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Climate change could affect growth and the survival of pathogens as well as its transmission pathways (FAO, 2008). Increase in environmental temperature may increase the replication cycle of food-borne pathogens. In Europe "temperature misuse", about 32% of investigated food-borne outbreaks are considered a contributing factor (Tirado C et al., 2001).
Salmonellosis is the second largest human food-borne diseases that cause by Salmonella spp bacteria. Salmonella is one of the most common agents that responsible for food-borne disease outbreaks. cCASHh study on food-borne illness show that, usually the, case of salmonellosis will be rising 5-10% for each one-degree increase in weekly temperature, with environmental temperature above 5ËšC (WHO Europe, 2004, p24).Listen The effect of temperature is most noticeable when the temperature in the week before the onset of illness is considered, it shows the food preparation and storage rather than time of consumption is the most important factor (WHO Europe, 2004, p24).Listen
The Australian studies, based in Queensland, they are showed that there are positive association between salmonellosis and temperature (D'Souza R et al., 2004). There have relationship between monthly salmonellosis report and temperature in five Australian cities (D'Souza et al 2003). Changes in ambient temperature can be said as cause and reason with estimate 30% cases salmonellosis has been reported at ten nations of Europe, with increase as much as 5-10% salmonella infections for each 1Â°C rise in weekly temperatures above 5Â°C (Stockholm, 2007). There were being estimated that temperature influences the spreading of infections with 35% cases salmonellosis in England and Wales, Poland, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Switzerland and Spain (Stockholm, 2007).
Campylobacteriosis is an infectious disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni. These bacteria also known as Campylobacter enteritis or gastroenteritis. There is incidence in the European Union in 2007 that was 45.2 cases per 100,000 population (200,507 confirmed cases) and broiler meats as we as fresh poultry meat were the biggest identified sources of infections (EFSA Journal 2009). Patrick ME et al. (2004) have found a finding positive related to campylobacter infection with temperature, with hard impact being for increasing within 4 weeks in Denmark (Patrick ME et al., 2004). He also found that, the incidence of campylobacteriosis in Denmark has risen since 1992, and reaching 4620 cases (86 cases per 100,000 people) in 2001). Geographic differences in seasonal peak suggest that climate may be one factor contributing to the transmission of Campylobacter (Kovats RS et al., 2005).
The study also has been shown that usually campylobacter infection inside broiler chicken during slaughtering have positive association with temperature in 3 weeks earlier. Increase in campylobacter number in poultry expected that possibility hot weather might be the one of the factors inherent the association between incidence and temperature in humans (Patrick ME et al., 2004). There is also evidence which states that availability positive relationship between campylobacteriosis in human and temperature that was notified for England and Wales (Louis et al., 2005). The combination of higher average temperatures and many hours exposed to sunlight causes the greatest incidence campylobacteriosis (Patrick ME et al 2004).
Laboratory studies show that campylobacter only growth in microaerophilic environment and do not multiply in room temperature condition (Altekruse et al., 1999). Recently, it has been suggested that the non-biting flies may play an important role in campylobacter transmission (Nichols, 2005). Fly activity closely related to environmental temperature (Goulson et al., 2005), and flies going to appear in spring with same time to campylobacteriosis cases start to increase. Flies are important sources for infection of campylobateriosis in broiler flocks especially in the summer (Hald et al., 2004). However, the transmission of campylobacteriosis in humans is a complex ecological process with multiple hosts and routes (Skelly and Weinstein, 2003).
Vector- / rodent-borne diseases
Vector-borne disease (VBD) is disease that brought and dispersed through the bite of infected athropod species, such as mosquito, ticks, bugs and flies (Menne B et al., 2006). VBDs are an important health outcomes associated with climate change because of their widespread occurrence and sensitivity to climatic factors (Menne B et al., 2006). VBD can be influenced by weather variation through various way, namely with life's continuity or survival and reproduction rates of vectors, in turn determining their distribution and abundance (Menne B et al., 2006). The intensity and pattern of the vectors also affect their activity which is the rates are particularly biting of the vector during the year as the rates of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens in vectors (Menne B et al., 2006).
1.2.1) West Nile Virus
West Nile Virus (WNV) has emerged or re-emerged in recent years in temperate regions of Europe, North Africa and North America, presenting a threat to public, equine and animal health (Stocholm, 2007, p38). Factors which made WNV have been spread easily including suitable weather condition which is temperature, humidity, their appropriate annual distribution, plenty of mosquito vectors like Culex pipiens pipiens, Cx. Modestus, and Mansonia richiardii, which required suitable breeding ground for mosquito such as stagnant water and rainwater sewage systems with sedment traps (Stockholm, 2007, p39). Main season for WNV on human and horses in Europe is from July to October, with highest in August and September, due to the enhanced seasonal activity of vector mosquitoes (Stockholm, 2007, p39).
Climate change can affect the geographic range of Cx. pipiens in Europe. However, if global weather condition were right, expected that temperature rise can enhance mosquito's vector population (Stockholm, 2007, p39). The ecology, development, behaviort and survival of arthropod vectors and transmission dynamics of arboviruses are strongly influenced by climatic factors (Gubler DJ, Reiter et al., 2001). Temperature determines the speed and success of life cycle of arthropod and the existence of adult, and also decides that replication viruses that spread from mosquito gut is fast enough for the vector to transmit the infection before it dies (Belanger D et al., 2008, p181).