Collection Of Raw Material Biology Essay


Research was conducted in the Department of Food Technology Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi. To produce high protein baby food with the help of wheat in combination with different bean sources was the objective of research.


For the preparation of product all the raw material including peanuts, beans like soybean wheat flour, and red kidney beans were from nearest local market. All the chemicals were especially of the analytical grade for the analytical purpose


By using wheat in combination with different sources of protein in the red kidney beans or peanut and soybean form, the following treatments were used (Table 1). For each protein source with wheat flour combination, separate treatments were used. Depending upon the protein source, each baby foods were composed of three treatments.

In each sample, the nitrogen content was determined by Kjeldhal process which was mentioned in AACC (2000), Method No. 46-10. Percentage of crude protein was measured through multiplication of nitrogen by 6.25 (factor). 2 g moisture free sample was digested in the presence of conc. H2SO4 ( K2SO4, FeSO4 and CuSO4 and in ratio of 94:1:5 in the digestion mixture. Later than the process of digestion, extraected then dilute upto 250ml of volume. Approximately sample of 10 ml taken and then take 40% NaOH into 4% boric acid for the distillation of the previously diluted material after this process of titration done with 0.1N H2SO4 until the light pink color was appeared.

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Nitrogen % was determined by using following formula:

[(mL std acid- normality acid)-(mL std NaOH)] - 1.4007

Nitrogen (%) = - 100

Wt. of sample

Protein (%) = (% Nitrogen - 6.25)

3.4.3 Percentage crude fat

Determination of The fat content was done by solvent of petroleum ether utilization in apparatus of Soxhlet as to describe process in AACC (2000) method No. 30-10.

Following formula was used for the calculation of crude fat:

Crude fat (%) = Weight of fat - 100

Wt. of original sample

3.4.4 Percentage ash content

Baby food of each dry sample was carefully put in Muffle furnace approximately at 550 ËšC at least for 5 hr as mentioned in AACC (2000) method No. 08-01. For calculation of ash content, 1 g sample over low flame was burnt and then temperature of 550 °C in a apparatus for 5 hours was given to the sample. Ash percentage was calculated by using following formula:

Ash (%) = Wt. of sample after ashing - 100

Wt. of sample

3.4.5 Percentage of Crude Fiber

The determination of fiber content present in subjected food done as the method mentioned in AACC (2000), method No. 32-10.01. The digestion of 2 g sample which were previously moisture and fat free digested by using 1.25 % H2SO4 for at least 30 min which was followed by filtration process and washing residues with the help of 200 ml hot distilled H20. Then these chemicals free extract then again transferred into digestion flask and digested with 1.25 % NaOH for 30 minutes. Boiling water was used for washing of filtered residues. The residues were transferred in a crucible and then dried in hot air oven at 130ËšC for 2 hr. The crucible was carefully weighed after cooling process. The crucible's contents were ignited at 600ËšC for 30 minutes in the muffle furnace and again weighed.

Crude fiber was calculated by using following formula:

W1- W2

Crude fiber (%) = - 100

Wt. of sample

W1 = weight of crucible after drying process

W2 = weight of crucible after burning process in muffle furnace

3.4.6 Nitrogen Free Extract

Free nitrogen extract was determined according to the following formula:

NFE (%) = 100 - (moisture % + crude protein % + crude fat % + crude fiber % + ash %)

3.4.7 Mineral Determination

Minerals including Ca, Zn, K, and Fe were calculated by using AACC (2000) Method No. 40-70 with the help of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Model GBC 932 PLUS, UK). Wet digestion of samples was done with the help of method used by Richard (1969) before them through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. 0.5g moisture free sample was then digested by using acids HCLO4 and HNO3 in a ratio of 3:7 at 195ËšC untill transparent solution of 1-2 ml was remained. Then transfer the solution in volumetric flask of 100 ml and make volume.


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Viscosity and specific gravity in the product was analyzed by using the following method.

3.5.1 Specific Gravity

Specific gravity present in the product was calculated by measuring the ratio between standard container which was filled with sample of product (W2) and by using another same container filled with H2O (W1). Specific gravity was calculated by suing the following formula:

SG = W2/W1

3.5.2 Viscosity

The viscosity present in the product was calculated by Brookfield viscometer by spindle No.4 at 100 rpm. An appropriate spindle was carefully attached with the instrument. A beaker of 50 ml which contained batter was adjusted under spindle of viscometer and then measured the viscosity.


Panel containing 6 judges was used to evaluate the bean based product ready to eat baby food, for flavor, texture, color and the overall acceptability measured through hedonic scale as mentioned by Larmond (1977).


The mean values Significant difference calculated by using two way of analysis variance (ANOVA) and then through the software STATISTIC version 8.1. In case of any significant difference among the treatment, then DMRT used mentioned by Steel et al., (1997).