Cellular autonoma: neuronal cell pattern

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Introduction

The concept of cellular automata is dependent on different type of study in fields. Cellular automata directly based on discrete model study in computability theory, mathematics, physics, complexity science, microstructure modelling and theoretical biology. We are focus on one specific field theoretical biology in cellular automata and we implement and explain some neuron cells pattern in cellular automata real time application.

Cellular automata are basically providing the design pattern and collection of colored cell on a grid of specific shape and pattern through the number of set and discrete grids levels this pattern actually follows the some rules based on the states of neighbourhood cells. Cellular automata come in variety of shape. One of the most is type of grid on which type it is computed. Grid is simplest one and two dimensional levels like square, triangular and hexagonal grids use in cellular automat for design pattern.

The second import part of our research depends on neuron cells. The human body is made up of trillion cells. Cells of the nervous system called “Neuron” cells. Neuron cells specialized to carry the “massage” through electrochemical process. The human brain has approximately 100 billion neurons.

Neuron is many different shape and size some are smallest neuron and some are largest neuron cells in out brain. Neurons are involving in metal activities and nervous system.

The axon is a thin, tube like a process that arises from the neuron cell body to travels for distances ranging from micrometers to meters before terminating. The axon originates at a cone – shaped thickening on the cell body called axon bullock.

The dendrites are neuronal process that tend to be thicker and much shorter than axons and often are highly branched giving rise to a dense network of process known as the dendrites tree.

The synapse emphasized that intercellular communication which result in the passage of information form one part to other part of nervous system and create different shape that information transfer the most clearly distinguished the brain to other organs.

In the third part of our research paper define we describe such approach and application of cellular automaton in neuron cells and create some models and shape of automata and create some machines of automata according to neuron cells based on massage processing in brain . We tested the ability of the resulting pattern formation model on the cellular automata and regular structure of neuron cells

The remaining part of our research paper structured follow the define the briefly review or related work on neuron cell pattern and cellular automata and different type of real time application example like game of life and physic and chemistry etc and explain the complete process of neurons cells in cellular automata. Last part of our research paper discussion of the result is elaborated.

Table 1: A Grid OF Cells, Each “on” or “off”

Off

off

On

Off

On

On

Off

Off

On

On

On

Off

On

On

Off

Off

off

on

On

Off

On

On

off

On

Off

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Cellular Automata

The cellular automaton concept was developed by Stanislaw Ulam and John von Neumann. They were both researchers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico in the 1940s.Ulam was research on the growth of crystals while Neumann was imagining a world of self-replicating robots. The most common example of “Game of Life “ by John Convey in 1970’s.In 1980’s Stephen Wolformgive the concept of one dimensional Cellular Automata . In 2002 Stephen Wolformpublished a new kind of science and claiming that claiming cellular automata has many applications in many field of science. [1]

A cellular automata is a discrete model that consist of “cells”. It has three characteristics.

  • The cells live on a regular grid.
  • Each cell has a finite number of states such as “on” or “of” and “1” and “0”.
  • Each cell has a neighbourhood

Conway’s game of life

It is the most widely known example of cellular automata. It is also known as simply as life It is a two dimension cellular automata. It has two possible states “alive and “dead”.[2]

Rules

The local update rule asks each cell to check the present statesof the eight surrounding cells.

•If the cell isalivethen it stays alive (survives) I ff it has two or three live neighbours. Otherwise it dies of lonelinessor overcrowding.

•If the cell is dead then it becomes alive iff it has exactly three living neighbours.[3]

Nervous system

Nervous system controls all the functions of the body organs.it is a very fast and quick system of communications with in the body. Nervous system is composed of specialized cells which generate electrically and conduct message very quickly in the form of a current. Called nerve impulse.

In nervous system sensory cells neurons are present. These neurons take part in communication or coordination. There are two types of pathway in the nervous system afferent pathway and efferent pathway.

Afferent pathway

In this pathway the neurons receive message s of stimuli from internal and external environment of the body, called receptors. From receptors the messages are carried to the central nervous system. I.e. brain and spinal cord, this pathway is called different pathway.

Afferent pathway

Form central nervous system messages are transferred to the effectors (action taking parts muscles and glands).this path is called efferent pathway.

Neurons

Neurons are the basic information processing structures. Neurons are similar to other cells in the human body in a number of ways. Neurons are specialized to transmit information throughout the body. The nerve cells are responsible for communicating information in the form of electrical and chemical forms. There are several types of neurons that are responsible for task in human body.

Sensory neurons

Sensory neurons carry information from the sensory receptor cells throughout the body to the brain.

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Figure 1 DFA of sensory neurons

Figure 1 shows that sensory neuron is an initial state and when given the sensory input it goes to the final state which is brain or spinal cord.

Motor Neurons

Motor neurons transmit information from the brain to the muscles of the body. In vertebrates, the term motor neuron (or motor neuron) classically applies to neurons located in the central nervous system (or CNS) that project their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles. The motor neuron is often associated with efferent neuron, primary neuron, or alpha motor neurons.

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Figure 2 DFA of Motor Neurons

Figure 2 shows that dendrites is an initial state and receive electrical signal from other neurons and transmit to the cell body (soma).soma pass the information to axon through the process of action potential and axon transmit neural signals to muscle (final state) and organs (final state).

Inter neurons:

""Inter neurons are responsible for communicating information between different neurons in the body.

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Figure 3 DFA of Inter neurons

Figure 3 shows that dendrites is a initial state and receive electrical signal from other neurons and transmit to the cell body (soma).soma pass the information to axon through the process of action potential and axon transmit neural signals to motor neuron which is final state.

Structure of Neurons

There are mainly three basic parts of a neuron: the dendrites, the cell body and the axon.All neurons vary somewhat in size, shape, and characteristics depending on the function and role of the neuron. Some neurons have few dendrites branches, while others are highly branched in order to receive a great deal of information. Some neurons have short axons, while others can be quite long.

Neurotransmission

The process in which information is communicated in the brain is known as neurotransmission or sympathetic transmission. Neurotransmission involves a variety of chemical substances called "neurotransmitters”. Signals are sent from one neuron to another by jumping across a tiny space or “synapses”. in order to transmit a single between two neurons, an electrical impulse must be communicated over a synapse. When an action potential begins in neurons it travels down the axon. When the action potential reaches the axon terminal, calcium channels open and calcium ions rush into the neuron .the neuron makes and stores neurotransmitters in vesicles.

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Figure 4 Neurons Transmission

The neuron pre synaptic neuron consists of cell body (soma) transform electric pulse (Action Potential) to axon terminal and axon terminal transmit the electro-chemical signal (neurotransmitter) across the vesicles. When neuron are transfer to Synaptic cleft the receptor accepts the neuron then state of place covert in post synaptic neuron and this process again repeat to next action potential and neurotransmitter goes to synaptic cleft.

EYE

Eye is the organs and vision .they detects light and converts it into electrical chemical impulses in neurons. The eye first make the image in retina then light striking your retina must be converted into nerve impulses by the retinas photo receptors cells.

Then the image can be processed by your nervous system. The processing does not star in the brain but instead stats immediately in the retina itself. Retina has three layers photoreceptors, bipolar neurons and ganglion cells. The deepest layer of neurons processes the light first .these neurons are photoreceptors. The only cells retina that converts light into the nerve impulse .the photoreceptor then transmit this impulse to the bipolar neurons in the second layer and on the third layer ganglion cells. it is only the axon of these ganglion cells that exits the eye and carry the nerve impulses to the first visual relay in the brain.

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Figure 5 DFA of Retina

Figure 5 shows that cornea is an initial state and gives input light and goes to another state which is photoreceptors and its gives and then jump to another state which is nerve impulse then it transmit to bipolar neurons and the transmit to ganglion cells and then it’s give ganglion neurons and goes to another state axon. No axons carry neurons to the eye which is desired and final state.

Neuronal Membrane

Nervous system conform when you step on a thumbtack .Our reaction are automatic shriek the pain and jerk up foot. In the order of simple response to occur, breaking of the skin by must be translated into neuron signal that travel rapidly and reliably up to long sensory nerves of leg. In the spinal cord these signals are transfer to interneuron and some of neuron is part with brain that interprets the signals as being painful. Other neurons are connected with motor neurons and control the muscles that withdraw the foot. [4]

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Figure 6 DFA of Neuronal Membrane

Figure 6 show that a person step on the thumbtack the breaking the skin is translated to signal that travel up sensory never fibre then spinal cord the information is distributed to interneuron system. Some of neuron are send to axon and other neuron are send to motor neurons and motor neuron send to descending signal to the muscles then leg muscles contraction to motor commands (neuron signal) and withdrawal of the foot.

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