Comparison of X Chromosomes of Bovidae Animals and Humans
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- Kristy Martin
"Do you want to know the gender now, or are you keeping it a surprise?", the nurse asked. The couple shook their head and eagerly clasped hands. The nurse then responded, "It's-- a boy." The father did a victory dance, and the mother smiled. When an organism reproduces sexually, then the gender is determined by the sex chromosomes received during fertilization. The female's egg carries an X chromosome, and the egg gains the other chromosome when met with the sperm. The sperm carries either an X or a Y chromosome. However, the X chromosome is present in both female (XX) and male (XY). The X chromosome contains chromatin, which is composed of DNA and proteins. Proximately cognate species may contain kindred chromosomes. Overtime, mutations occur to genes which can lead to future vicissitudes in the chromosomes. In their journal article, "Advanced comparative cytogenetic analysis of X chromosomes in river buffalo, cattle, sheep, and human", Percucatti et al. investigate the evolutionary progress in X chromosome morphology and anchor loci of the Bovidae family utilizing a minuscule sample size of blood from sheep, river buffalo, and domestic cattle.
Percucatti et al. explore the X chromosome of three Bovidae farm animals in an endeavor to refine the river buffalo X chromosome (BBUX) and domestic cattle X chromosome (BTAX) genetic maps. However, their effort was not only to ameliorate the X chromosome genome maps, but to discover more commensurable anchored locations within the chromosomes. Percucatti et al. state, autosome's structure infrequently change, but the sex chromosomes in Bovidae have a more intricate rearrangement within the chromosomes in comparison to lineal Bovinae chromosomes (p4). Many cytogenetic maps of the Bovidae family have been preserved throughout the ages and recently updated (Percucatti et al. p4). None of the maps marked the X chromosome through genetic location. Scientists are generally unaware of the route of the evolution. Percucatti et al. craved a more comprehensive map of the evolution of BTAX and BBUX to compare to ORAX and HSAX. The scientists found an Ovis aries X chromosome map with equal distribution of loci that had been relinquished (p1). Percucatti et al. then combined the locations from the ORAX map with FISH to determine the DNA sequence and gene locations in the BBU and BTA X chromosomes. The blood samples underwent metaphase and had sundry coalescences infused to increment the metaphase count. Each FISH probe and BAC had 30 metaphase slides to examine. BBUX, BTAX, and HSAX were then compared to HSAX. After each slide had been examined, the results proved to be fruitful. Twenty-five DNA sequence locations were integrated to BBUX and BTAX maps. Seven never before discovered locations were added to ORAX map. The results validated Percucatti et al.'s hypothesis, and expanded anchor locations for future comparison. The BBUX and BTAX maps followed a similar pattern to the HSAX map, which proved various conclusions between X chromosomes evolving similar to a HSAX. Percucatti et al. focused on the X chromosome of sheep, river buffalo, and cattle to enhance the genetic maps and comparable data.
Percucatti et al. hypothesized, if the sex chromosomes in river buffalo and cattle have evolved over a period of time, then the differences in the DNA sequence will be conspicuous compared to past genetic mapping. The experiment was tested through the utilization of "fluorescence in-situ hybridization". FISH consists of a probe with a BAC. The BAC is destabilized and annexes to the other strand of DNA within the chromosome. The fluorescence part of the probe illuminates the sequence. The process of FISHing detects the "needle in the haystack." The main independent variables consisted of twenty-eight bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that were assigned to FISH probes for BBUX and BTAX. Seven of which provided no subsidiary data to the experiment's result (Percucatti et al. p6). The twenty-one BACs that remained serviceable were: 347F23, 501I14, 57B9, 116D23, 63H19, 372K8, 376P14, 413F22, 232A8, 32G13, 450P3, 501E21, 44C1, 444J2, 465D8, 493E12, 511H13, 395L21, 79E19, 15O16*, and 82B6 (Percucatti et al. p7). The response variables consisted of the gene DNA sequences determined by the BAC Fish probe within the sample blood metaphase plates. Percucatti et al. tested their hypothesis on their DNA sequences through their experiment utilizing FISH.
No adscititious testing was indispensable. Percucatti et al.'s hypothesis was fortified by the results. The addition of twenty-five loci to the BBUX and BTAX maps validated the homogeneous loci between them and the ORAX and HSAX map. The maps of BBUX and BTAX had locations that were different compared to past FISH and cytogenetic maps. The loci discovered for BBUX and BTAX were different than their lineal maps. The evidence therefore supporting that the present maps have transmuted from the past maps. Thus, sanctioning avail in future evolutionary sex chromosome medical research and a refined cytogenetic map of the X chromosome for river buffalo, and cattle. The research was an overall prosperity.
No large imperfections or errors occurred in the researchers utilization of scientific method. The only small issue had involved four of seven BACs that provided no information useful for the BBUX or BTAX. However, the lack of information from Percucatti et al.'s research caused the data to end up ill presented. The article was very dry at particular areas, and lacked certain information to allow the reader to fully comprehend the situation of the experiment. While, the article explained background information on the chromosomes of the Bovidae family, the article lacked a general sense of stability. The article jumped from the comparison of BBUX and BTAX to the comparison of all three Bovidae animals to HSAX (Percucatti et al. p4). The article rarely mentioned the purpose of the comparison of HSAX. Thus, leaving the reading to assume the reasoning of comparison for HSAX to the Bovidae family's X chromosome for future medical projects. The article's information was sufficient, but ultimately could have been written more promptly.
The German Research Foundation funded the research with no conflicts of interest. Angela Perucatti, Viviana Genualdo, Alessandra Iannuzzi, and Leopoldo Iannuzzi work together on the "Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics and Gene Mapping, National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Animal Production Systems in Mediterranean Environments (ISPAAM)" in Tuscany, Italy (Dr. Ijad and Dr. Sören). Dino Di Berardino is in the University of Naples Feerico II in Campania, Italy (Dr. Ijad and Dr. Sören). While, Tom Goldammer is Head of FISH Genetics Unit, a research unit in molecular biology, and in "Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN) in Dummerstorf Germany (Dr. Ijad and Dr. Sören). All of the authors range from 24 publications to 123 publications. Each has seemed to collaborate on an abundance of publications together on X chromosomes, cytogenetics, and genomic molecular structures.
Percucatti et al.'s research would be a venture considered to be funded because information pertaining evolution in chromosomes may be auxiliary to future medical research. Human X chromosomes advanced from regular autosomes. The BBUX and BTAX evolved on their own. The X chromosome may withal have a eminent role in how the brain goes about tasks and astuteness. The X chromosome may additionally affect sperm engenderment. Lastly, the X chromosome can cause diseases such as hemophilia. During this test, Peerucatti et al. investigated the evolution of the X chromosomes, and found anchor locations in which they can compare. This test is the commencement of the evolutionary chromosome progress, and now is inspiriting future projects. Ascertaining how the chromosome evolves could be extraordinary and utilizable in comparison to humans. If scientists can understand how the chromosome has evolved, they can harness that cognizance and endeavor to evolve human X chromosomes. Thus, sanctioning X chromosomal diseases to be eschewed. Ultimately, this project is leading to future comparisons of other vertebrates and sanctioning scientists to comprehend the evolutionary progress.
Percucatti et al.'s research of development within the sex chromosomes of river buffalo and cattle was a prosperity. The results sanction future research into the evolutionary progress of the X chromosome. If the X chromosome is linked to how the brain's operational system, then why not evolve human chromosomes to increment perspicacity? Children struggle in school systems, and scientists perform experiments every day. If scientists progress and learn how river buffalo and cattle's X chromosomes have evolved, then they can utilize that data to advance human X chromosomes. The possibilities are illimitable, in lieu of inventing "the snuggie", a genius would have the astronomical cognizance to engender a hover car. Perhaps, even avert diseases that occur from the X chromosome. Evolution never ceases, and humans should never hesitate to cerebrate about advancing. Advancement lead humans to technology, and to today's society. Humans are raised to perpetually grow and to expand their erudition throughout their life until the day they cease to subsist.
Perucatti, A., et al. "Advanced Comparative Cytogenetic Analysis of X Chromosomes in River Buffalo, Cattle, Sheep, and Human." Chromosome Research 20.4 (2012): 413-25. ProQuest. Web. 3 Mar. 2015.
Madisch, Ijad, Dr, and Sören Hofmayer, Dr. "Angela Perucatti." ResearchGate. ResearchGate Corporation, n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. "Viviana Genualdo." ResearchGate. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2015.
Madisch, Ijad, Dr, and Sören Hofmayer, Dr. "Leopoldo Iannuzzi." ResearchGate. ResearchGate Corporation, n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015.
Madisch, Ijad, Dr, and Sören Hofmayer, Dr. "Alessandra Iannuzzi." ResearchGate. ResearchGate Corporation, n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015.
Madisch, Ijad, Dr, and Sören Hofmayer, Dr. "Dino Di Berardio." ResearchGate. ResearchGate Corporation, n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015.
Madisch, Ijad, Dr, and Sören Hofmayer, Dr. "Tom Goldammer." ResearchGate. ResearchGate Corporation, n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015.
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