The aim of present study was to produce the sweet, Junnu by artificial method by capturing the coagulative properties of a specific plant's extract. In general it is prepared from colostrum, which is nutritious and known to contain immunoglobins. However obtaining colostrum is difficult for any dairy industry, because colostrum will be only for 1-2 weeks after a cow give birth to the calf. Moreover it is difficult to produce the sweet in large quantity as the colostrum availability limits it.
In our study, 'Junnu' is prepared from normal milk as source by adding specific plant's latex (already identified). There is no need for searching for pregnant cows and it can be produced throughout the year with or without the much carbohydrates. We quantified the ratios of the latex by studying the coagulation at various amounts of latex, thereby contributing to optimal product development. We also have found and compared the variation in the protein level of the colostrum, normal milk, original junnu and artificial junnu.
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Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It provides the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. The early lactation milk is known as colostrum, and carries the mother's antibodies to the baby. It can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. The exact components of raw milk vary by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as vitamin C. Cow's milk has a pH ranging from 6.4 to 6.8, making it slightly acidic (William H. Bowen and Ruth A. Lawrence). Dairy products represent an increasing share of the food products consumed in the present world. The nutritional value of these products is related to the milk utilized and to the eventual presence of other ingredients (milk powder, sugar, etc.).
The latex is collected from a specific plant which is toxic and is one of the few plants not consumed by the grazing animals. Due to its toxicity the latex extracted from the stem was traditionally used to make poison arrows. The extracts from different parts of the ark plant are of much healing value. The whole plant when dried and consumed is a good tonic, anti-helminthic and an expectorant. The bark latex is processed and finds use in treating vertigo, baldness, hair fall, tooth aches, intermittent fevers, rheumatoid /joint swellings and paralysis. Besides Ayurveda, Homeopathy also makes use of this plant as medicine. This latex is not harmful at low concentrations and moreover it has medicinal properties but it is dangerous at high concentrations.
Preparation of the milk and colostrum sample
1ml milk is collected and diluted to 10-1 and then centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 20 min at 40C. The centrifugation step is repeated with the supernatant for 4 times. The same procedure is repeated with colostrum. These are used as test sample.
Preparation of the Junnu sample
The 'junnu' is prepared using the method we have discussed below. Then 1g of it is collected and mixed thoroughly with 9ml of distilled water (10-1 dilution). Then it is centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 20 min at 40C. The centrifugation step is repeated with the supernatant for 4 times. The same procedure is followed for the both original and artificial junnu.
Preparation of crude enzyme from plant's latex
The latex was collected in a clean glass beaker from the plant. This latex was diluted with distilled water to 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4 and 10-5. The supernatant was decanted and centrifuged at 12,000g for 20 min at 40C. The clear supernatant was decanted and used as the coagulant.
Working Concept (Artificial Junnu preparation)
We are utilizing the capability of specific plant latex in coagulating the common milk to form into similarly dense sweet like 'Junnu'. This is the basic procedure we have followed to prepare the sweet.
The protein concentration in the supernatant was estimated according to the method of Lowry et al. (1951) and used as crude enzyme source.
1 ml of the diltuted plant extract
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Cooling at room temperature
1 hour hhour
10 min hhour
Added with 15 g of milk powder
500 ml of Milk (vessel)
2-3 spoons of sugar
This is the protocol we have developed and obtained the expected results.
We have performed the experiment for three times and reproduced the same expected results. Then we have performed the same protocol with the milk prepared from milk powder. We did not get the expected texture of the sweet, however it is semi-solid. We are going to perform the experiment again to obtain the results with the milk prepared from the milk powder.
The milk is treated with various dilutions of the Latex extract to find out the minimum dilution required for the coagulation process.
Table 1: Coagulation observed with various concentrations of latex.
By performing these dilutions with the plant extract we arrived to a conclusion that the dilutions of 10-1 and 10-2 had shown thick coagulation of the milk, but 10-3 dilution showed it partially. But the dilutions 10-4 and above could not coagulate the milk.
Lowry's Method: The Lowry's reagent is freshly prepared and used for the process to find the protein concentration.
Table 2: The reading obtained from the lowry's method and the respective Wt%
Make it to 500Âµl by adding Distilled water
500 Âµl of Lowry's reagent
10 min @ RT
150Âµl of Folin ciocalteau
Mix it well
30 min @ RT
O.D @ 630nm
The latex of the plant has a pH 4.7, making it acidic in nature. To determine the shelf life of the latex we kept it at 40C and collected the observed the coagulation.
Table 3: Observation of the latex shelf-life
Not so good
The latex of the plant is a rich source of useful components that has medicinal properties and one of the main applications is in controlling bleeding. The crude latex extract contained many proteins, which are highly basic in nature and exhibited strong proteolytic activity. The crude extract hydrolyses casein, human fibrinogen and crude fibrin clot in a dose dependent manner (R. Rajesh et.al). Interest in production of various nutritious food products is increasing day by day. The present and future generations need the precaution and the cure for various diseases.
The sweet that we are preparing is for compensating the lack of such edible food products in market. This sweet works like a good tonic, anti-helminthic and an expectorant, as it has latex. The proteolytic enzymes are gaining importance because of wide variety of physiological activities exhibited by them. Indirectly, these pharmacological actions are attributed to the proteolytic enzymes of the latex. Several cysteine proteases are isolated and characterized from the latex of C. gigantea, but their pharmacological actions are not known yet (Abraham and Joshi, 1979; Senugupta et al., 1984).
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