Challenges of solid waste management


2.0Literature review

2.1 Challenges of solid waste management

In many developing countries, the quality of the environment particularly in urban areas is rapidly unsustainable and deteriorating. In Australia, most of the 210,000 tonnes of solid waste consumed yearly is non-recycled paper sourced. The major factors contributing to the degrading of environment quality are inadequate municipal solid waste management. Malaysia had faced problems with solid waste management sector because of the increase of population and tourism, total waste production, insufficient waste regulation enforcement, infrastructure and public attitude among residents (Nadi et al., 2010). Normally, solid waste management system can be modernized through the application of the 3Rs (reuse, recycle and reduce) in order to improve the solid waste management service in Malaysia (Badgie, 2010).

Recently, production of solid wastes in Malaysia had reached towards a crucial perspective especially in terms of the amount and composition. Solid waste generation is a major source of soil pollution. Waste production had increased by 3% annually due to urban migration, affluence and rapid development (Badgie, 2010). Paper is the major trash that making up about municipal solid waste, thus recycling of paper into useful product can extend the lifetime it takes for landfills to reach their capacity.

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In 2000, only 552,000 metric tons of solid wastes were produced in Malaysia. Annually, approximately 600,000 tonnes of paper and cardboard from domestic, commercial and industrial sources are sent to landfill. Generally, an increase in economic prosperity that contributing high percentage of urbanization. Thus large amount of solid wastes were produced (Hassan, 2000). Therefore solid waste management especially 3R system is important for reduce waste at a manageable level and reuse organic materials such as paper and wood (Fauziah et al., 2007).

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, every ton of paper cut down 15 to 17 trees. The role of trees can absorb and store carbon. More carbon dioxide gets release from the atmosphere when reduce in number of tress. Cutting down trees for paper making has pose impact on environment that releasing more greenhouse gases into the air.

In term of solid waste, newspapers are largest source of waste paper. The category of newspapers includes old newspapers (ONP), special news, white blank news, ground wood computer printout, publication blanks, mixed groundwood and flyleaf shavings, and coated ground wood sections. Newspapers are collected for reuse and recover through municipal collections. In 1999, in the United States, there is approximately 8.2 million metric tons (19 percent of the total) were recovered and reuse (Behzad et al., 2011). Therefore, paper waste can pose negative impact on the environment.

2.2Recycle and Reuse

Malaysia had implement hierarchy management which comprises of the following elements such as sources reduction, recycling, waste combustion and land filling. This hierarchy acts as useful tool for manage and reduce solid waste such as newspaper. Thus, solid waste reduction by reuse newspaper can reduce amounts and complex nature of paper waste which results from the growth in urban population and changes in their consumption patterns (Behzad et al., 2011). Since paper waste cannot be eliminated, public should reuse waste materials such as newspaper in order to reduce quantities of solid waste generation. Reuse is not only reusing packaging but also includes purchasing items that can be reduced. The definition of reuse is different from recycling without first significantly altering its physical form.

The amount and composition of solid waste production in Malaysia should be control to accepted level of solid waste management. Waste reuse should be practice compare to direct disposal into landfills. According to obtained statistic from MHLG and World Bank, the population amount of solid waste generation is increasing overload in Malaysia (MohdArmi et al., 2010).

Therefore, the reasons of the amount of garbage dumped must be reduced in municipal landfills includes landfills are increasingly with limited space and construction of new landfill sites are destroy the ecosystem due to their undesirable nature. All wastes placed in a landfill are contribute to negative impact on society and production of waste of natural resources. Large buck of wastes accumulate in landfill can produces crucial amount of pollution, both methane to the atmosphere and leachates to the soil that cause soil pollution, water pollution and air pollution (Behzad et al., 2011). To reduce the risks of pollution, volume, toxicity of waste generated must be managed. To reducing the volume, toxicity of waste production, reusable products can be used to decrease the amount of non-renewable products generation. Newspaper can be used as raw materials for production of basket instead of plastic basket. Newspaper basket can be used in packaging in order to maintain environmental sustainability.

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The mission of waste reduction and purchasing policy (WRAPP) is change waste paper into a resource by encouraging government agencies to increase purchases of recycled paper products and reduce the amount of paper used in production in order to protect the environment (Henningsen et al, 2010).

The study show a large amount of solid waste is made up of paper. Much of this waste especially paper could be reused or recycle. Newspaper is a potentially valuable resource for production of useful products. For this mini project, newspaper basket can be produced by using newspaper (Henningsen et al, 2010).

In North America, paper such as newspapers and magazines has been recycled since before the American Revolution. Recently, recycling of paper is one of the most effectively methods in the United States. In 2010, approximately two-thirds of used paper was turned into products like basket and arts products. Recycling paper can create job opportunities and conserves natural resources in order to protect the environment.

The benefits of reuse are two-fold. Firstly, reuse of newspaper limited the need for disposal capacity and lowers emission from landfills and incinerators as well as reduces paper waste. Secondly, the use of recycled materials such as newspaper in industrial reduces energy generation and reduce the amount of raw material is extracted for making the basket (Behzad et al., 2011). Reuse also provides a side income source and job creation for the lower income group.

Recently, waste management authorities had put their efforts and concern on collection, transportation and open dumping. The strategy had been developed in turning our waste into resources to maintain environment sustainability. reuse of waste materials is essential as an integrated approach towards waste management (Salim, 2008, NAdi et al 2010).

2.3Benefits of newspaper recycling

The benefit of recycling newspapers and magazines can minimizing the amount of plastic for making basket. It can maintain sustainable development in environment. It requires less energy than making basket from plastic. Paper recycling can also reduce amount of newspapers and magazines sent to landfill in order to increase life spend of landfill. For recycling 1 ton of paper , it can save 3.3 cubic yards of landfill space. (Samah, 2010).

2.4Newspaper basket

Newspaper basket is a basket that made of newspaper strips in order to conserve the environment. To made a newspaper basket, approximately 30 newspaper will be fold into sheets lengthwise into long, thin, uniform strips. The strips will be weave together by using an over-and-under method. It starts at the center and spanning outward when made a newspaper basket. The strips should start with form of a flat woven mat. A box that is roughly same size as the basket will be used to made basket wall. The box will be placed in the center of the woven mat and then fold unwoven newspaper strip ends up around the box's perimeter. Once completed of firmly creased the strips, the box can be removed thus only remain the newspaper basket. All four basket walls are fold to upright position and continue weaving the strips together until reached appropriate height (Henningsen et al., 2010).

2.5Use, price and appearance of newspaper basket

According to, newspaper basket can be used as storage basket. The features of newspaper basket are eco-friendly materials and straw woven. Multi colour of newspaper basket can be provided. The specification of newspaper basket are low price but high quality and packed in the polybag. The leadtime after the sample approved are 15 to 50 days.


Badgie, D. (2010). Solid waste management system in the Kanifing Municipal Council Area of Jurisdiction, The Gambia. MSc. thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM).

Behzad, N., Ahmad, R., Saied, P., Elmira, S., & Bin, M. M. (2011). Challenges of solid waste management in Malaysia. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment, 15(2), 1-4.

Elizah, L. (2008). Retrieved 1 April 2014. from

Hassan, M. N. (2000). Policies to improve solid waste management in developing countries: Some insights in Southeast Asian Countries. Proceedings of the second international conference on solid waste management : Perspective of the twenty first centuries, March 22-25, Taipei, Taiwan and Roc.

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Henningsen, T., Ashley, O., & Brad, L. (2010). Household waste managemnet reuse. Retrieved 1 April 2014. from ttp://

Nadi, B., Mahmud, A. R., Ahmad, N., Farjad, B., Arvinpil, b., Amani, A., et al. (2010). Managing of Urban Solid Waste by Geoinformatics Technology. International Geoinformatics research and Development Journal, 1(1), 70-80.

Salim, R. (2008). Towards waste management challenges after 50 years independence. (On line)

Samah, A. A., Kang, W. S., Pauzi, Z. & Sulaiman, M. (2010). Municipal solid waste composition: past, present and future trends of Malaysia environment. International Symposium and Exhibition on Geotechnical and Geosynthetics Engineering: Challenges and Opportunity on Climate Change 7-8 December Bangkok, Thailand. pp 407- 411.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States; December 2010