668cb0b68a6f6cac4d_aiknp_8byvr_512

  • The use of mosquito nets are commonly used to stop mosquitos from biting as well as the use of insect repellent
  • Some medicines are given to people to help prevent the risk of contracting malaria: doxycycline, proguanil with atovaquone, mefloquine; some of which need to be taken for weeks after return

(disqus, 2014).

Influenza

  • Influenza (flu) is a common viral infection which attacks the nose, throat and lungs (respiratory system)
  • Influenza is air borne and can be transmitted between people if someone has the virus and sneezes, others can inhale this
  • The virus can also be present on objects an infected person has touched
  • Cytokines are produced when the innate immune system starts to respond to the threat these induce responses such as the inflammatory response

Lifecycle

  • The flu enters its host and then invades cells within the respiratory system
  • The virus uses its host cell to replicate its DNA; forcing the cell to make copies of the virus
  • This triggers the body’s immune response which sends white blood cells to the area of infection
  • If not stopped the virus can then break free from the host cell allowing it to infect other cells around the body

220px-Symptoms_of_influenza_svg.png

(fitbuff.com, 2009).

Prevention

  • Vaccinations are offered to protect against influenza but are not one hundred percent effective
  • Washing hands regularly prevents the spread of infection

Athlete’s foot (trichophyton)

  • Trichophyton rubrum causes tinea pedis (athletes foot) which feeds off keratin in the upper layer of the skin, hair and nails
  • Trichophyton rubrum form part of the dermatophytes which is a group of fungi
  • Within four to ten days symptoms appear as a result of body’s inflammatory response; resulting in a red rash on the skin
  • The blistered and itchy skin occurs as a result of the trichophyton reproducing on the skin, particularly they like moist places such as in-between the toes
  • If the fungus infection is not treated it can spread to other areas of the feet such as the toe nails
  • This fungi can be passed from person to person and is prevalent in public showers and swimming pools, where skin particles are left around

Symptoms

  • Skin between the toes can burn and become itchy
  • Early treatment is recommended
  • If untreated in the first instance it can cause the skin to become cracked and infected further with bacteria
  • The fungus infection may cause an unpleasant smell

Prevention

  • Thoroughly washing feet daily and making sure all areas are completely dry before putting socks on
  • Not wearing socks and shoes where possible to allow air to circulate around the feet
  • Changing socks regularly, this is because fungus can multiply on flakes of skin

Bibliography

Advameg. (2014). Athlete's foot. [online] Available: <http://www.faqs.org/health/topics/2/Athlete-s-foot.html. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Bupa. (2014). Malaria – prevention. [online] Available: <http://www.bupa.co.uk/individuals/health-information/directory/m/malaria-prevention. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Horizon Primary Care. (2012). The Life Cycle of the Flu. [online] Available: <http://horizonprimarycare.com/the-life-cycle-of-the-flu/. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

How stuff works. (2014). How Viruses Work. [online] Available: <http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/cellular-microscopic/virus-human2.htm. Last accessed 25/9/2014>

Interpod Pty Ltd. (2013). What is Tinea Pedis aka Athletes foot? . [online] Available: <http://www.interpod.com.au/symptoms/what-is-tinea-pedis-aka-athletes-foot-diagnosis-treatment-and-pain-relief/. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Live strong. (2014). Life Cycle of Influenza. [online] Available: <http://www.ehow.com/about_5491671_life-cycle-influenza.html. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

malariavaccine. (2014). Life cycle of the malaria parasite. [online] Available: <http://www.malariavaccine.org/malvac-lifecycle.php. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

malaria.wellcome. (2014). The malaria lifecycle. [online] Available: <http://malaria.wellcome.ac.uk/interactive/parasitelifecycle/interactive.html. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2014). Cholera. [online] Available: <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cholera/basics/causes/con-20031469. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2013). Influenza (flu). [online] Available: <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/flu/basics/definition/con-20035101. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

medicalnewstoday. (2013). What Is Cholera? What Causes Cholera?. [online] Available: <http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/189269.php. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Medline Plus. (2014). Immune response. [online] Available: <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000821.htm. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

MIMS (NZ) Ltd . (2014). What is tinea?. [online] Available: <http://www.everybody.co.nz/page-c172a44b-7f65-4de9-99d5-1568036d64c5.aspx. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

OurHealthNetwork. (2006). What is athlete's foot? . [online] Available: <http://www.ourhealthnetwork.com/conditions/FootandAnkle/AthletesFoot.asp. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Patient.co.uk. (2012). Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis). [online] Available: <http://www.patient.co.uk/health/Athlete's-Foot-(Tinea-Pedis).htm. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Viral zone. (2011). Bacterial viruses biology pages. [online] Available: <http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

virology. (2009). The inflammatory response. [online] Available: <http://www.virology.ws/2009/07/01/the-inflammatory-response/. Last accessed 25/9/2014>

WebMD. (2014). Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis):. Available: <http://www.webmd.boots.com/foot-care/athletes-foot-tinea-pedis. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

Wise Geek. (2014). What Is Trichophyton?. [online] Available: <http://www.wisegeekhealth.com/what-is-trichophyton.htm. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

References

disqus. (2014). Body odour reveals malarial infection. Available: http://naijanetworknews.com/?p=390. Last accessed 24/9/2014

fitbuff.com. (2009). 10 Swine Flu Symptoms to Watch Out For. [online] Available: <http://www.fitbuff.com/10-swine-flu-symptoms-to-watch-out-for/. Last accessed 24/9/2014>

WordPress. (2014). Liu Lab Research. Available: http://research.pomona.edu/jane-liu/liu-lab-research/. Last accessed 24/9/2014

  • Rachel Sylvester

1

 

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: