Cancer Staging Is A Process Biology Essay


Cancer is uncontrolled growth and abnormal proliferation of cells in the body. There are 100 different types of cancers are present. And each cancer was classified by the type of cell initially affected. And according to American cancer society Breast cancer was second most as a cause of cancer death in women. In Breast cancer two main different types are present one is Ductal carcinoma and other one is lobular carcinoma. Ductal carcinoma starts in the ducts that help in moving milk from the breast to nipple. Most of the breast cancers are in this type. And other one lobular carcinoma starts in the lobules of the breast where milk produces. In the breast cancer HER 2- positive and negative breast cancers are present. HER2 gene helps the breast cells to grow faster, divide and also repair themselves. When cells have too many copies of the HER 2 gene it leads to high risk factor of breast cancer. In breast cancer cells over expression of DNA synthesis was regulated by Thymydylate synthase methylates deoxyuridine monophosphate (dump) into thymidine monophosphate (dtmp). DTMP plays very crucial role in the DNA synthesis and repair mechanism. In average 50 to 70 billion of cells die in the human body everyday by programmed cell death known as apoptosis. Curcumin is a potential anticancer agent, Cancer cells escape from the apoptosis mechanism and they continue to divide in the body. Curcumin (turmeric) is a chemo sensitizer it induces apoptosis in cancer cells without any cytotoxicity on healthy cells. And 5FU is synthetic antimetabolite drug, it inhibits the Thymydylate synthase prevents the formation of thymidine results no DNA replication. And cells will go thymidine less death. In combination of Cu and 5FU they sensitize the breast cancer cells and induce apoptosis.

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Cancer stages:

Cancer Staging is a process it explains about whether cancer has spread within the breast or other parts of the body. staging process also reveals the severity of the disease and to plan treatment, there mainly three different ways to spread cancer with in the body one is through tissue of the body cancer invades surrounding normal healthy tissue, second one is through the lymph system cancer cells invades lymph system and will travels to other body system through lymph vessels and last one is through blood circulation cancer cells enters in to the veins and capillaries will travels to other body organs. Cancer cells separate from the breast cancer tumor and will travels to other body organ through blood or lymph vessels and starts secondary tumor the process is known as metastasis. Stages of breast cancer are stage I, II, IIIA, IIIB, IIIC, IV, stage I cancer was divided in two parts stage IA and IB in IA stage tumor will be 2cm or less than 2cm and tumor has not spread yet outside the breast tissue and in stage IB small lump of breast cancer cells are found in the lymph nodes and size is not greater than 0.2 millimeter. Stage II again divided in to two stages IIA and IIB are present in stage IIA no tumor or tumor size of 2cm are found in axillary lymph nodes near the breast bone, in stage IIB tumors are larger than the 2cm but smaller than 5cm are found in the lymph nodes, tumor cells are also spread to 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes near the breast bone. Stage IIIA tumor will be any size or no tumor and cancer was found in 4 to 9 axillary lymph nodes near the breast bone sometimes also seen lymph nodes and size of tumor will be larger than 5cm and small lumps of breast cancer will be found in lymph nodes, stage IIIB tumors will be any size and tumors will be spread to skin and chest swelling will be seen and cancer cells are spread to up 9 axillary lymph nodes and lymph nodes. In stage IIIC no tumors will be seen or tumors of any size tumors are spread to skin, chest, and also more than 10 axillary lymph nodes, lymph nodes near breast bone, above or below collar bone. Final stage is stage IV where metastasis is seen and tumors are spread to other organs of the body mostly spread to liver, bones, lungs and brain.

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Risk factors

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting disease, such as cancer. Various types of cancers have different types of risk factors. But even through having risk factor it doesn’t mean that we will get the cancer but chances of getting cancer will be higher. Most of the breast cancers will cause even though they don’t have any risk factors. There are different types of risk factors like gender and age we can’t change them, some risk factors like related to personal habits such as alcoholism, smoking, diet.


In gender women have very higher percentage of risk factor in developing breast cancer compare to men this is because of men have less amount of female hormones estrogen and progesterone


Risk of developing breast cancer increases when we getting older when women are more than 55 age they have high chance of getting breast cancer than the young women.

Genetic risk factor:

About 5 to 10% of patients normally develops breast cancer because of the hereditary and mutations in the genes. BRCA1 and BRACA2 genes are tumor suppressor genes there normal function was inhibiting the excessive proteins and protecting cells from abnormal proliferation. If we inherit one copy of mutated gene from our parents then we have high probability of getting cancer in life time and they also have high rate of developing other cancers like ovarian cancer. There are other gene mutations which also responsible for causing breast cancer but lesser rate than the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Mutated or defected genes of ATM, TP53, CHEK2, PTEN, CDH1, STK11 will also causes breast cancer other cancers.

Other factors:

Family history of breast cancer, personal history of breast cancer, race and ethnicity, dense breast tissue, certain benign breast condition (non-proliferative lesions and proliferative lesions without atypia, proliferative lesions with atypia, lobular carcinoma in situ, menstrual periods, previous chest radiation, diethylstilbestrol exposure

Life style related factors:

Having children, birth control, hormone therapy after menopause, breast feeding, alcohol, being overweight or obese and physical activity

Factors with uncertain, unproven and controversial:

Diet and vitamin intake, antiperspirants, induced abortion, chemical environment, tobacco smoke.


The first symptom in the breast cancer was many women develops lumps in there beast tissue but 9 out 10 women these lumps are benign most of these benign lumps are breast cell changes, cysts and fibroadenoma. Most of the breast cancers have a lump or thickening of the breast area, hardening of breast skin, changing of breast shape, and a blood stained discharge from the nipple, itchiness, rashes around the nipple on breast and presence of lumps near the arm pit area. Even though presence of all this symptoms most of the tumors are benign they are not cancerous and a rare type of a cancer called inflammatory breast cancer was seen with different types of symptoms the whole breast will look in red color, inflammation will be seen and very sore and skin will be hardened. Another very rare type of breast cancer was seen it is known as pagets disease it will be red, scaly rash and sometimes itchy. In many breast cancer women breast pain will be present but in some women it is absent there is no obvious reason for pain.