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Introduction: Chronic renal failure also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the increasing failure of the renal vein in the kidney to perform its function. The major function of the kidneys is the removal of waste products and excessive water from the body. When it fails to perform its functions over a period of months or years then the complication is known as renal failure. It becomes chronic and fatal if diagnosed late. The complication worsens over time and if not detected early it might consume the kidneys slowly. Renal failure is a complication that worsens over time because the cells of the kidney are unable to remove waste products or even filter water to produce urine. Delayed treatment of the renal failure can be dangerous because the kidneys get damaged extremely. Chronic renal failure is different from acute renal failure because it can be caused by other complications like high blood pressure, diabetes and hypertension (Tolkoff 2007).
Stages: The first stage is manifested by mildly functioning of the kidneys. When one undergoes the creatine test the Glomerular Filtration rate GFR lowers. Patients in this stage can be managed and risk factors can be prevented. Patients are advised to undergo clinical assessment test to prone if there is other accompanied disease like diabetes. This is important also because risk of cardiovascular death increases. One should also refrain from bad habits like smoking. In the second stage, blood pressure increases rapidly. Proteins can be easily found in the urine. Evidence of the kidney structure can be noticed when the patient undergoes the scan (Tolkoff 2007).
The third stage, the renal function is deteriorating. The blood pressure increases rapidly. One is advised to be immunized against influenza because it is fatal to CRF patients. In stage four, the kidney function is severely damaged. There is accumulation of waste products and urea in the blood because they are not filtered by the kidney. The presence of haematuria may suggest increase damage of the kidney. If one avoids bad habits like smoking they can line for a longer period.
In fourth stage, one may start to feel tired or fatigued. The patient starts to swell in the angles and in the hands. Back pain is also another symptom of the CRF especially in the loin. The creatine in blood serum is also high as a sign of reduced failure in the kidney. Blood pressure also is high I this advanced stage of the disease. The disease also affects the digestive system and the result in this stage is a poor digestive system. Also, the patient begins to lose appetite for some meals. Dietary foods for CFR patients are also advised in order to prevent proteins in the food. The final stage, the patient starts to feel weak in the whole body, prolonged headache, thirst, difficult breathing, menstrual cycle changes, the color of skin changes and one has difficult breathing. The only treatment at this stage is kidney transplant because the kidney is severely damaged (Ajay 2007).
There are many causes of the CRF. They include: hypertension which is a vascular disease. Incidences of glomerular hypertension may bring about renal failures. They are; smoking, excessive alcoholism, systematic hypertension and increased injury of the interstites. Acute glomerular diseases like the glomerulonephritis also can cause renal failure. Diabetes is also a major cause of CRF because it causes damage of the cells of the kidneys at a n higher rate. Even though diabetes can be combated to manageable levels it can lead to chronic kidney failure (CKD).As diabetes develops over years the diabetic related failure of the kidney continues. The function of filtering blood from poisons, urea and waste products also decreases. Chronic tuberculosis also can cause renal failure. TB is a disease that mostly infects the lungs but can also affect other organ of the body like the lungs. After the first infection of the kidney symptoms of the renal failure can develop over a long period of time. There are also many causes like the calculi process, amino glycoside therapy and renal nephrosclerosis.
Risk factors: Chronic renal failure is associated by many risk factors. One of them is obesity. This is a caused by lack of filtration of excessive fat and leads to one gaining a lot of weight. Patients with this disease are prone to hypertension. This is caused by lack of sieving the blood and the blood pressure increases rapidly. (Mitch 2007). Patients with this completion are prone to heart attack. The disease is an associate of cardiovascular complications. Anameia and Nocturia are also great risks to patients with CRF. Smoking habits are also a greater risk as they make one to increase the normal body index although this depends on ones sex.
Symptoms: The first symptom can be realized in the first stages of the disease. They include: changes in the urine. The urine might change the normal color, blood can also be present in the urine and the patient might have difficulty when urinating. The second symptom is swelling of the lymph nodes, angles, face and feet. This is due to increased water in the body and is not removed by filtration of blood in the kidneys. Fatigue is also another symptom. When kidneys fail to produce some hormones responsible for the removal of stress in the body, one feels fatigued quickly. When kidneys fail to filter waste products, the wastes get into the blood and this causes severe itching of the skin. This itching is caused by rashes in the skin. Anemia developed by CRF can also be major cause of difficulties in breathing (Mitch 2007).
Another symptom is lack of appetite. One feels like they do not need food and when they try to taste the metallic substance in the mouth. After eating the food, the patient might vomit because the waste build up in the body can cause nausea. Due to anemia the patient may have breath difficulties due to oxygen shortage I the blood. Anemia is causes major complications like dizziness and tiredness. It causes patients to feel coldness all the time even when they are in a hot environment. Lack of concentration when performing daily routine, is also a major sign of the disease. Fainting also can be caused due to lack of oxygen in the brain.
Complications: When the cells of the kidneys get damaged, the patient becomes exposed to complications like renal hypertension. Due to high blood pressure the pericardium membrane of the heart becomes damaged and this leads to heart failure. Increased anemia in the brain can bring coma which can be fatal. Due high presence of uric acid in the brain, one may get complications such as hyperuricaemia. Epilepsy is also another condition which may affect CRF patients.
Prevention: Prevention of any disease is better than its cure. Chronic renal failure can be prevented .Many people with the CRF die in the early stages due to lack of cardiovascular prevention. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency are advised to take new prevention measures in order to prevent the severe failure of the kidneys. These complications include hypertension, obesity, heart failure and diabetes. (David 2007). Drugs like aspirin should be avoided by CRF patients because they increase failure to the already damaged kidney. One is advised to avoid smoking in to help the transportation of oxygen in the whole body. Patients are advised to avoid unprescribed drugs.If there are signs of allergy from patients then the doctors should know. Patients of CRF are advised to take drugs for high blood pressure.
Early diagonisation of any disease is the best way to prevent any disease. Patients with CRF should be prevented from use of radiographic dyes like the pyelography which is intravenous. Alternative drugs and tests should be used instead. Only those drugs with the least toxic drugs should be used. Lastly patients are advised to take a lot of water and fluids so that the kidneys will find it easy to excrete the waste products (Levin, 2007).
Treatment: After one is diagnosed with the CRF, they are advised take diuretics (water pills) which help in the removal of fluids in the body. These drugs enable a patient to urinate more frequently and enhance removal of waste products. In order to slow the heart rate one is advised to take beta blockers which increase the normal function of the heart. Digoxin is also advised to people with high blood pressure (Ajay, 2005).
This drug helps to strengthen the pericardium and the muscles of the heart. Thus contraction and relaxation of the heart are greatly enhanced. Otherwise surgery can also be recommended to those people with extremely damaged kidneys. Protein restriction should be imposed to CRF patients to prevent accumulation of wastes in the body. If the disease is at advanced stages kidney transplant may be carried (Robert, 1989).
In conclusion, kidney related problems are on the increase. When they are detected early they can be treated. Kidney diseases are not hereditary and they can be treated by specialist. There should be increased mobilization of kidney disease to the community as they can be fatal if people are diagnosed later stages.