Common Mineral Deficiency Disorders In Poultry Biology Essay

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Calcium is Required for healthy bones and teeth, muscle contraction, as well as nerve impulse stimulation, and also for the clotting of blood some other important works also like cardiac rhythm, and hormone secretion. Nearly about 99% of the body calcium present in bones and teeth. Although Laying hens require significant amount for production of egg shells. Found in dairy foods, seafood and green leafy vegetables, sea vegetables (arame, dulse, hijki, kelp, wakame), molasses, nuts, almonds, asparagus, broccoli, buttermilk, cabbage, carob, cheese, shell fish, kale, oats, parsley, prunes, whey, tofu and yogurt.

Symptoms of deficiency

it include Rickets(young animals). Osteoporosis in older animals. brittle fingernails, eczema, Milk fever is also usually seem or lambing sickness is a symptoms. due to deficiency of calcium, hypertension, insomnia, Thin-shelled eggs, drop in egg production, fragile bones, headaches and lowered hatchability in poultry also occur ,osteomalacia, osteoporosis, osteopenia, periodontal disease

The calcium to phosphorus ratio is important. Vitamin D is critical for the calcium absorption because a deficiency of vitamin D in the feed prevents the proper utilization of calcium.

And also excess calcium reduces the absorption and utilization of Zinc. Infect Excess magnesium will also decrease the calcium absorption, and replaces calcium in the bones, so increases calcium excretion.




Phosphorus has a lot of function in animal body

Part of bone structure, Component of some proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, Energy metabolism, phosphorus in most foods, especially asparagus, bran, corn, so in dairy products, eggs, fish, dried fruit, garlic, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, meats, poultry, salmon, soda, wheat bran some what in whole grains.

Symptoms of deficiency

There are huge areas where phosphorus is deficient in soils ,in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world, and the deficiency of phosphorus is the most widespread of all the mineral disorders which is mostly affect the grazing livestock, nervous disorders, Rickets (young animals), irregular breathing, heart and kidney problems, osteomalacia in older animals, animals will chew wood, bones, rags etc,Stiff joints, bone pain, Bone and tooth problems, muscular weakness, Poor fertility, Low growth rates, Phosphorus is very essential for helping the body to utilize vitamins and to convert food to energy, As well balance of magnesium, also involved in Diets high in junk food,


Cereal grains, Fish meal and bone products

The phosphorus in cereals and in other plants are present in the form of phytate. Phytate is a compound which binds the phosphorus to makes phosphorus unavailable for pigs and poultry. In sheep and goats, the rumen micro-floras break down the phytate to ensure the phosphorus availability to the sheep and goat. Therefore Phosphorus in cereals is used much more efficiently by sheep and goats than by pigs and poultry.


Potassium include dairy foods, fish, fruit, meat, poultry and vegetables, whole grains, apricots, avocado, bananas, brown rice, cantaloupe, carrot juice, dates, figs, dried fruit, garlic, lima beans, nuts, peaches, potatoes, raisins, wheat bran and yams. Potassium is important in Maintaining the right concentration of salts in the body fluids, and the acid balance of the body, Involved in nerve signals

Symptoms of deficiency

symptoms are generally rare because the potassium is relatively present in small amount in plants, Acne, constipation, decreased blood pressure, dry skin, Brazil, Panama and Uganda are those country where potassium content are relatively less. Which may lead to potassium deficiency in grazing animals especially at the end of the dry season, Low growth, weakness, paralysis and death, continuous thirst, increased cholesterol, insomnia, vomiting and diarrhea can significantly contribute to the body's need for potassium.

Excess potassium is normally secreted from the body through maturation. High intake of dietary potassium may inhibit magnesium absorption and cause magnesium deficiency.


all foods contain sodium. Celery, cheese, eggs, meat, milk and milk products, miso, poultry, processed foods, salt, seafood and sea vegetables.


It involves maintenance of salt concentration in body fluids, Maintenance of acid-base balance, Transmission of nerve impulses

Symptoms of deficiency

Sodium is necessary for maintaining the proper water balance and blood pH ,It is present all over the world especially in tropical areas of Africa. Dehydration, low blood sugar, eye disturbances, cramps, Poor growth, heart palpitations and heart attack appetite loss, It is also needed for stomach, decreased resistance to infection, vomiting, weakness

Common salt, Plants is relatively poor sources of sodium.


Chlorine is responsible for Acid-base balance, and it maintains the salt concentration

Symptoms of deficiency

Deficiency symptoms includes Alkalosis (excessive bicarbonate in the blood),retarded growth in extreme cases.

Common salt

Salt is important in the diet of livestock and as well as in human , but excusive amount of salt in the diet is harmful. Salt poisoning is very common, especially when the drinking water is limited. Diets containing high concentrations of salt (40 g/kg for hens, just 20 g/kg for chicks and pigs) will kill the animal if the supply of water is limited.


Sulphur is present in Brussels sprouts, dried beans, cabbage, eggs, garlic, fish, meats, and onions.

Sulphur is a part of some amino acids, which are rich in keratin protein (e.g. that forms hooves, horn and hair).

The deficiency of sulphur will lead the deficiency of protein in the diet.

Symptom of deficiency

It includes increased risks of infection against different bacteria , Dryness of skin gives place to the perasites, poor resistance to bacterial infection. It aids in oxidation reactions, Sulfur is essential to disinfecting the blood and resisting bacteria, stimulates bile secretions in the liver and protects against toxic substances.


Magnesium is available in all type of feed stuff but mostly in dairy products, and marine food ,fish meat, rice, bananas, apples, garlic, apricots, figs, sesame seeds, peaches ,salmon,


* the main function of magnesium is that is component of the skeleton

*and it is very important for carbohydrate and fat metabolism


It affects nearly all the systems of body but especially immune system, digestive system, reproductive system, and nervous systems, heart, nerves, and its increased amount also affect the teeth. Arteries, bones and cells

Symptoms of Deficiency


Muscle tremors,

If animal is restricted to this mineral so animal may Paralyzed and death,

If the magnesium requirement of animal will not full fill so Aching on muscles are usually seem,



Laxatives, broken nails,

Vomiting and diarrhea can significantly contribute to the body's need for magnesium,

Extra amount of this mineral may cause the hair loss,

Hyperactivity animal become allergic,

Easily aroused anger,

Heart disease and ultimately blood pressure problems,

Disruption in proper pH balance,

Plays an important role in the formation of bone, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism


Iron is found in eggs, egg yolks, clams, enriched breads and cereals, fish liver, kidney and lima beans, meat, poultry, dark green vegetables, pumpkins,


*iron is a component of haemoglobin

*play vital role in energy metabolism


Iron mainly affect the Blood, bones, metabolic system, muscles, skin and edges of the appendages like nails and also affect the teeth

Deficiency symptoms

Dry or falling-out hair,

Inflamed tongue is usually seem,

Deficiency of iron may cause Brittle nails,

Iron is vital for its production of hemoglobin and oxygenation of red blood cells

Anaemia is main symptom of deficiency of iron it looks pale pink membranes round the eye.

Small pigs are very keen to anaemia. Pigs which are suffering from anemia also have poor appetite and growth,

In iron deficiency Breathing difficulties are widely noticed

Toxicity of iron is usual


Zinc has been found in every tissue in the animal body. fish, meats, poultry, High concentrations are found in the skin, hair and wool; soybeans, wheat, the highest concentration is found in semen. pecans, pumpkin seeds, Zinc accumulates in the bone, unlike all the other trace elements that tend to accumulate in the liver. seafood and whole grains,


* zinc is found in several enzymes

* Iit is also used in cell replication

* it is very important in the maintenance of immune system

* it is also observed that it is required in maintaining salt balance.


Blood, bones, eyes, heart, and joints, as it are important for hormone so they affect the liver, and prostate gland.

Symptoms of Deficiency

Decreased learning ability,



Prolonged wound healing,

The requirements for zinc are not high and zinc is widely distributed in feeds.

Low appetite, reddening of skin which then erupts and forms scabs

It cause in Delayed sexual maturity,

Poor circulation is also a symptom of zinc,

Difficulty to remember things

Growth of animal is become retarded,

Foot may curl because of zinc deficiency,

‘Frizzled’ feathers,

Inflammation of the nose and mouth,

Stiffness of the joints,

Swollen feet

zinc toxicity is rare. Large amounts of zinc in the diet reduce feed consumption and may induce copper deficiency.